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Special Control for

super critical

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 1


ADDITIONAL MFT CONDITIONS

Furnace vertical wall tube temperature high


If water wall tube metal temperatures exceed
the set point, automatically trip the fuel
following a maximum 3 second time delay.
This trip protects the tubes from overheating
and potent failure. High water wall tube
temperatures are an indication of over-firing,
low water wall flow, or a combination of both.
Over-firing could be a result of extreme load
change rates. Low water wall flow could be a
result of excessive SH spray flow.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 2


ADDITIONAL MFT CONDITIONS
Superheater pressure (both leads) high.
Superheater temperature (either side) high for
more than twenty seconds.
Reheater outlet (either side) temperature high for
more than twenty seconds.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 3


MFT CONDITIONS
Turbine trip conditions causing vacuum break like
axial shift very high, bearing vibration high

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 4


REHEATER PROTECTION LOGIC

Arming - The reheat protection logic is armed or activated once operating


conditions are such that there is a potential for steam generator material
damage due to overheating. Specifically, total fuel flow > X % (where X
corresponds to 538 C furnace flue gas temperature) or steam flow > X % or
measured furnace temperature > 538 C.

Initiation of a master fuel trip


A loss of main steam flow path (no path through HP turbine or HP bypass,
or no flow path through LP turbine or LP bypass).

The boiler remains in an over fired condition (total fuel 5% above steam
flow) 50 seconds after a turbine trip or fast cutback.

HPBP & LPBP not open after generator tripped.

HPBP & LPBP not open after turbine tripped.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 5


Heavy Oil Leak Test/ Light oil leak test
All of the following conditions must be present before oil
leak test can be started:
All heavy oil nozzle valves closed.
Heavy oil trip valve closed

Open the oil control valve , After fifteen (15) second,


open command is sent to the oil trip valve, When the oil
trip valve is fully open, the oil return valve is
commanded to close.

The oil piping downstream of the oil trip valve is now


being pressurized, the oil header pressure is indicative at
present value.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 6


Start-Up System with Recirculation
Start-Up System
Recirculation Pump in Main Bypass Line
SH

Separator

Flash
Tank
WW C
ECO
HWL

To Condenser
C

Deaerator

HPH
C

BFP
26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 7
START-UP
If the water system of the boiler is empty (economizer,
furnace walls, separators), then the system is filled with
approximately 10% TMCR feed water flow.

When the level in the separator reaches set-point, the


WR valve will begin to open.

When the WR valve reaches >30% open for


approximately one minute, then increase feed water flow
set-point to 30% TMCR. As the flow increases, WR valve
will reach full open and ZR valve will begin to open.

26 October 2017 8
START-UP
The water system is considered full when:
The separator water level remains stable for two(2)
minutes
and
The WR valve is fully opened and ZR valve is
>15% open for two(2) minutes.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 9


START-UP contd..
Water flows through the economizer and evaporator, and discharges the
boiler through the WR valve to the flash tank and via connecting pipe to the
condenser.

Start BCP and open the UG valve to establish minimum water wall flow
at 30% TMCR.

As the pressure is raised, first the WR and then the ZR valves will open
when
separator water level increases due to boiler water swell. As pressure
further
increases, the WR and ZR valves will start to close as the water level
decreases.

26 October 2017 10
START-UP contd
The steam temperature at the separator inlet will reach a
stable superheated
condition at app. 30% TMCR, causing the level in the
separator to decrease and
eventually disappear. The boiler is now in once-through
mode (dry mode). The
BCP (Boiler Circulating Pump) will be stopped automatically.

It is extremely important that minimum water wall flow be


maintained at all times when firing the boiler to prevent tube
damage due to overheating.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 11


SEPARATOR STORAGE TANK LEVEL
CONTROL
Separator level is maintained by the combined action of
a separator storage tank level feed water demand and
the positioning of WR and ZR drain valves.

Feed water demand is developed in response to


separator storage tank level error and total fuel flow so
as to prevent tank level from dropping too low.

The WR and ZR valves are controlled in a split range


manner to maintain the liquid level once the level
reaches a high limit.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 12


SEPARATOR STORAGE TANK LEVEL
CONTROL
The WR valve will respond first and then the
ZR when the WR exceeds its linear operating
range.
Tank geometry is such that fluctuations in
tank level are very dynamic, for this reason,
only proportional control action established
through the WR/ZR function curves is used
to position these valves in response to level
error.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 13


UG VALVE CONTROL
Control objective:
Maintain minimum economizer inlet flow.

Control action:
The boiler circulating pump is started following the start
of a turbine-driven feed water pump and the final clean-up
cycle. This pump circulates feed water from the evaporator
outlet back to the economizer inlet.
Located at the outlet of this pump is the UG valve which
controls economizer inlet flow during the start-up phase of
operation. Demand for this recirculation control valve is
established based on measured economizer inlet flow
compared to a minimum boiler flow set point.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 14


FEEDWATER CONTROL LOOP
Control objective:
Develop total unit feed water demand as required to support
unit load.

Adjust feed water demand to maintain desired separator


outlet temperature.

