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Scheduling

Project manager's objectives

Define all project tasks

Build an activity network that depicts their interdependencies

Identify the tasks that are critical within the activity network

Build a time line depicting the planned and actual progress of each task

Track task progress to ensure that delay is recognized "one day at a time"

To do this, the schedule should allow progress to be monitored and the project
to be controlled
Scheduling
Primary objectives
Best time
Least cost
Least risk

Secondary objectives
Evaluation of schedule alternatives

Effective use of resources

Communications
Scheduling
Some Thumb Rules

Organize tasks concurrently to make optimal


use of workforce
Minimize task dependencies to avoid delays
caused by one task waiting for another to complete.
Dependent on project managers intuition and experience
Scheduling
Precedence
A task that must occur before another is said to have precedence of the other
Concurrence:
Concurrent tasks are those that can occur at the same time (in parallel)
Leads & Lag Time
Delays between activities
Time required before or after a given task
Milestones
Have a duration of zero
Identify critical points in your schedule
Shown as inverted triangle or a diamond
Often used at review or delivery times
Or at end or beginning of phases
Ex: Software Requirements Review (SRR)
Ex: User Sign-off
Can be tied to contract terms
Scheduling
Deliverable: A deliverable is a measurable and verifiable work products.

In current practice sometimes milestone and deliverables are used


interchangeably (both used to identify products - milestones may represent key-
products)

Slack & Float


Float & Slack: synonymous terms
Free Slack
Slack an activity has before it delays next task
Total Slack
Slack an activity has before delaying whole project
Slack Time TS = TL TE
TE = earliest time an event can take place
TL = latest time it can occur w/o extending projects completion date
Scheduling Techniques

Mathematical Analysis

Network Diagrams
PERT
CPM
GERT
Bar Charts
Milestone Chart
Gantt Chart
Scheduling Techniques

Network Diagrams
Developed in the 1950s
A graphical representation of the tasks necessary to complete a project
Visualizes the flow of tasks & relationships
PERT
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
CPM
Critical Path Method
Sometimes treated synonymously
All are models using network diagrams
Scheduling Techniques
Network Diagrams

Two classic formats


AOA: Activity on Arrow
AON: Activity on Node
Each task labeled with
Identifier (usually a letter/code)
Duration (in std. unit like days)
There are other variations of labeling
There is 1 start & 1 end event
Time goes from left to right
Scheduling Techniques
Scheduling Techniques

AOA consists of
Circles representing Events
Such as start or end of a given task
Lines representing Tasks
Thing being done Build UI
a.k.a. Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM)
AON
Tasks on Nodes
Nodes can be circles or rectangles (usually latter)
Task information written on node
Arrows are dependencies between tasks
a.k.a. Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM)
Scheduling Techniques

Critical Path
The specific set of sequential tasks upon which the project
completion date depends
or the longest full path
All projects have a Critical Path
Accelerating non-critical tasks do not directly shorten the schedule
Critical Path Method
The process for determining and optimizing the critical path
Non-CP tasks can start earlier or later w/o impacting completion
date
Note: Critical Path may change to another as you shorten the
current one.
Scheduling Techniques

Forward Pass
To determine early start (ES) and early finish (EF) times for each task
Work from left to right
Adding times in each path
Rule: when several tasks converge, the ES for the next task is the
largest of preceding EF times
Backward Pass
To determine the last finish (LF) and last start (LS) times
Start at the end node
Compute the bottom pair of numbers
Subtract duration from connecting nodes earliest start time
Scheduling Techniques

Network Diagrams
Advantages
Show precedence well
Reveal inter-dependencies not shown in other techniques
Ability to calculate critical path
Ability to perform what if exercises

Disadvantages
Default model assumes resources are unlimited
You need to incorporate this yourself (Resource Dependencies)
when determining the real Critical Path
Difficult to follow on large projects
Scheduling Techniques
Network Diagrams
Dependencies
Mandatory Dependencies

Hard logic dependencies


Nature of the work dictates an ordering
Ex: Coding has to precede testing
Ex: UI design precedes UI implementation

Discretionary Dependencies

Soft logic dependencies


Determined by the project management team
Process-driven
Ex: Discretionary order of creating certain modules
Scheduling Techniques

