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AIR POLLUTION

CONTROL
EQUIPMENT
AN INTRODUCTION
ATMOSP HE R IC CLE ANSING PR OC E SSE S
Natural removal mechanisms in atmosphere
Mechanism Details
Dispersion -done by wind current
-lessens the conc at one place

Gravitational settling -removing particulates those >20 micron


Flocculation -settle out particles <0.1micron
Absorption (washout or -particulates and gaseous pollutants are collected in rain or
scavenging) mist, then settle out
-takes place below cloud level

Rainout -involving precipitation


-occurs within clouds when submicron part serve as
condensation nuclei

Adsorption -occurs in friction layer of atm (the closest layer to earth)


-gas, liq and solid are electrostatically attracted to a surface
-natural adsorbent soil, rocks,leaves, grass
APPROACHES TO
CONTAMINANT
CONTROL

CONTROL AT
DILUTION
SOURCE
APPROACHES TO CONTAMINANT
CONTROL

1) Dilution
Accomplished using tall stacks
Penetrate the inversion layer and disperse the
contaminant
Reduce the ground-level conc
Means of spreading air contaminant
Diluting air contaminant to harmful level and less
noticeable near the source
Only short-term control measure
2) Control at source
Long-term control, desirable and effective
i) Prevent the contaminant from exist
ii) Use alternative power source solar, geothermal, hydro
in replace of fossil fuel.
iii) Alter high contaminant fuels to desulfured, LNG or LPG
iv. Proper use of existing equipment regular inspection
and maintenance
v. Changing the process being used e.g replace open-
hearth furnace with electric furnace to reduce smoke.
vi. Install control equipment either destroy, counteract,
collect or mask pollutants
C ONTR OL DE VIC E S FOR PAR TIC ULATE
C ONTAMINANTS FR OM STATIONAR Y SOUR C E S

Can be divided into five major SELECTION

groups: 1) Depends on particle


characteristics size
Gravitational settling chambers distribution, shape,
density, stickiness,
Centrifugal collectors electrical properties

Wet collectors 2) Depends on carrier


gas properties flow rate
Electrostatic precipitators and particle conc

Fabric filters 3) Depends on economic


considerations cost of
installation, operating
and maintenance
Control Devices for Particulate Contaminants
Gravitatio
nal Normal
Settling Baffled Cyclone
Centrifugal
Chamber collector Dynamic
precipitator

Spray Tower
Wet Cyclone
Wet
Collector
scrubber
Venturi
Scrubber

Fabric
Filter ESP
1) Gravitational settling chambers
Two types:

Settling chamber

Baffled chamber
Gravitation Settling Chamber
Simple in design and operation
Remove particle >50 m Advantages

Employ gravity to separate particles


Require a large space for
installation Disadvantages

Low efficiency for small particles


Provide enlarged areas to minimize horizontal
velocities and allow time for vertical velocity
to carry particle to the floor
Usual velocity 0.5 to 2.5 m/s (best result -
obtained at uniform flow of <0.3m/s
2) Centrifugal collectors

Employ centrifugal force which


can be generated
Much smaller particles can be Advantages

removed compared to gravity


settling chamber

Two commonly used types:


Cyclones
Dynamic precipitators
CENTRIFUGAL COLLECTORS

Cyclone Dynamic Precipitator


2.1) Cyclones
Centrifugal force
generated by spinning of gas
Magnitude depends on particle
mass, gas velocity within
cyclone and cyclone diameter
Solid particles are thrown to
the walls as gas spirals
upward
Separation efficiency
depends on centrifugal force
exerted on particles
Relatively inexpensive to
operate.
Can handle large volumes of
gases, T up to 980C.
Used in many applications e.g.
cement plants, petroleum
refinery, etc.
Large-diameter cyclone remove particles 40 - 50 m
diameter
High efficiency cyclones with diameter 23 cm or less
is good for particles of 15 to 20 m
Smaller diameter multicyclone
Increase the centrifugal force
Reduce distance of particle travelling Advantages
before collection
Problems with equalizing gas flow to
each cone
Disadvantages
Abrasion of tube bcoz high velocity
Plugging of heavily loaded tubes
Cyclones

Alternative designs are also available.


