Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

Mobile Communication System

Dr. Edriss Eisa Babikir

1 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Page 2

Course Organization
Kaveh Pahlavan : Principles of Wireless Network: A Unified
Dharma Prakash Agrawal : Introduction to wireless and mobile
More... (Internet)
Final Examination: 80%
Assignment: 20%

2 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Page 3

Course Outline
Part 1: Mobile Wireless Communication
Background, History and Classification
The Mobile Radio Channel
Multiple Access Procedures
Digital Modulation and Detection
The Cellular Principle
Part 2: Mobile Networking System GSM GPRS IMS
Data Communication and GPRS
Part 3: Research Issue (some topic)
Advance Wireless communication
Cellular Systems and Infrastructure-Based Wireless Networks
Mobility Management
Tutorial and Summary
3 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Chapter 1 Introductions


4 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Key milestones in the development of wireless

communication (1/3)
1873: Maxwell predicts the existence of electromagnetic waves
1880: Hertz demonstrates practical radio communication
1897: Marconi demonstrates radio transmission to a boat over an 18-mile path
1924: US police first mobile communication
1934: AM system was adopted by public safety in the US
1938: FCC Ruled for regular service
1946: Bell Telephone Laboratories 152 MHz (Simplex)
1956: FCC 450 MHz (Simplex)
1959: Bell Telephone Laboratories Suggested 32 MHz band for high
capacity mobile radio communication
1964: FCC 152 MHz (Full Duplex)
1964: Bell Telephone Laboratories Active research at 800 MHz
1969: FCC 450 MHz (Full Duplex)
1974: FCC 40 MHz bandwidth allocation in the 800 to 900 MHz range
1981: FCC Release of cellular land mobile phone service in the 40MHz
bandwidth in the 800 to 900 MHz range for commercial operation
5 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Key milestones in the development of wireless

communication (2/3)
1981: AT&T and RCC (Radio Common Carrier) reach an agreement to
split 40 MHz spectrum into two 20 MHz bands. Band A belongs
to nonwireline operators (RCC), and Band B belongs to wireline
operators (telephone companies).
1982: AT&T is divested, and seven RBOCs (Regional Bell Operating
Companies) are formed to manage the cellular operations
1983: Ameritech system in operation in Chicago
1984: Most RBOC markets in operation
1986: FCC allocates 5 MHz in extended band
1987: FCC makes lottery on the small metropolitan service area and all rural
service area licenses
1988: TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) voted as a digital cellular
standard in North America
1992: GSM (Global system for mobile communication) operable in Germany
D2 system
1993: CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) voted as another digital
6 cellular standard in North America 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Key milestones in the development of wireless

communication (3/3)
1994: American TDMA operable in Seattle, Washington
1994: PDC (Personal Digital Cellular) operable in Tokyo, Japan
1994: Two of six broadband PCS (Personal Communication Service) license
bands in auction
1995: CDMA operable in Hong Kong
1996: US Congress passes Telecommunication Reform Act Bill
1996: The auction money for six broadband PCS licensed bands (120
MHz) almost reaches 20 billion US dollars
1997: Broadband CDMA considered as one of the third generation mobile
communication technologies for UMTS (Universal Mobile
Telecommunication Systems)
1999: ITU (International Telecommunication Union) decides the next
generation mobile communication systems (e.g., W-CDMA,
cdma2000, etc)
2001: W-CDMA commercial service beginning from Oct in Japan
2002: FCC approves additional frequency band for UWB(Ultra-Wideband)
7 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

First Generation Cellular Systems and

1970s Developments of radio and computer technologies for 800/900
MHz mobile communications

1976 WARC (World Administrative Radio Conference) allocates

spectrum for cellular radio

1979 NTT (Nippon Telephone & Telegraph) introduces the first

cellular system in Japan

1981 NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone) 900 system introduced by

Ericsson Radio System AB and deployed in Scandinavia

1984 AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone Service) introduced by AT&T

in North America

8 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Second Generation Cellular Systems and

1982 CEPT (Conference Europeenne des Post et Telecommunications) established GSM
to define future Pan-European Cellular Radio Standards
1990 Interim Standard IS-54 (USDC) adopted by TIA (Telecommunications Industry
1990 Interim Standard IS-19B (NAMPS) adopted by TIA
1991 Japanese PDC (Personal Digital Cellular) system standardized by the MPT
(Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications)
1992 Phase I GSM system is operational
1993 Interim Standard IS-95 (CDMA) adopted by TIA
1994 Interim Standard IS-136 adopted by TIA
1995 PCS Licenses issued in North America
1996 Phase II GSM operational
1997 North American PCS deploys GSM, IS-54, IS-95
1999 IS-54: North America
IS-95: North America, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, China, etc
GSM: used in 110 countries
9 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Third Generation Cellular Systems and