Network Diagrams
Dependencies

External Dependencies

Outside of the project itself


Ex: Release of 3rd party product; contract sign off
Ex: stakeholders, suppliers, Y2K, year end

Resource Dependencies

Two task rely on the same resource


Ex: You have only one DBA but multiple DB tasks
Scheduling Techniques
Task Dependency Relationship

Finish-to-Start (FS)
B cannot start till A finishes
A: Construct fence; B: Paint Fence
Start-to-Start (SS)
B cannot start till A starts
A: Pour foundation; B: Level concrete
Finish-to-Finish (FF)
B cannot finish till A finishes
A: Add wiring; B: Inspect electrical
Start-to-Finish (SF)
B cannot finish till A starts (rare)
Scheduling Techniques
PERT

Program Evaluation and Review Technique

Based on the idea that estimates are uncertain


Therefore uses duration ranges
And the probability of falling to a given range

Uses an expected value (or weighted average) to determine


durations

Use the following methods to calculate the expected durations,


then use as input to your network diagram
Scheduling Techniques
PERT

Start with 3 estimates

Optimistic
Would likely occur 1 time in 20
Most likely
Modal value of the distribution
Pessimistic
Would be exceeded only one time in 20
Scheduling Techniques
PERT

Combined to estimate a task duration


Scheduling Techniques
PERT

Advantages
Accounts for uncertainty
Disadvantages
Time and labor intensive
Assumption of unlimited resources is big issue
Lack of functional ownership of estimates
Mostly used on large, complex project
Scheduling Techniques
CPM vs. PERT

Both use Network Diagrams


CPM: deterministic
PERT: probabilistic
CPM: one estimate,
PERT: three estimates
PERT is infrequently used
Scheduling Techniques
Project Duration

How can you shorten the schedule?


Via
Reducing scope (or quality)
Adding resources
Concurrency (perform tasks in parallel)
Substitution of activities
Scheduling Techniques
Compression Technique

Shorten the overall duration of the project


Crashing
Looks at cost and schedule tradeoffs
Gain greatest compression with least cost
Add resources to critical path tasks
Changing the sequence of tasks
Fast Tracking
Overlapping of phases, activities or tasks that
would otherwise be sequential
Involves some risk
May cause rework
Scheduling Techniques
Example
Using the table below, draw the network diagram and answer the questions.

Activity Estimate in Weeks


Start A 3
Start B 9
AC 3
BC Dummy
BE 2
CD 2
CE 1
E End 4
D End 2
Scheduling Techniques
Example

3 2
A C D 2
3

Start 1 End
9 4
2
B E

The critical path is Start B, B E, and E End.


Scheduling Techniques
Class Exercise

Task # Task Name Duration Start Finish Pred.


A Establish increments 3 4/1 None
B Analyze Inc One 3 A
C Design Inc One 8 B
D Code Inc One 7 C
E Test Inc One 10 D
F Install Inc One 5 E
G Analyze Inc Two 7 A, B
H Design Inc Two 5 G
I Code Inc Two 4 H
J Test Inc Two 6 E, I
K Install Inc Two 2 J
L Close out project 2 F, K
Scheduling Techniques
Solution
Task # Task Name Duration Start Finish Pred.
A Establish increments 3 4/1 4/3 None
B Analyze Inc One 3 4/4 4/6 A
C Design Inc One 8 4/7 4/14 B
D Code Inc One 7 4/15 4/21 C
E Test Inc One 10 4/22 5/1 D
F Install Inc One 5 5/2 5/6 E
G Analyze Inc Two 7 4/7 4/13 A, B
H Design Inc Two 5 4/14 4/18 G
I Code Inc Two 4 4/19 4/22 H
J Test Inc Two 6 5/2 5/7 E, I
K Install Inc Two 2 5/8 5/9 J
L Close out project 2 5/10 5/11 F, K

B. Analyze C. Design D. Code E. Test F. Install


Inc One Inc One Inc One Inc One Inc One
3 8 7 10 5
A. Establish
Increments L. Close out
3 Project
2
G. Analyze H. Design I. Code J. Test K. Install
Inc Two Inc Two Inc Two Inc Two Inc Two
7 5 4 6 2
Scheduling Techniques
Solution