Adjust separator outlet temperature set point as required to


maintain acceptable platen superheat spray control range.

Incorporate separator storage tank level (wet mode) feed


water demand.

Maintain minimum required economizer inlet flow.


.26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 15
FEEDWATER CONTROL LOOP contd..

Optimization of the feed forward in this manner minimizes


temperature fluctuations that may otherwise result from
varying dynamic response between the firing and feed water
control systems (as they relate to evaporator heat transfer)
thereby lessening the dependence on feedback correction.

Demand for feed water is established predominately by the


Boiler Master demand.
This signal, processed though a boiler transfer function
provides the feed forward component of the total feed water
demand.

The boiler transfer function is a tunable dynamic element


providing a means to dynamically match the feed water feed
forward demand to actualPMI
26 October 2017
evaporator
Revision 00
heat transfer. 16
FEEDWATER CONTROL LOOP
contd..
The first controller acts on a load dependent average platen
spray differential temperature.
Its output represents the required adjustment to evaporator
heat transfer/steam generation to maintain both the steam
conditions and flue gas temperatures entering the platen
superheat section so as to ensure adequate platen spray
control range.
A second controller acts on a load dependent separator
outlet temperature set point corrected by the platen spray
differential temperature controllers output.
This controller acts to adjust feed water in response to firing
system disturbances and the relatively fast effect they have
on separator outlet steam temperatures.
The overall combined feed water feedback control action is
such that feed water demand is responsive to changes in
the overall unit heat transfer profile.
26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 17
FEEDWATER CONTROL LOOP
contd..
The combined feed forward/feedback demand signal is
subject to a minimum economizer inlet flow set point
(wet mode) activated if the boiler circulation pump is not
in service and the unit is being fired.
This ensures the minimum economizer inlet cooling flow
is maintained by the feed water supply system in the
event the start-up system is not available.
The feed forward/feedback demand signal is subject to a
second wet mode feed water demand developed to
support separator storage tank level control.
The resulting demand provides the set point to a feed
water master controller.
The fuel/feed water ratio protection logic provides
overriding control of individual feeder speed demands in
the event of an excessively high fuel to feed water ratio.
26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 18
SUPERHEAT STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL

Overall superheat steam temperature control is


accomplished with adjustment of spray water control and
manipulation of feed water flow.

The basic concept is such that two final spray water


control valves act to maintain final super heater outlet
steam temperatures and two platen spray water control
valves respond to final spray differential temperatures
and feed water flow is adjusted in response to average
platen spray differential temperatures.

In the short term, final superheat temperature


fluctuations are minimized by the fast acting final spray
water control valves.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 19


SUPERHEAT STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL

In the long term, control action automatically re-


adjusts steam generation at each control point
(evaporator, platen, final) in response to changes in
corresponding heat transfer rates.
This approach provides a high level of disturbance
rejection and ensures the platen and final spray
water control valves remain in control range by
ultimately adjusting evaporator outlet steam
conditions/heat transfer and consequently fire side
heat passed to the superheat sections.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 20


Platen Superheat Temperature Control

The primary objective is to keep the final superheat spray water control
valves in their desired operating range.

The control structure is a cascade arrangement where the master


controller acts on the differential temperature measured across the
corresponding final spray station as compared to a load dependent
differential temperature setpoint. The output of this controller
represents the required temperature entering the platen superheat
section to achieve the desired temperature at platen outlet (i.e.
corresponding final spray station inlet).

An over/under firing feedforward is added to the masters output for


improved response. This signal is developed by comparing the rate
of change in steam flow to the rate of change in fuel flow. Over firing
(rate of change in fuel flow in excess of rate of change in steam flow)
decreases the masters output. This is an anticipatory action to offset
the tendency for increased steam temperatures resulting from a
temporary imbalance between cooling (steam flow) and available
heat (firing rate) when over firing.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 21


Platen Superheat Temperature Control

The signal has the opposite effect when under firing


(increases masters output) since in this case the temporary
cooling/heat imbalance tends to decrease steam
temperatures
The slave controller output, subject to an overriding saturation
protection circuit provides the spray valve position demand. Saturation
protection prevents over spraying by limiting the final valve demand.
Saturated steam temperature is established from measured separator
outlet pressure, adding X degrees C establishes the minimum
permissible degree of superheat.

Increased spray is prevented by limiting the final spray valve demand in


the event measured desuperheater outlet temperature drops below the
established minimum level of superheat.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 22


Platen Superheat Temperature Control
contd

The resulting modified master output provides the set


point to a slave controller. This controller acts on this set
point as compared to steam temperature measured at
the spray stations outlet (i.e. inlet to platen superheat
section).

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 23


Final Superheat Temperature
Control

Control objective:
Control final superheat steam temperature.

Control action:
The master controller for each valve acts on the
corresponding final steam outlet temperature as
compared to a load dependent set point.
The slave controller positions the final spray valve
(subject to saturation limit) in response to the master
output (with over/under firing feedforward) as compared
to the associated spray station outlet temperature.

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 24


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THANK YOU

26 October 2017 PMI Revision 00 28

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