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LAYOUT

ARRANGEMENT OF
SUPER CRITICAL
BOILER

October 26, PMI Revision 00 1


Presentation outline
Why Vacuum system is required ?

Parts of Vacuum system?

Steam Ejectors

Vacuum Pumps

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thermodynamic diagram for
supercritical plant

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The Water and Steam Flow
Diagram

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Supercritical Boiler Flow
Chart

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Cycle of Supercritical Power
Plant

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ZR : Aux. Relief VV, WR : Water Relief VV

LL : Level Control VV, UG : Recirculation VV

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October 26, PMI Revision 00 10
General Arrangement of Boiler
Component

October 26, PMI Revision 00 11


Sliding Pressure
Supercritical Design
Straight Tube Wall vs. Spiral Tube Wall

Spiral Wall Furnace - Impact on Tube Numbers vs.


Straight Wall

Basic Principle of Spiral Wall Unit Size 500 MW, Conventional Vertical Furnace Wall
furnace Designs
Unit Size 500 MW, Spiral-Wound Furnace may be
Necessary
(Fuel will be Final Determinant)

Vertical Vertical
Tube Tube
Pitch Pitch

Spiral Angle Spiral Angle

Spiral Tube Spiral Tube


Pitch Pitch
Spiral Angle Spiral Angle

October 26, PMI Revision 00 12


October 26, PMI Revision 00 13
Design Types

NATURAL CONTROLLED
STEAM DRUM TO SUPERHEATER

ECON.

CIRC.
PUMP
FURNACE
WALLS

ONCE THROUGH
SEPARATOR Natural circulation - well suited for < 145 bar
cycles
ECON.
Controlled circulation - optimum solution for
reliable high-pressure subcritical operation
Once-through technology
Suitable for sub and supercritical cycles
CIRC.
PUMP Both spiral-wall and vertical-wall
arrangements available depending upon
capacity and fuel
DISTRIB.
HEADER
October 26, PMI Revision 00 14
Sliding Pressure Supercritical Design

Advanced Sliding Pressure Supercritical Design


PRESSURE VS LOAD

WATERWALL INLET PRESSURE

Subcritical Supercritical
Pressure Regime Pressure Regime

Waterwall
Pressure

Turbine Throttle
Pressure

0 20 40 60 80 100

October 26, PMI Revision 00


BOILER LOAD, % MCR
15
Sliding Pressure Supercritical
Design

Circulation and Start Up Systems


Spiral Wall Boiler Design

Vertical Wall Boiler Design


Details
Design Principles
Test Data
Start up Systems
Pumped and Drain Systems
Components
October 26, Performance
System
andRevision
PMI Advantages
00 of Pumped Start
16 up
Vertical Wall SPSC Boiler
Determination of Furnace Wall Tube Metal Temperature
Evaluation
Evaluationof ofHeat
Heat
Transfer
Transferat
atTube
Tube
Inside
InsideWall
Wallis
isKey
Keyto
to
Design
DesignofofSPSC
SPSC
Boilers
Boilers

Factors
FactorsGreatly
Greatly
Affecting
AffectingHeat
Heat
Transfer
TransferatatTube
Tube
Inside
InsideWall:
Wall:
Rifled
RifledTubing
Tubing
Mass
MassVelocity
Velocity
October 26, PMI Revision 00 17
Controlled Circulation Boiler

N o r m a l C o n d itio n s
S m o o th T u b in g R ifle d T u b in g
ality u

y
lit
Generated Q

ua
30%

lity
le

Qu a
ab
w
lo

t ed
Al

era
Gen
10% DNB
Elevation

Elevation

uality
DNB R e g io n
R e g io n

llo wable Q
A
Q u a lity Q u a lity
M in im u m S a fe t y M a r g in M in im u m S a f e t y M a r g in
~10% ~30%
October 26, PMI Revision 00 18
Circulation and DNB Analysis

Normal Conditions in a Once Through Boiler

Normal Conditions in Subcritical Boiler


FURNACE WALL OUTLET

SUPERHEAT
100%

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Vertical Wall SPSC Boiler
Safety Margin Of Subcritical Boiler
X= Steam Quality Fraction

Top of Boiler X= 0.3 Critical Q/A (Kw/m2)