B. Analyze C. Design D. Code E. Test F. Install


Inc One Inc One Inc One Inc One Inc One
3 8 7 10 5
A. Establish
Increments L. Close out
3 Project
2
G. Analyze H. Design I. Code J. Test K. Install
Inc Two Inc Two Inc Two Inc Two Inc Two
7 5 4 6 2

Task network and the critical path: A-B-C-D-E-J-K-L


Cost Control
Earned Value Analysis

Earned value analysis is a measure of progress by assessing the percent of


completeness for a project

It gives accurate and reliable readings of performance very early into a project

It provides a common value scale (i.e., time) for every project task, regardless of
the type of work being performed

The total hours to do the whole project are estimated, and every task is given
an earned value based on its estimated percentage of the total
Earned Value Analysis Terms to Know
Acronym Term Interpretation
PV Planned Value What is the estimated value of the work planned
to be done?
EV Earned Value What is the estimated value of the work actually
accomplished?
AC Actual Cost What is the actual cost incurred for the work
accomplished?
BAC Budget at Completion How much did we BUDGET for the TOTAL project
effort?
EAC Estimate at Completion What do we currently expect the TOTAL project to
cost?
ETC Estimate to Complete From this point on, how much MORE do we
expect it to cost to finish the project?
VAC Variance at Completion How much over or under budget do we expect to
be at the end of the project?
Earned Value Analysis Formulae
Name Formula Interpretation
Cost Variance (CV) EV AC -ve is over budget, +ve is under budget.
Schedule Variance (SV) EV PV -VE is behind schedule, +VE is ahead of schedule.
Cost Performance EV/AC We are getting Rs.. Worth of work out of every
Index (CPI) Re 1 spent. Funds are or are not being used
efficiently.
Schedule Performance EV/PV We are (only) progressing at .. % of the rate
Index (SPI) originally planned.
Estimate at As of now, how much do we expect the total
Completion (EAC) project to cost? Rs..

BAC/CPI Used if no variance from the BAC have occurred


or you will continue at the same rate of spending.
AC+ETC Actual plus a new estimate for remaining work.
Used when original estimate is fundamentally
flawed.
AC + (BAC EV) Actual to date plus remaining budget. Used when
current variances are thought to be atypical of the
future.
Earned Value Analysis Formulae
Name Formula Interpretation
Estimate at As of now, how much do we expect the total
Completion (EAC) project to cost? Rs..

AC +[ (BAC EV)/CPI] Actual to date plus remaining budget modified by


performance. Used when current variances are
thought to be typical of the nature.
Estimate to EAC AC How much more will the project cost?
Complete (ETC)
Variance at BAC EAC How much over or under budget will we be at the
Completion end of the project?
(VAC)
Earned Value Analysis Example
You have a project to build a new fence. The fence is four sided as
shown. Each side is to take one day to build and is budgeted for Rs
1000 per side. The sides are planned to be completed one after
another. Today is the end of day three.

Using the project chart below, calculate EV, etc.

Activity Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Status,


End of Day 3
Side 1 S--------F Complete,
spent Rs 1000
Side 2 S----------PF -----F Complete,
spent Rs 1200
Side 3 PS----S-----PF 50% done,
Spent Rs 600
Side 4 PS--------PF Not yet started

Key S = Actual Start, F = Actual Finish, PS = Planned Start, PF = Planned Finish


Earned Value Analysis Example
What Calculation Answer Interpretation
is:
PV 1000 + 1000 + 1000 3000 We should have done Rs 3000 worth of work
EV Complete, Complete, Half 2500 We have actually completed Rs 2500 worth of
done = (1000+1000+500) work
AC 1000 + 1200 + 600 2800 We have actually spent Rs 2800.
BAC 1000 + 1000 + 1000 + 1000 4000 Our project budget is 4000.
CV 2500 2800 -300 We are over budget by Rs 300.
CPI 2500 divided by 2800 .893 We are getting only 89 paise out of every Re we
put into the project.
SV 2500 3000 -500 We are behind schedule.
SPI 2500 divided by 3000 .833 We are only progressing at 83% of the rate
planned.
EAC 4000 divided by .893 4479 We currently estimate that the total project will
cost Rs 4479.
ETC 4479 2800 1679 We need to spend Rs 1679 to finish the project.
VAC 4000 4479 -479 We currently expect to be Rs 479 over budget
when the project is completed.