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Chapter 1 - Introduction To Database Systems

Lecturer:
Putri Hayati, S.ST., M.Kom
DATABASE
DATABASE - Objectives
Introduction

Traditional File-based Systems

Database Approach

Roles in the Database Environment

History of DBMS

Advantages & Disadvantages of DBMS


Introduction
Databaseshared, integrated computer structure that stores:

End user data (raw facts)

Metadata (data about data)


Understanding Metadata
Understanding Metadata
Data : Information

Data constitute building blocks of information

Information produced by processing data

Information reveals meaning of data

Good, timely, relevant information key to decision making

Good decision making key to organizational survival


Example of Data
Example of Information
Traditional File-Based Systems

An early file-based system (traditional way) use the manual filing system

A mistake database system

We can learn from that mistake

Prevent from repeating the problem that caused by this mistake


Understanding how the file system works

Collection of application program that perform services for the end users (reports)

Program defines and manages its own data


Traditional File-Based Systems
File-Based Approach vs. Database Approach

Academic files
Academic application (data entry and
reports)

Academic

Accounting files
Accounting application(data entry an
d reports)

Accounting
Limitations of the File-Based Approach
Separation and isolation data
Duplication of data

Costs time to enter the data more than once


Takes up additional storage space. It can be avoided by sharing data files
Can lead to loss of data integrity (the data is no longer consistent)

Data dependence

Changes to an existing structure are difficult to make. It requires the creation of a one-off
program (that is, a program that is run only once and can then be discarded).
Programmer needs to identify all the affected programs, modify them and retest them. This
could be very time-consuming and subject to error.
Known as program-data dependence
Limitations of the File-Based Approach
Incompatible file formats

Because the structure of files is embedded in the application programs, the structures are
dependent on the application programming language.

Fixed queries/proliferation of application programs

There was no facility for asking unplanned queries about the data
Resulting in programs that inadequate or inefficient in meeting the demands of the users,
and maintenance that was difficult.
Database Approach

Academic application
(data entry and reports)
Academic
DBMS
Database (acade

Accounting application mic + accounting


(data entry and reports) database + file defin
Accounting itions)

DBMS provides a facility known as a view mechanism, which allows each user to have
his or her own view of the database
For example : we could set up a view that allows the Academic Department to
see only the data that they want to see for Accounting properties.
Components of the DBMS Environment

Depend on the organizations Comprises the DBMS software operational data and
requirements and the itself, the application program, metadata (the data about
DBMS used and operating system data)

documented procedures
on how to use or run the
system

People
Roles in the Database Environment

Data Administrator is responsible for the manage


ment of the data resource including database
Data planning, development and maintenance of
standards, policies and procedures, and
conceptual/logical database design.

Database Administrator Database Administrator is responsible for the


physical realization of the database, including
physical database design an implementation,
security and integrity control, maintenance of the
operational system and ensuring satisfactory perf
ormance of the applications for users.
Roles in the Database Environment

Logical database designer is concerned with identifying the


data (entities and attributes), the relationship between the
data, and the constraints on the data.

Where as conceptual and logical database design are


concerned with the what, physical database design is
concerned with the how.

Once the database has been implemented, the application


Database Designers programs that provide the required functionality for the
end-user

Each program contains statements that request the DBMS to


perform some operation on the database such as retrieving
data, inserting, updating and deleting data.
Roles in the Database Environment

Once the database has been implemented,


the application programs that provide the
required functionality for the end-user

Each program contains statements that


request the DBMS to perform some
Application Developer operation on the database such as
retrieving data, inserting, updating and d
eleting data.
Roles in the Database Environment

Nave Users are typically unaware of the


DBMS. They access the database through
specially written application programs that
attempt to make the operations as simple
as possible. They do not need to know any
thing about the database or the DBMS.

End-User Sophisticated user is familiar with the


(Nave users and Sophisticated users) structure of the database and the facilities
offered by the DBMS. They may use a high
-level query language such as SQL to perf
orm the required operations.
History of DBMS
There was never a time when
the database approach
began and the file-based
system ceased.

It has been suggested that the


DBMS has its roots in the 1960
s Apollo moon-landing project.

GUAM (Generalized Update


Access Method) was develope
d by NAA (North American Avi
ation). GUAM is also known
as a hierarchical structure.
DBMS
Hierarchical Structure Model
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