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NBC

RECONNAISSANCE

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TERMINAL LEARNING
OBJECTIVE
ACTION: Perform as a Member of a
Chemical/Biological Reconnaissance Team
CONDITIONS: In a Field Environment,
Organized into Chemical/Biological
Reconnaissance Teams, Given a HMMWV;
a Scenario; M256 TRAINS Kit; Protective
Mask with MOPP Ensemble; (cont)

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TERMINAL LEARNING
OBJECTIVE (Cont)
CONDITIONS Continued: an Expedient Sampling
Kit; the Requirement to Collect Samples from
Specific Sites & Mark the Contaminated Area;
Grease Pencil; Scenario to fill out each Marker;
FM 3-3; TM 3-6665-307-10; & TM 3-9905-001-
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STANDARD: Perform as a Member of a
Chemical/Biological Reconnaissance Team, IAW
FM 3-3, & Obtain a GO on the PE

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ENABLING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE A
ACTION: Identify Liquid Chemical Agents
Using M8 Detector Paper
CONDITIONS: Given a Booklet of M8
Paper, & a Situation Where You are at
Mission Oriented Protective Posture
(MOPP) Level 4, In an Area Where Liquid
Chemical Agents Have Been Used

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ENABLING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE A (Cont)

STANDARD: Detect & Identify the


Liquid Chemical Agent Contamination
without Contaminating Your Gloves,
& Report the Test Results to Your
Supervisor

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M8 DETECTOR PAPER

- Packed in a Plastic Bag Inside the Kit


- The Booklet Contains 25 Sheets Which
Detects the Presence of Liquid Nerve & Blister
Agents by Changing Color

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ENABLING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE B
ACTION: Identify Liquid Chemical Agents
Using M9 Detector Paper
CONDITIONS: Given a serviceable
dispenser of M9 detector paper, and a
situation where you are at Mission Oriented
Protective Posture (MOPP) Level 4, in an
area where liquid chemical agents have
been used.
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ENABLING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE B (Cont)

STANDARD:Detect and Identify the Liquid


Chemical Agent contamination without
contaminating your gloves and report the test
results to your supervisor.

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M9 DETECTOR PAPER

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ENABLING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE C
ACTION: Operate the M256/M256A1
Chemical Agent Detector
CONDITION: Given the M256/M256A1
Chemical Agent Detector Kit (with
Technical Manual), a Watch & a Situation
Where you are at MOPP Level 4 in a
Simulated Chemically Contaminated Area

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ENABLING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE C (Cont)

STANDARD: Detect & Identify Chemical


Agent Contamination by Performing all of
the Steps for Operating the M256/M256A1
Chemical Agent Detector Kit IAW TM 3-
6665-307-10 With 100% Accuracy

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FEATURES OF THE
M256/M256A1 CHEMICAL
AGENT DETECTOR KIT
The Purpose of the M256A1 Chemical
Agent Detector Kit is to Detect & Classify
Toxic Chemical Agents Present in Vapor or
Liquid Form
The Kit Will Detect the Presence of Nerve,
Blood, & Blister Agents Within 20 Minutes

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THE CARRYING CASE

M8 CHEMICAL AGENT OPERATIONAL


DETECTOR PAPER INSTRUCTION
CARDS

SAMPLER
DETECTORS SHOULDER
STRAP

TOP CASE

BOTTOM CASE

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THE CARRYING CASE
CONTINUED
IDENTIFICATION AND
INFORMATION DATA DETECTOR KIT
CHEMICAL AGENT

TOP CASE US
SEE LOT NO/DISCARD DATE LOCATED
FASTENER ON THE INDIVIDUAL SAMPLER BAGS

SHOULDER
STRAP

WAIST BELT
ATTACHMENT STRAP BOTTOM CASE

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THE SAMPLER-DETECTOR
HINGED PROTECTIVE STRIP BLISTER AGENT
(OPEN POSITION) TEST SPOT BLOOD AGENT
TEST SPOT

NERVE AGENT
TEST SPOT
HINGED
HEATER
ASSEMBLY PULL TAB TO EXPOSE
LEWISITE TABLET

BLISTER REAGENT
AMPOULES LEWISITE DETECTING
TABLET

BLOOD REAGENT
AMPOULES NERVE REAGENT
AMPOULES
LEWISITE TABLET
RUBBING TAB

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M8 DETECTOR PAPER

- Packed in a Plastic Bag Inside the Kit


- The Booklet Contains 25 Sheets Which
Detects the Presence of Liquid Nerve &
Blister Agents by Changing Color

