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MISS WAN NOR ASHIQIN WAN ALI

School of Human Development & Technocommunication (iKOM)


Email: wanashiqinwanali@yahoo.com
Information Age
What is information age?
Information Age means by globally connected, service
and information-intense, digitally based culture.
Information means conveys meaning and is useful to
one or more people or a collection of facts (data)
organized in some way so that they are meaningful to a
recipient.
Age mean period of time.
Information Age

Example:
Information Age offers freedom to students to
learn and educators to teach, regardless of time,
place, ethically or social and economic status. IT
allows educators to diagnose in very particular
ways the needs and talents of students.
Information Age

Data Unprocessed items

Information A collection of data


organized in some way so that it
create meaning.
A World of Computers
To produce Knowledge
What is computer literacy?
Worker
Knowledge and understanding
of computers and their uses
Computers are everywhere
Computer Generation
The Mechanical Era (1623-1945)
In 17th Century, Mathematicians designed and
implemented calculators that capable of addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division.
An machine by Charles Babbages was arguably the first
to be used in computational sciences.
1890, Herman Holleriths came out with punch-card
equipment to tabulate data.
1911, Holleriths company merged with a competitor to
found the corporation which in 1924 became
International Business Machine (IBM).
Computer Generation
1st Generation Electronic Computers (1937-1953)
The first electronic computer designed by John
Vincent Atanasoff in 1939 but not successfully built.
But during World War II, first working digital
computer so called COLLOSSUS and first
programmable computer called ENIAC was
developed by Eckert and Mauchly. The SAGE
system which produced breakthroughs in computer
memory, data communications and display
technologies was inspired by military needs.
Used old-fashioned vacuum tubes like the ones in
early radios ENIAC.
Computer Generation
2nd Generation Electronic Computers (1954-1962)
Many high level programming languages were
introduced including FORTRAN (1956), ALGOL (1958)
and COBOL (1959).
This generation saw two supercomputers designed for
the purposes of numeric processing in scientific
applications.
Used transistors.
Computer Generation
3rd Generation Electronic Computers (1963-1972)
An introduction of integrated circuits (IC), operating
systems and time-sharing.
Integrated circuits with thousand of transistors on a
single silicon computer chip.
Computer Generation
4th Generation Electronic Computers (1972-1984)
An introduction of large scale integration and very
large scale integration in construction of computing
elements.
Semiconductors memories replaced core memories as
the main memory systems.
Computer Generation
5th Generation Electronic Computers (1984-1990)
Saw the introduction of machines with hundreds of
processors that could all be working on different parts
of a single program.
By 1990, it was possible to build chips with a million
components and semiconductors memories became
standard on all computers.
The used computer networks and single-user
workstations.
Computer Generation
6th Generation Electronic Computers (1990- )
This generation saw many parallel computing, both in
the hardware and parallel systems improved .
The explosive growth in wide area networking,
network bandwidth has expanded.
A broad spectrum of issues ranging from high
performance computing to expanded network access
and the necessity to make leading edge technologies
available to educate people.
What Is a Computer?
How is a computer defined?
Electronic device operating under the control of
instructions stored in its own memory

Processes data into information


Accepts data Data that is organized,
Raw facts, figures, and symbols meaningful, and useful

Produces and stores results


What Is a Computer?
What is the information processing cycle?

1. Input
2. System Unit (Process)
3. Output
4. Storage
5. Communication

Produces
Collects data
Processing information
(input)
(output)

Information Processing Cycle


The Components of a Computer
What is an input device?
Hardware used
to enter data
and instructions

1. Camera
2. Stylus
3. Graphic tablet
The Components of a Computer
What is the system unit?
Case containing
electronic
components
used to process
data
The Components of a Computer
What are two main components on the
motherboard?
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Also called a processor
The electronic component that interprets and carries
out the basic instructions that operate the computer

Memory
Consists of electronic components that store
instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by
those instructions
The Components of a Computer
What is an output device?
Hardware that
conveys
information
to one or more
people

1. Speaker
2. Printer
The Components of a Computer
What is storage?
Holds data, instructions, and information
for future use

Storage media
Physical material on which data, instructions,
and information are stored

Storage device
Records and retrieves items to and from
a storage medium
The Components of a Computer -
Storage
What is a floppy disk?
Thin, circular,
flexible disk
enclosed in rigid
plastic shell
The Components of a Computer -
Storage
What is a USB flash drive?
Provides much
greater storage
capacity than a
floppy disk or
Zip disk
Small and
lightweight enough
to be transported
on a keychain or
in a pocket
The Components of a Computer -
Storage
What is a compact disc?
Flat, round, portable metal disc
CD-ROM
DVD-ROM
The Components of a Computer

What is a communications device?


Hardware component that
enables a computer to
send and receive data, instructions,
and information

Occurs over cables, telephone


lines, cellular radio networks,
satellites, and other
transmission media
Why Computer So Powerful?
What are the advantages of using computers?

Speed Reliability Consistency

Storage Communications
Disadvantages of Using Computers?
What are the disadvantages of using computers?

