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WORLD LEADERS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Adolf Hittler
Mao Tse Tung
Isif Stalin
Mahatma Gandhi
Nelson Mandela

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ADOLPH HITLER AND GERMANY

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ADOLPH HITLER
Adolph Hitler rose to power after
World War I. The Treaty of
Versailles (which ended WWI)
was harsh on Germany,
Germany were forced to pay
$33 billion in reparations
(war damages).
The Germans had to give up
their military.
Many people were out of work
and the country was having an
inflation (high prices and
few goods)
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He was a totalitarian ruler : a
dictator who controlled every part
of the citizens lives
All political parties except the Nazi
Party were against the law
All magazines, newspapers and
books had to be approved by the
government
The Gestapo (secret police) made
sure no one expressed ideas
against Hitler or his government
Progaganda ( the spread of one
point of view) was widely used to
spread the Nazi philosophy
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ADOLPH HITLER

Hitler blamed all of Germanys


problems on the Jews. They
became scapegoats ( the ones who
were blamed).
Hitler started his policy of anti-
Semitism (hostility against Jews)
The Jew lost their businesses,they
were told where they could work and
who they could marry
All Jews were forced to wear a
yellow Star of David on their clothes
so they could be identified.
Star of David

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HITLER AND THE HOLOCAUST

The Holocaust is the


name given to the Nazi
attempt to wipe out the
Jews. He managed to
kill 2 /3 of all European
Jews as well as 6 million
Gypsies, Slavs, political
prisoners and the old
Gypsy couple in Belzec concentration camp and mentally retarded in
concentration camps.

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WORLD WAR II
Hitler used blitzkrieg (lightning warfare)
to take over Poland, Denmark,Holland,
Belgium and France. He controlled most
of Western Europe by 1940. Britain was
the only holdout. Germany joined up with
Italy and Japan to become The Axis
Powers.
The United States, Britain and the
Soviet Union were joined as The Allied
Powers
World War II ended because of the
American victory in the Pacific and the
Soviets great manpower in Europe.
Hitler committed suicide in 1945.

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Mao Tse Tung and China

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MAO ZEDONG
Mao Zedong (Tse-tung)
adapted Marxs ideas of
Communism (a system
where the government
controlled land and means
of production) and
implemented them in China.

The Communists and


Nationalist government (led by
Chiang Kai-Shek) had been
fighting each other for years.

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MAO AND THE LONG MARCH

In 1927 Mao and his Communist were defeated by


Chiang Kai-shek. They traveled 6,000 miles to
northwestern China and studied communism. The
movement gained strength and a great deal of
support from the peasants who were promised land.
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MAO TSE TUNG

The Communists were aided with weapons and materials from the Soviet
Union and by 1949 Mao controlled mainland China.
The new government became known as The Peoples Republic of
China

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MAO TSE TUNG
The Quotations of Chairman Mao
( Maos Little Red Book)
was a collection of his sayings.
Communist party members and
students were expected to memorize
quotes from the book.
Many pictures and statues of Mao
appeared throughout China
Mao continue to rule China from 1949
until his death from Parkinsons
Disease in 1976.

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ISIF STALIN
AND THE SOVIET UNION

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ISIF STALIN
Isif Stalin was the leader of
the Communist Soviet
Union from 1924 1953.
He was a totalitarian
leader.He controlled every
part of the Soviet citizens
lives. People who opposed
his ideas were often killed
or shipped to work in labor
camps in Siberia.7 million
people disappeared during
his rule.

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STALIN

Stalin knew the Soviet Union was a 100


years behind the developed nations . He put
into effect a number of Five Year Plans to
modernize the Soviet Union.
He set up a command economy ( the
government owned and controlled all
business and means of production).
He ruled the Soviet Union for over twenty
years and died of a stroke in 1953.

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ISIF STALIN

Stalin first stressed


developing power
plants, dams, iron and
steel mills.
He also took all private
land and formed
collective farms. The
farms were owned
and run by the
Soviet government photo
government

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MOHANDAS GANDHI AND INDIA

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MAHATMA GANDHI

Mohandas Gandhi was the leader of the


independence movement in India. He
worked with the Indian National Congress
for over 30 years to gain Indias
independence from Great Britain.

Gandhi followed a philosophy of passive


resistance. Passive resistance was a
non-violent method of protesting for
political and social changes.

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MAHATMA GANDHI

Gandhi led boycotts (a


refusal to conduct
business), protests and work
stoppages against the British.

One of the protests Gandhi


led was to have people
refuse to buy British clothing.
He asked them to follow his
example and wear only
cotton and simple clothes
Gandhi at the spinning wheel
made in India.

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GANDHI AND THE SALT MARCH

Another boycott was the Salt


March in 1930. Salt was needed
by everyone but the British were
the only ones who were supposed
to make or sell it. Gandhi and
some followers marched 250
miles to the sea. He urged people
to make their own salt. The British
jailed over 60,000 people
(including Gandhi) in the following
weeks for this act of civil
Gandhi and followers marching to the sea.
disobedience (a refusal to obey
government laws ).
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After World War II Britain gave India
its independence. Gandhis hoped
for a unified nation but violence
between Indias Hindus and
Muslims escalated. Two new
countries were created, India with
its Hindu majority and Pakistan with
the Muslim majority.
Strong religious differences
continue today with the Sikh religion
Gandhi with Nehru, seeking independence in the
Indias first Prime Punjab State
Minister
Gandhi was killed by a Hindu
fanatic who objected to Gandhis
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effort to keep peace between
NELSON MANDELA AND SOUTH
AFRICA

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NELSON MANDELA

Nelson Mandela was a


leader of the African
National Congress
(ANC).He was jailed as
a political prisoner and
spent 26 years behind
prison walls and
became a world wide
symbol for the fight to
end apartheid.

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Apartheid was the policy of segregation practiced in South Africa. All
South Africans were classified as white, black (African) or colored (mixed
descent and Indians and Asians). The white minority was in control of the
government,had 85% of the land and 75% of the national income

Apartheid denied blacks civil and political rights. They were not allowed to
vote or live in areas where whites lived. At the age of 16 every black was
given papers.These papers had a picture, fingerprints and told if the person
was allowed in non- black areas.
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Bishop Desmond Tutu of South Africa
brought world wide attention to this system and
called for a non-violent solution to the problem.
Unfortunately, many of the protests were
violent, over 1500 people were killed.
The system of apartheid was brought to an end
through economic sanctions. (Foreign
countries, including the U.S. stopped
trading and investing in South Africa).

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Nelson Mandela
In 1989 FW DeKlerk was elected
president of South Africa. He
repealed (recalled) many
discriminatory laws.
He integrated schools and
worked on suffrage ( the right
to vote) for blacks. In 1990 he
released Nelson Mandela from
jail
In 1993 Nelson Mandela and
FW De Klerk received the Nobel
Peace Prize for their role in
working together to bring about a
new system of government to
South Africa
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There was a historic election in 1994. It was
the first national election that allowed all
races to vote.
Nelson Mandela was elected President of
South Africa in 1994.

June 1999 the 2nd election where all South Africans could vote 28