Types Advantages Disadvantages
Cyclones Have no moving parts Have low collection efficiency for
respirable particulates
Can be used as precleaners to remove Suffer decreased efficiency if gas
coarser particulates and reduce load on viscosity or gas density increases
more efficient dust collectors

Can be designed to remove a specific size Are susceptible to erosion


range of particles
Have drastically reduced efficiency due
to reduction in airflow rate
Cannot process sticky dust

Multicyclones Have no moving parts Have low collection efficiency for


respirable particulates
Are more efficient than single-cyclone Are prone to plugging due to smaller
separators diameter tubes
Have low pressure drop when used as a Improper gas distribution may result in
precleaner dirty gas bypassing several tubes
Cannot process sticky dust
For a given gas volume, occupy more
space than single-cyclone separators
Normally have higher pressure drop
than single-cyclone separators
2.2) Dynamic Precipitator
A.k.a Rotoclones.
Centrifugal force
Generated by the action
of rotating vanes
Force is 7 times higher
than conventional
cyclone
Dynamic precipitators
Serve as both exhaust fan and
dust collector
Widely used in ceramics, food, Advantages
pharmaceutical

Cannot handle wet, fibrous


material (can accumulate on
blade) Disadvantages

Requires higher power input than


cyclone.
3) Wet collectors (Scrubbers)

Incorporating particles into liquid droplets by


impingement or interception during
gravitational settling
Efficiency depends on energy consumed in the
air-to-water contact.
Provide efficient, low-cost solutions to
air pollution problems Advantages

Can handle hot and moist gases

High or fluctuating pressure drop


High maintenance cost if collecting
corrosive materials
Disadvantages
Not recommended for use where high
plume rise is important
Disposal problems of the particulates:
wastewater require other treatment
Types of wet collectors
Three most commonly used wet scrubbers:
1. Spray towers
2. Wet cyclone scrubbers
3. Venturi scrubbers

Other types available ( e.g. packed tower


scrubber) are suitable for removal of gaseous
pollutant. It will clog unit quickly if used for
particulates.
3.1 Spray towers
Low-cost scrubber
Remove both gaseous and
particulate contaminants
Cause little pressure loss
Able to handle large volumes of
gases
Effective in moving particles in
excess of 10 m
Spray Tower/Scrubber

As gas flows upward,


particles collide with liq
droplets sprayed across the
flow passage.

Liq droplets containing


particles settle by gravity to
the bottom of chamber
Spray tower
3.2) Wet cyclone scrubber
High-pressure spray nozzles generate a fine
spray that intercepts the small particles
entrained in the swirling gases.
PM thrown to the wall by centrifugal force,
then drained to collection sump.
Efficiency slightly higher than spray tower.
100% for particles of 100 m
90-98% for particles 5 - 50 m
Higher compared to spray tower
Particle removal depends on contact with liq
droplet & is a function of:
Liq flow rate, liq droplets & particle size
3.3) Venturi scrubber
Most efficient in removing
submicron particles of 0.5 to 5
micron (smoke and fumes) Advantages

Efficient in removing particulate


and gaseous contaminant

Removal efficiency depends on


particle size and head loss
Disadvantage:
High power cost high inlet gas
velocity
Wet Scrubbers
4) Fabric filters (baghouse filters)
Gas stream with particulate contaminant
passes through a woven or felted fabric
Ways of how small particles are retained
Direct interception
Inertial impaction
Diffusion
Electrostatic attraction
Gravitational settling
Filter bags used
Tubular or envelope-shaped
Capable of retaining particles < 0.5 micron
(+ substantial quantities of < 0.1 micron)
Ranging from 1.8 to 9 m long
Upper ends are closed and lower ends are
attached to inlet manifold
After the pressure drop increase, can be cleaned
intermittently, periodically or continuously