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PREPARE THE M256/M256A1
KIT FOR USE
Follow All Warnings
Put on the Kit Placing the Shoulder Strap
Over Your Head and One Shoulder
Fasten the Kit to Your Belt
Open the Kit

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PREPARE THE M256/M256A1
KIT FOR USE (Cont)
Open the Kit
Read all Instructions
Remove one Sampler-Detector & Read the
Instructions
Discard the Sampler-Detector if Broken or
Missing Parts

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OPERATING M256/M256A1
(Cont)
HEATER

PADS

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OPERATING THE M256/M256A1
(Cont)

TAB

TAB

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OPERATING THE M256/M256A1
(Cont)

AMPOULES

TEST SPOTS

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OPERATING THE M256/M256A1
(Cont)
HEATER

PROTECTIVE
STRIP

FIRST HEATER
AMPOULE

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OPERATING THE M256/M256A1
(Cont)

HEATER

TEST SPOTS

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OPERATING THE M256/M256A1
(Cont)
TEST SPOT

SECOND HEATER
AMPOULE

TEST SPOT

HEATER

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OPERATING THE M256/M256A1
(Cont)
AMPOULES
MARKED 5

LEWISITE TAB
TABLET

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OPERATION UNDER UNUSUAL
CONDITIONS
Unusual Conditions are Defined as Cold Weather, a
Desert Environment, & Rain or Snow:
Temperatures Between +50F (10C) and +32F (0C)
Temperatures Between +32F (0C) and -25F (-32C)
Desert Conditions (High Temperature & No Humidity)
Tropic Conditions (High Temperature & Humidity)
Rain or Snow Conditions

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ENABLING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE D
ACTION: Perform as a Member of a
Chemical/Biological Reconnaissance Team
(Task can be Performed without a Prime Mover)
CONDITION: In a Field Environment, Given a
HMMWV or Similar Vehicle, NBC Surveying &
Monitoring Equipment, Pencil, Paper, Sandbags,
& a Mission to Conduct NBC
Reconnaissance
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ENABLING LEARNING
OBJECTIVE D (Cont)

STANDARD: Perform as a Member of a


Chemical/Biological Reconnaissance Team,
IAW FM 3-3 & FM 3-19, & Obtain a GO
on the Practical Exercise

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NBC RECON

PREPARATION FOR MISSION:


- Leader Will Plan for NBC Recon,
Considering the Mission Requirements.
(CHEM, BIO, RAD)
- Radiological Reconnaissance Requires
Operational Radiac Equipment, Filled
Sandbags, & DA Form 1971-R & 1971-1-R

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NBC RECON (Cont)

PREPARATION FOR MISSION:


Chemical Reconnaissance Requires
Chemical Agent Detector Equipment
(M8A1, M256, M8-M9 Paper)
Biological Reconnaissance Requires a
M272, M34 or CBASK or a Field
Expedient Kit

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NBC RECON (Cont)
Team is Briefed on the Mission:
Techniques to follows:
(1) Search (2) Survey
(3) Sampling (4) Surveillance
Patterns (Route, Zone, Area)
Reconnaissance Objective
Current Situation
Required Marking

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NBC RECON (Cont)
Ensure that PMCS is Performed on Your
Vehicle
Ensure that Equipment is Serviceable &
Operational
Ensure that MOPP Gear is Serviceable
Report Status of the Vehicle & Equipment,
to the Supervisor
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DETERMINE SAMPLING
PRIORITIES

Sampling Priority is Used to


Determine Which Samples Provide the
Best Indications of a Chemical/
Biological Attack

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FIRST PRIORITY

Is Given to Chemical/ Biological


Agents or Munitions Including
Residues or Fragments, NBC
Protective Equipment, in Particular
Used Respirator Canisters (or filters) &
Clothing

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SECOND PRIORITY

Is Given to Typical Samples from the


Environment (Vegetation, Earth,
Stones, Water, etc.) in the Vicinity of
the Alleged Attack or Incident

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THIRD PRIORITY

Is Given to Biomedical Samples, either


from Presumed Casualties (Samples
of Blood, Urine, etc.) or From Human
and/or Animal Remains

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SAMPLING

It Is Not Done Indiscriminately, but


Rather with a Definite Purpose as to
the Type and Quantity of the Sample

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SAMPLING (Cont)
Check for Standard Agents First Using
Detector Kit(s), etc
The Amount of Samples will Depend
Upon each Specific Case, However,
Adequate Amounts & Duplicates Will be
Taken
The Seven Basic Types of Samples & the
Recommended Quantities of Each are as
Follows:
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LIQUIDS
Liquids Such as Droplets on Vegetation,
Dark Stained Spots on the Ground,
Stagnant Pools, Containers of Liquid, &
Streams Where Dead Animals/Fish are
Seen. Collect 50 to 100ml of Water at the
Surface & at 25cm. These Samples Will
be Collected in Teflon Bottles or Plastic
Cups
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VEGETATION