Services (1/2)
IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications-
Fulfill one's dream of anywhere, anytime communications a
Key Features of IMT-2000 include:
High degree of commonality of design worldwide;
Compatibility of services within IMT-2000 and with the
fixed networks;
High quality;
Small terminal for worldwide use;
Worldwide roaming capability;
Capability for multimedia applications, and a wide range of services
and terminals.
10 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Third Generation Cellular Systems and

Services (2/2)
Important Component of IMT-2000 is ability to
provide high bearer rate capabilities:
2 Mbps for fixed environment;
384 Kbps for indoor/outdoor and walk environments;
144 kbps for vehicular environment.
Standardization Work:
In processing
On 18 Oct. 2007 WiMAX technology have been included in the
framework of the IMT-2000 set of standards
Scheduled Service:
Started in October 2001 in Japan (W-CDMA)
Now in China(W-CDMA/TD-SCDMA/cdma2000)
11 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Subscriber Growth

3G Subscribers

2G Digital only Subscribers

1G Analogue only Subscribers

12 Year 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Wireless Technology and Associated

Wireless LAN/PAN
Ad Hoc Networks
Sensor Networks
Home Networking

13 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Aims of Cellular Systems

Coverage and Mobility
Wide area outdoor coverage
Depth of coverage
Interworking between systems
Large number of users
Minimize blocked and dropped calls
Speech quality
Bit error rate (data)

14 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Cellular System Infrastructure

15 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Cellular Reuse Concept

16 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Wireless LANs and PANs

Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN)
Any peer-to-peer connection, likes airports, warehouses (about 30
IEEE 802.11
HiperLAN is a European Standard
Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
Covers smaller areas with low power transmission, likes
Offices (about 10 meters)
Share resources, connect devices, likes home

17 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Satellite Systems
Traditional Applications
Weather satellite
Radio and TV broadcasting
Military satellites
Satellites for navigation and localization (e.g., GPS)
Telecommunication Applications
Global telephone connections
Backbone for global network
Global mobile communication

18 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

MANET (mobile ad hoc network)

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is an autonomous
system of mobile nodes

19 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Wireless Sensor Networks

Base station



20 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Classification of Wireless Networks

Local area (cordless telephone, PCS, wireless PBX)
Wide area (cellular mobile system)
Broadband local (WLAN, WPAN)
Ad hoc (WLAN)
Wide area

21 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Difference between Voice-oriented and Data-

oriented Networks
Users per network
Intelligent Mobility with LANs
Mobility network

Coverage quality

Power consumption Size/power consumption

Wide area cellular Wide area wireless data

Local cordless and PCS Local broadband and ad hoc
Mobile Communication System

History of Voice-Oriented Wireless Networks

Early 1970s: Exploration of first-generation mobile radio at Bell Labs
Late 1970s: First-generation cordless phones
1982: Exploration for 2nd-generation digital cordless CT-2
1983: Deployment of U.S. AMPS
1983: Exploration of the 2nd-generation digital cellular GSM
1985: Exploration of wireless PBX, DECT
1988: Initiation for GSM development
1988: Exploration of the QUALCOMM CDMA technology
1991: Deployment of GSM
1993: Deployment of PHS/PHP and DCS-1800
1995: PCS band auction by FCC
1998: 3G standardization started

23 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

History of Data-Oriented Wireless Networks

1980: Spread spectrum using SAW devices (HP labs, California)
Late 1980s: Wireless modem (Data Radio)
1983: ARDIS (Motorola/IBM)
1986: Mobitex (Swedish Telcom and Ericsson)
1990: IEEE 802.11 for Wireless LAN standards
1997: U-NII bands released, IEEE 802.11 completed, GPRS started
1998: IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth announcement
1999: IEEE 802.11a/HIPERLAN started

24 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Relative coverage, mobility, and data rates of generations of cellular

systems and local broadband and ad hoc networks

Mobility 2G 3G
Wide area network(WAN) coverage
Personal area network(PAN)
Vehicle - Connectivity, cable replacement

GSM, IS-95, d-amps

Local area network(LAN)

- Hot spots High speed




Fixed/deskop WPAN

0.1 1 10 100 Mbps

User bitrate , Datacom services
25 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Coverage Aspect of Next Generation Mobile

Communication Systems




Picocell Microcell Macrocell Global

26 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Personal Communication
Communication everywhere, with everybody, and at any time.
Evolution of Networks
Digital, Mobile, Global
Digitalization of communication systems
microelectronics, computers, and software technology,
inventions of efficient algorithms and procedures for
compression, security, and processing of all kinds of signals,
as well as,the development of flexible communication
protocols, etc.
technologies are available that enable the realization of high-
performance and cost-effective communication systems for
many application areas.

27 2017/10/27
Mobile Communication System

Support of subscriber mobility
terminal mobility and
personal mobility
The degree of mobility depends on the type of mobile
radio network.
Mobility is to be supported across the whole network
(or country) or even beyond the network (or national)
Such extended network functions are also needed to
realize personal mobility and universal reachability.

28 2017/10/27