Subcritical Boiler

Boiler Height X= 0.2

Q/A Critical
Q/A Boiler
> 1.25

1.25 Margin
X= 0.1
Boiler Q/A (Kw/m2)

X= 0.0

Q/A (Kw/m2)
October 26, PMI Revision 00 20
Vertical Wall SPSC Boiler

Conditions of Supercritical Once Through Boiler


X= 0.3 Critical Q/A (Kw/m2)
Superheat
Subcritical Boiler

X= 0.2
X= 1.0
Boiler Height

X= 0.5 X= 0.1
Boiler Q/A (Kw/m2)
Once Through
Boiler
X= 0.1

X= 0.0

October 26, PMI Revision


Q/A (Kw/m )00 2
21
Spiral Boiler Technology
Mass Velocity study
Midwall Temperature vs. Mass Velocity
Smooth Tube
Tfluid 421 oC 41 mm O.D. x x 6.4 mwt
P= 27.6 Mpa SA 213 T22
550

540
531 529
530
Midwall Temperature ( oC)

522
520

510

500
493 492
490
488

480 158
Q/A (Kw/m2)
315
470
473
460 457 456
454
450
2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 3100

October 26, PMI


MassRevision 00-sec)
Velocity (Kg/m 2
22
Spiral Boiler Technology
Mass Velocity study
Midwall Temperature vs. Mass Velocity
Rifled Tube
Tfluid 421 C
41 mm O.D. x x 6.4 mwt
P= 25.6 Mpa
SA 213 T22
550

540
533
536 Q/A (kw/m^2)
530
526
520
158
Midwall Temperature

510 315
473
500 496
494

490 489

480

470

460 457 457


454
450
2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000
October 26, PMI Revision 00
Mass Velocity (kg/m2-sec) 23
Spiral Boiler Technology
Number of Turns Study
140
Hear Absorption in %

120

100 100 % Load Spiral Waterwall


Central Fireball
80

60

Left Side Wall

Rear Wall
Front Wall
Right Side Wall

October 26,
Front Wall
PMI Revision
Right Side Wall Rear Wall
00
Left Side Wall
24
Spiral Boiler Technology
Number of Turns Study
140
Hear Absorption in %

120

100 % Load Spiral Waterwall


100
Fireball Shift to Corner
80

60

FW RSW RW LSW

Left Side Wall

Rear Wall
Front Wall
Right Side Wall

October 26,
Front Wall
PMI Revision
Right Side Wall Rear Wall
00
Left Side Wall
25
Start-up System with Recirculation

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Start-up System with Recirculation

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Simplified Drain Discharge System

SH

flash
tank
WW

ECO
HWL
to condenser
deaerator

HPH
WL
BFP

October 26, PMI Revision 00 28


Supercritical Technology
Supercritical Cycle Advantages

0 Better Plant Efficiencies


1000/1000F
-1 Single Reheat
-2
-3
1000/1000/1000F Lower Plant Operating
Relative Net Heat

-4 Costs
Double Reheat
-5
Rate, %

1100/1100/1100F
-6
-7
Lower Emission Levels with
-8
Double Reheat Lower Coal Consumption
-9
-10
1800 2400 3500 4500

Throttle Steam Pressure, psig

Effect of Steam Conditions on Heat Rate

October 26, PMI Revision 00 29


Supercritical Technology
Designs to meet every application
World leader ~ 100 supercritical units
Two-pass design
Spiral Straight
wound Wall
Tower design

Design
Designoptions
optionsto
tomeet
meetfuel
fuelspecification
specificatio
and
andcustomer
customerpreferences
preferences

October 26, PMI Revision 00 30


Steam Power Plant Technology Trends

Recent Contracts
CO- 2004 China Waigaoqiao 2x900 MW, 4078/1006/1056
CO- 2002 Germany Niederaussem 1000MW, 3976/1076/1112
CO-2002 Korea Yunghung 2x800 MW,.3627/1056/1056
CO-2001 Greece Florina 330 MW, 3572/1009/1008
CO- 2000 Taiwan Mai Liao 2x600MW, 3844/1006/1056 5450/1290/1325/1325
15
Heat Rate
Heat Rate[%]

10 4050/1160/1200

8 4050/1100/1150

6 4050/1075/1100
4 3600/1050/1085
Advanced Steam
2 3500/1005/1050 (psi/F/F) Conditions -higher
2400/1005/1005 Temperatures/Pressures
0 Supercritical .
Technology Subcritical Mature Technology
maturity Mature Technology

50s 60s 70s 80s 90s 00s 10s

October 26, PMI Revision 00 31


Advanced Sliding Pressure
Supercritical Design
PRESSURE VS LOAD

WATERWALL INLET PRESSURE


Subcritical
Pressure Regime
Supercritical
Pressure Regime
Waterwall
Pressure

Turbine Throttle
Pressure

0 20 40 60 80 100

BOILER LOAD, % MCR

October 26, PMI Revision 00 32


Spiral Waterwall Tubing

Lateral Heat Flux Profile


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Spiral Wall Sliding Pressure
Supercritical Design

Spiral Furnace
Windbox Panel

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THANK YOU

October 26, PMI Revision 00 41