Vegetation that is Discolored,


Withered, has Oily Droplets on it, or
That has Other Unnatural
Particulate. Collect a Minimum of 3
Leaves or 1 Handful of Grass

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SOIL
Soil That is Discolored or Contains Oily
Looking Spots. Soil, Sand, or Rocks in
the Direct Vicinity of Dissemination or at
Least Downwind Should be Collected.
Take a sample From 10cm x 10cm Area &
a Depth of 4cm, to Include Any Debris
Present. Stones of Moderate Size (about
0.5 - 2 cm.) Should be Selected

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SOIL SAMPLES
10CM

W
10CM

DOWN 4 CM

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ORDNANCE
Ordnance Such as Fragments, Whether
Originally from Shell, Bomb, Rocket,
Grenade, Spent Aircraft Spray Tanks or
Other Field Dispersal Systems. Collect
Fragments of Size Not to Exceed the
Packaging

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USED NBC EQIUPMENT

Used Personal Protective Equipment,


to Include Filters, Protective Mask,
Overgarments, & Detection Kits

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BIOMEDICAL
Biomedical Samples Such as
Chemical/Biological Exposure
Suspect, Human/Animal Remains, &
Small Animals Either Dead or Dying.
If the Organism is Small, Collect &
Ship the Entire Carcass

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PERMANENT STRUCTURES

Permanent or Very Large Structures or


Surfaces not Amenable to Portability
(Buildings, Walls, Paved Surfaces, Field
Vehicles, etc.) Should by Sampled by
Scrapping the Contaminated Surface
and/or Swabbing the Suspected Surface

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SAMPLING PROCEDURES

When Conducting Chemical/


Biological Sampling Operations,
the Team Will Be in MOPP4

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M34 OR CBASK KIT
Conduct Collection of Samples Using
the M34 Sampling Kit or the CBASK.
This Kit Contains Materials to Collect
Both Liquid and Solid/Soil Samples.
If These Kits are not Available
Assemble a Field Expedient Kit IAW
FM 3-19 or FM 3-3

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METHODS
Methods of Collecting Material Vary
with its Nature & Source, that is,
Living or Dead Tissue, Body
Secretions, Water, Soil, & Material
from Different Surfaces. They will
also Conform with SOPs & OPLANS,
& May Have Specific Guidance From
Intelligence and/or Medical Teams

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METHODS (Cont)
The Reconnaissance Unit will Collect Two
(2) Sets of Environmental Samples (such as
Liquid, Vegetation & Soil). The Primary
Sample will be From the Contaminated
Area. The Second Sample (Control Sample)
will be of the Same Type & Kind of Material
as the Primary Sample, but will be Taken
From an Uncontaminated Area

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METHODS (Cont)

The Sample Collected Must be


Placed in the Appropriate
Container and Labeled IAW FM
3-19 or FM 3-3

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PACKAGING AND LABELING
Place the Sample in a Mylar or Zip-lock
Plastic Bag. Press Excess air From the bag &
Seal the bag. Gently Roll/Fold the Excess bag
Around the Sample & Secure With Tape.
Liquid Samples Will be Collected in Teflon
Bottles, Decon the Exterior of the Package
(Plastic or Mylar bag, Teflon Bottle, Glass jar
with lid, etc.) With M258A1 Kit

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SAMPLE ID #
Mark Package/Sample with Sample ID Number
Consisting of the Following:
Two Letter Code for the Country Where Sample
was Collected
Date-time Group
Sample Sequence Number (Ex. 001, 002, 003, etc.)
Name of Collector or Unit Identification Code
(UIC)
For Example: US-1OOOZ 26Feb99-OO2-4WK9ZA

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SAMPLE DATA SHEET

Complete a Sample Data Sheet, Using


the Same Sample ID Number as on the
Sample. The Data Sheet Should
Contain a Minimum of the Date and
Time of the Attack, Location of the
Sample (Six Digit Grid Coordinates),

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SAMPLE DATA SHEET
(Cont)

Description of the Sample, Unit


Identification Code, Details of
Collection, Symptoms of Casualties if
any), & any Pertinent Information
Include this Sheet with the Sample

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PACKAGING
Place the Zip-Lock or Mylar Plastic
Bag into another Plastic Bag, Remove
Excess Air and Twist the Neck of the
Bag Until it Forms a Tight Coil (There
Should be no air Pockets). Make a
Gooseneck in the Bag or use Duck
tape). Mark Bag with Identification
Number(s) of the Samples Contained
in the Inner Bag