Unit must be shut down


seldom used Using mechanical shaker,
Portions are cleaned reverse-air flow, pulse jets
while the rest in operation
Disadvantages
Possibility of explosion or fire if sparks are
discharged in baghouse where organic dust are
being filtered
Space limitation for heavy loads
Possibility of rupture
if temperature too high for the fabric medium
because of moisture, acidity or alkalinity content of the
particulate
Advantages (continue)
Able to handle large volumes of gases at relatively
high speed, reasonable operating pressure drop
and power requirement
Ability to handle a diversity of solid materials
Application in high-volume operation such as
cement kiln, foundries, steel furnaces and grain-
handling plants
Bag Filter or Bag House
5) Electrostatic precipitators (ESP)
Can be classified as: (1) low-voltage two-stage or
(2) high-voltage single-stage units
Low-voltage two-stage ESP
Operate at 6000 to 12 000 V
Employed mainly in conjunction with air-
conditioning systems for hospitals and commercial
installation
Used mainly to collect liquid particles
Not recommended for control of solid or sticky
material
Its precipitators have a separate ionizing zone
located ahead of the collection plates
High-voltage single-stage unit
Operate at 30 000 to 100 000 V range
Used at large industrial plant such as coal-fired
utility boilers (power stations)
Require 4 basic steps in in the operation
Electrical charging of the particulates
Collection of charged particles on a grounded surface
Neutralization of the charge at the collector
Removal of the particulate for disposal
Electrostatic precipitators (ESP)
ESP
Advantages ESP
Have wide application
99% removal efficiency for a wide range of particle
sizes
Can handle large volumes of gas 25 to 1000 m3/s
Low pressure drops
Can operate continuously with little maintenance
Can be used to collect acid or tar mists
Disadvantages
Cannot be used with explosive materials
High installation cost
Require a great deal of space for industrial
operation
Only operate at peak efficiency within a limited
temperature range
May use excessive power if buildup of collected
material causes spark over
Inefficient if buildup suppresses the corona
discharge from negative electrode
Electrostatic Precipitators
Electrostatic Precipitators
Process Selection

A) Settling Chamber
B) Simple Cyclone
C) High-efficiency
Cyclone
D) Electrostatic
Precipitator
E) Spray Tower wet
scrubber
F) Venturi Scrubber
G) Bag Filter
TAKE 5!
Coming up next:
Control devices for
gaseous contaminants
CONTROL DEVICES FOR GASEOUS
CONTAMINANTS FROM STATIONARY SOURCE

Major treatment
processes

SOx, NOx, CO,


organic & inorganic
acid gases, HC
removal

Adsorption Absorption Condensation Combustion


1) ADSORPTION
Adsorption is the adhesion of molecules of
gas, liquid, or dissolved solids to a surface
(adsorbent).
Involves passing a stream of effluent gas
through a porous solid material (adsorbent)
Adsorption of adsorbate on adsorbent can be
either by physical or chemical
Physical Adsoption
Condensation of gases and vapors on solid above dew
point
Depends upon van der Waals force
The higher the boiling point, the greater the amount
adsorbed
Directly proportional to the amount of solid surface
available
Accompanied by capillary condensation within the pores
Small amount of heat is liberated
Process relatively rapid and readily reversible
By lowering pressure/increasing temperature, adsorbed
gas can be desorbed
Chemical adsorption/chemisorption
Gas molecule forms a chemical bond with the adsorbent
Gas is strongly held to the solid surface by valence forces
A slower process since displacement of atoms must occur
in molecules
Releases greater amount of heat & require more energy
Results in formation of single layer of molecules on solid
surface
Process is irreversible chemical nature of adsorbate have
been altered
Amount of gas adsorbed depends on pressure and
temperature
Example: Catalysed reactions, chemisorption of CO on NH3
Steam is used to purge captured pollutants
from the bed to a pollutant recovery device.

Figure: Extra bed in a Figure: Non-Regenerative


Regenerative Carbon Adsorption Carbon Adsorption System
System
Adsorbents
Key characteristics of solid
adsorbents
1. Preferential affinity for specific
substances, e.g: Zeolite Molecular sieves

Alumina, bauxite, silica gel affinity


for polar such as water. used as
drying agent.
Activated charcoal nonpolar organic
compounds, e.g. lower paraffin HCs.
Synthetic/Zeolite/Silicate Molecular
sieve (tailor-made selectivity) SO2 ,
Granular Activated carbon
NOx. But expensive (see page 541 for
examples).
Adsorbents
2. Surface-to-volume ratios
Provided by internal pores
Can be increased by activating some adsorbent, e.g.:
Activated carbon treating with steam
Activated alumina reactivated by heating to 175 to 325oC