Violation of Impact on
Privacy Labor Force

Impact on
Health Risks
Environment
Networks and the Internet
What is a network?
Collection of computers and devices connected together
via communications devices and transmission media.
Communications
Device Transmission
Media
Enables a Satellites
Cables
connection
Telephone Cellular
between
lines radio
computers
One type is
a modem
Networks and the Internet
What are the reasons to network?
To share

Resources
Hardware
devices
Software
programs To save
Data
time
Information and
money
Networks and the Internet
What is a server?
A server manages
the resources on a
network
Clients access
the resources
on the server
Networks and the Internet
What is the Internet?
Worldwide collection of networks that connects
millions of businesses, government agencies,
educational institutions, and individuals
Networks and the Internet
Why do users access the Internet?
1. Communications Email, FB, Twitter 2. Information Google Scholar

3. Shopping - mudah.my, amazon.com 4. Banking and Investing - Cimb Clicks, Maybank2u

5. Download Videos bit torrent, 4shared 6. Entertainment era.fm, dramacrazy.net


Networks and the Internet
What is the Web?
Billions of documents, called Web pages, available to
anyone connected to the Internet

A Web site is
a collection of
related Web pages
A Web page contains
text, graphics, sound, You can share
video, and links to information by
other Web pages creating Web pages
or posting photos on
a photo sharing
community
Computer Software
What is software?

Consists of a series
of instructions that Also called a
tells the computer program
what to do
Computer Software
What is a graphical user interface (GUI)?
Allows you to
interact with the
software using
graphics and icons
Controls how you
enter data and how
the screen displays
information
Computer Software

Therere two categories :


1) System software
2) Application software
Computer Software
What is system software?
Programs that control or maintain the operations of
the computer and its devices. It serves as the interface
between the user, application software and hardware.

Operating System (OS)


is a set of programs
that coordinates all
activities among
computer hardware
devices and allows Utility Programs allow the user to
users to run perform maintenance-type tasks
application software usually related to managing a
computer, its devices or its programs
Computer Software
What is application software?
Programs that perform
specific tasks for users

Word
Spreadsheet
Processing

Presentation
Database
Graphics
Computer Software
How do you install and run programs?
Computer Software Javascript program

What is a programmer?
Someone who develops
application or system
software
Programmer writes
instructions to
direct computer to
process data into
information

Resulting Internet application


Categories of Computers
What are the categories of computers?

Personal Computers
(Desktop)
Mobile Computers and
Mobile Devices

Midrange Servers

Mainframes

Supercomputers

Embedded Computers
Personal Computers
What are the two most popular series of personal
computers?
PC and compatibles Apple Macintosh
use the Windows uses the Macintosh
operating system operating system
(Mac OS)
Personal Computers
What is a desktop computer?
Designed so all of the components fit entirely on
or under a desk or table
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a notebook computer?
Portable, small enough
to fit on your lap
Also called a laptop
computer
Generally more
expensive than a desktop
computer
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a Tablet PC?
Resembles a letter-sized slate
Allows you to write on the
screen using a digital pen
Especially useful for taking
notes
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What are mobile devices?
Small enough to carry in a
pocket
Internet-enabled
telephone is a smart
phone
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a handheld computer?

Small Used
enough to fit by mobile employees
in one such as meter readers
hand and delivery people
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)?
Provides personal organizer functions
Calendar
Appointment book
Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices
What are smart phones and smart watches?
A smart phone is A smart watch is
an Internet-enabled an Internet-enabled
telephone that usually watch that automatically
provides PDA capabilities adjusts to time zone changes
and stores personal
information
Servers
What types of servers are there?
Midrange server Powerful, large
computer that supports up to a few
thousand computers

Mainframe Very powerful,


expensive computer that supports
thousands of computers

Supercomputer The fastest, most


powerful, most expensive
computer. Used for applications
requiring complex mathematical
calculations
Embedded Computers
A special-purpose computer that functions as a
component in a larger product
What is an embedded computer?
Elements of an Information System
What are information system elements?
Hardware
Software
Data
People
Procedures
Elements of an Information System

Hardware must be reliable and capable of handling


workload.
Software must be developed carefully and tested
thoroughly.
Data must be accurate in order to avoid garbage in,
garbage out.
People Staff should be skilled and fully equipped with
latest technology.
Procedures Availability of documented procedures in
term of operating the computer and how to use the
applications.
Examples of Computer Usage
What software is available for a home user?
Web access Personal financial management

Entertainment Communications
Examples of Computer Usage
What software is available for a small
office/home office (SOHO) user?
Productivity
software
Specialty
software
Web usage
E-mail
Make telephone
calls
Examples of Computer Usage
What is available for
a mobile user?
Hardware
Notebook computers

Software
Spreadsheet
Presentation graphics
software
Listening music
Transfer information
Examples of Computer Usage
What are the needs of a power user?
Speed and large amounts of storage
Usage
Working with multimedia
Use industry-specific software

Types of power users


Engineers
Scientists
Architects
Desktop publishers
Graphic artists
Examples of Computer Usage
What are the needs of the large business user?

Communicate among employees


Process high volumes of transactions
Blog
Computer Applications in Society
What are some examples
of computer applications
in society?
Education
Finance
Government
Healthcare
Science
Publishing
Travel
Industry