Strontium sulfate
Fullers Earth

Zeolite
Silica gel
Adsorption equipment
Can be designed with fixed, moving or
fluidized beds
Fixed bed
Vertical or horizontal cylindrical shell
Adsorbent used is activated carbon in layers of 1.3
cm thick (thin-bed adsorbers) or >1.3 cm (deep-
bed adsorbers)
Moving bed adsorber
Adsorbent is contained in a rotating drum.
Contaminated air is moved by fan into the
rotating drum.
Vapor-laden air enters above the carbon bed,
passes thru activated carbon bed, then leaves
at the end of drum.
Fluidized adsorber
Contains a shallow, floating bed of
adsorbent .
Air flows upward, expanding the bed,
suspending & fluidizing the adsorbents.
Provides intimate contact between gaseous
contaminant & adsorbent.
Decontaminated air leaves at top of unit.
Adsorption & desorption
Adsortion units are highly efficient, until a breakpoint
(saturated adsorbents). At this point, adsorbents
must be renewed or regenerated.
2 types of adsorbers, depending on gas properties
whether easily desorbed or not :
Regenerative
If depends on physical adsorption, can be accomplished
using superheated steam or circulating hot air. Cool the
bed before reuse
Other ways burning, pressure reduction and chemical
treatment
Nonregenerative - costly
Usually 2 units adsorbers installed to allow renewal/
regeneration.

Application
Adsorb organic vapors from dry cleaning,
degreasing, solvent extracting
Recovery of valuable material from organic vapor is
sometimes economically feasible when concentrations
of organic vapors is high.
E.g. Reinluft Process collects SO2 from flue gas to get
H2SO4.
2) ABSORPTION
A.k.a scrubbing
A fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or
solid.
Contaminated effluent gas (absorbate or
solute) is brought into contact with liquid
absorbent (solvent)
Utilize chemical (reactive) or physical
(nonreactive) change to remove pollutants
Reactive & Nonreactive liquid
absorbent
Water can be reactive or non-reactive:
Reactive absorbent: water + limestone to
remove sulfur dioxide from flue gases.
Nonreactive: water to dissolve gases without
reaction.
Absorption

Amount of gas absorbed depends on


properties of gas and solvent
Pressure of gas above the solution (Henrys Law)
Temperature of the system
Packing used turbulence, flow rate and type
Application
Control of SO2,NOx,H2S, Cl2, NH3
Removal of HC in asphalt plants, varnish cookers
Recovery of products, e.g acetic acid, chloroform.
Absorbent (solvent)
Good solubility solvent if:
Chemically similar to the solute
Low viscosity
Other characteristics of solvents:
Have low freezing point
Low in toxicity, noncorrosive
Relatively nonvolatile
Nonflammable
Chemically stable
Inexpensive, readily available
Application of absorbers
Installed at power plants to control SO2 emission.
Efficiency of 80% - 90%.
Not efficient in NOx removal. Efficiency of 20% using
limewater.
Main absorbents used in SO2 absorption process:
Alkalies (sodium and ammonia)
Sodium not volatile and have no fume problem
Ammonia Ammonium sulfate byproduct is more
desirable
Alkaline earths (calcium and magnesium)
Compound being used MgO, CaO, CaCO3
Absorption units

Designed to provide
intimate contact between gas and liq
Optimum diffusion of the gas in solution
Selection depends on number of scrubbers to
be used
Single - removes both particulate and gaseous in a
single unit
Two separate units for gaseous and particulates.
Spray
tower

Venturi Absorption Plate /


tray
scrubber
Units tower

Packed
towers
Spray towers
Absorbing liq, usually
water, is sprayed thru
contaminated gas.
Water-contaminant soln
falls downward.
Clean gas exits thru
outlet valve at top of
unit.
Moisture eliminators
reduce moisture in gas
before release.
Advantages of spray towers
Can handle large volumes of gas
Little pressure drop
High efficiency of removal low
conc of gaseous contaminant
Applicable for dual removal
Chance of absorption depends on
droplet size and turbulence
Inexpensive to install and operate
Disadvantages of absorbers

Have less gas-liquid interfacial area


Less effective in removing gaseous
contaminant (high concentration of
toxic gasses)
Less effective in particulate removal.
Plate or Tray Towers
Contain horizontal trays or Provide large liquid-gas
plates. interfacial areas
Usually spaced 0.3 to
0.9m apart

Perforated plate
Perforated plate column
Liq enters from side of column near the
top.
Liq flows across the tray, over a weir and
to a downpipe to the next tray. Zigzag
pattern until liq reaches bottom of
column.
Polluted air enters side at bottom, roses
up thru openings in each tray.
This rising gas prevents liq from flowing
thru opening rather than thru
downpipe.
Bubble-cap tray/plate tower
Contain cap at which gas are diverted
downward and discharged as small
bubbles from slots.
Contaminant-laden liq drawn off at
bottom.
Packed towers

Packing is used to increase the


contact time between vapor and liquid

Berl saddle

Pall ring
Intalox Raschig
saddle ring
Materials of packing
Has large surface-to-volume ratio
Has large void ratio to minimize the
resistance of gas flow
Lightweight and unbreakable
Operation:
Countercurrent flow gas from bottom, liquid from
top.
Liq flows over surface of packing in a thin film.
Highly efficient for gaseous removal
Disadvantage easily clogged if gas of high
particulate is introduced
Venturi scrubber
Venturi Scrubber
For particulate & gaseous
contaminants.
Co-current unit
gas/particulate and
absorption solution

- Are brought into contact in or near the venturi


throat
- Moved together into an entrainment separator
- Separated by centrifugal force of the liquid
droplets
Venturi Scrubber
3) CONDENSATION
2 basic types: surface & contact condensers

Key role is physical Vapor and cooling medium are


adsorption brought into direct contact
Cooling medium air Less expensive and more
or water flexible
Vapor and cooling More efficient in removing
medium is separated organic compounds
by a metal wall Disadvantage create water
pollution problem
Types of condensers
Clean
Dirty Air
Air In Outlet

Surface condenser Contact condenser

Condensers are simple, relatively inexpensive devices that normally use water or air to
cool and condense a vapor stream. Condensers are typically used as pretreatment
devices. They can be used ahead of adsorbers, absorbers, and incinerators to reduce
the total gas volume to be treated by more expensive control equipment.
Condensers

Application depends upon


Amount and type of coolant used
Waste liquid disposal problems that will result
Amount of compound to be recovered
Generally considered as pretreatment device for air
pollution control.
Used in conjunction with afterburners (thermal
combustion), absorbers or adsorption unit.
4) COMBUSTION
Important air-pollution control process
Convert the air contaminants to innocuous
CO2 and water
Push oxidaton rxn to completion.
4 basic elements for efficient combustion to
occur
Oxygen
Temperature
Turbulence
time
4 basic elements for efficient combustion to occur:

Determine the Must be


end product keep at
obtained ignition T

O2 T

time turbulence
Keep O2 well
mixed with
For sufficient combustible subs
burning Provided by
Increasing stack baffles or
height injection nozzles
Direct-
Flame
Thermal

Catalytic

TYPES OF COMBUSTION UNIT


Direct-flame combustion
Waste gases are burned directly in a
combustor
Burn by own if sufficient heat
value and O2 content
Frequently used in petrochemical
plants and refineries
Flares
usually open-ended combustion units
Safe means of disposing highly
combustible waste gases
Disadvantages of flares
Burn at high temp and long periods cause
formation of oxides of nitrogen
Produce visible smoke or soot
Waste large amount of heat energy
Economical when the waste gas contribute >50%
of the total heating value for incineration
Thermal combustion / Afterburner
Applied when combustible gaseous pollutant is too
low for direct flame.
The waste gas is preheated using heat exchanger by
utilizing the heat produced by thermal incinerator
Temp of operation depends on nature of the waste
gas. Up to 2000C. All 4 parameters must be closely
monitored.
Thermal combustion
Advantages
Well-designed unit can produce odorless steam
plumes
Clean stream of hot air produced can be used as a
heat source for other operation
Catalytic combustion
Used when combustible materials is low.
Consist of preheating and catalytic section
High efficiency 95 -98% eff.
Efficiency depends on
Contaminant conc
Gas stream T
O2 conc
Contact time
Type of catalyst
Catalytic combustion
Have been used to control SO2, NOx, HC, CO
Catalyst: Platinum (most effective for NOx), Palladium
and ceramic materials
Advantages:
Lower T (200C for CO to CO2 conversion)
Catalyst accelerates rxn, reduce time
(20 to 50 times less time than thermal
incinerator)
Disadvantages:
High maintenance cost
Catalytic poisoning
Because air pollutants vary in size many orders of
magnitude, many different types of treatment devices are
required for emissions treatment.
Automotive emission control

Indirect control
Abolition of the internal combustion engine
Use of electric-powered vehicles
Increased the utilization of mass transit
Sources of emissions from gasoline-powered
vehicle
20% from crankcase
15% from fuel tank and carburetor
65% from tail pipe
Direct control methods
Devices that reduces emission from mobile
source:
Positive Crankcase Ventilation (PCV) Systems
Adsorption Canisters
Catalytic Converters
The system close off the vent to the atmosphere and
recycle the blow-by back into the engine intake.
Adsorption Canisters
Canister filled with activated carbon that
adsorbs HC emissions.
The adsorbed vapors are desorbed and fed
back to the intake manifold.
END OF SLIDE

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