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MARKING
Position the Marker so That the
Recorded Information Faces Away
From the Area of Contamination and
the Marker can be Easily Seen
Attach the Markers to Objects, Such as
Trees or Poles, so That They will be
Easily Visible From all Probable
Routes Through the Contaminated
Area

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MARKING (Cont)

Place Each Marker so that the Next


one can be Seen from the one Just
Emplaced
For Radiological Contamination Place
the Markers at the Location Where the
Dose Rate is Measured at 1 Centigray
per Hour or More

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GAS
Chemical Contamination.
Prepare a Marker Labeled GAS:
Print all Information on the Front Side of
the Marker so that the Word GAS is
Facing Toward you in an Upright Position
Print the Type of Agent Detected
Print the Date and Time (Local or Zulu) of
Attack Beneath the Type of Agent
Detected

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MOVEMENT TECHNIQUES

Traveling:
Use When Enemy Contact is Not
Likely
Unit Moves in Column With a 50
Meter Interval
Security is Minimal
Fastest Movement Technique

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TRAVELING OVERWATCH
Traveling Overwatch:
Use When Enemy Contact is Likely/Possible
Vehicles Maintain Constant Eye Contact (Visual
Contact)
The Trail Element Moves at Varying Speeds &
Overwatches the Lead Element at all Times

TEAM 2 TEAM 1
50 M 50 M

TEAM 3

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BOUNDING OVERWATCH
Use When Enemy Contact is Expected
Vehicles Move in Bounds From Cover to
Cover with the Trail Vehicle Providing
Security
Trail Vehicle can Constantly see the Lead
Vehicle
Only one Half of the Vehicles are to Move
at any one Time

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BOUNDING OVERWATCH
(Cont)
Unit Moves in Staggered Column With
a 50 - 100 Meter Interval
Either vehicle can alternate taking the
lead position
Or the second vehicle stops roughly
parallel to the lead vehicle letting the
lead vehicle bound forward again

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NBC ROUTE RECON
A Directed Effort to Obtain Detailed
info About Specific Terrain Along a
Specific Route
Used When a Likelihood of Finding
Contamination on:
- Primary Travel Routes
- Main Supply Routes (MSR)
- Movement Route (Mobility
Corridor)
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NBC ROUTE RECON (Cont)
Movement Technique Is Determined by the
Patrol Leader Based on Likelihood of Enemy
Contact
Critical Task During A NBC Route Recon
Recon the Route & Determine the Location of
contamination
Locate & Mark Clean By Pass Routes
Report & Mark All NBC Hazards

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CONTROL MEASURES

Examples of Control Measures Used


During NBC Recons
Line of Departure (LD)
Phase Line (PL)
Coordinating Points
Check Points

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ACTIONS ON CONTACT
Avoid Contact With Enemy Forces
Whenever Possible. Fight Only in Self
Defense
Develop the situation Rapidly When
Contact is Unavoidable
Deploy & Report
Reconnoiter
Choose a Course of Action (COA)
Report

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NBC AREA RECON

Directed Effort to Obtain Specific Info


on a Specific Area. A Specialized Form
of Zone Recon
Performed After a Reported NBC
Attack to Locate Actual Area of Attack

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NBC AREA RECON (Cont)
Movement Technique is Determined by
the Patrol Leader Based on the Likelihood
of Enemy Contact
Critical Task During a NBC Area Recon
Recon all the Terrain Within the Area
Locate & Mark Clean By-Pass Routes &
Identified Contaminated Areas
Report all Information

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NBC AREA RECON CONTROL
MEASURES
Examples of Control Measures Used
During NBC Recons
Line of Departure (LD)
Phase Line (PL)
Coordinating Points
Check Points

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ACTIONS ON CONTACT
Avoid Contact With Enemy Forces
Whenever Possible. Fight Only in Self
Defense
Develop the situation Rapidly When
Contact is Unavoidable
Deploy & Report
Reconnoiter
Choose a Course of Action (COA)
Report

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NBC RECON
TECHNIQUES

NBC Search
NBC Survey
NBC Sampling

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NBC ZONE RECON
A Directed Effort to obtain Detailed
Info on NBC Hazards Within a
Specified Zone
A NBC Zone Recon Is Appropriate
When Previous Knowledge of the
Zone is Limited & There are
Indications or Reports of NBC Hazards

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NBC ZONE RECON (Cont)

It is a Deliberate, Time Consuming


Process That Requires a Large
Expenditure of Resources
Movement Technique is Determined
by the Patrol Leader Based on the
Likelihood of Enemy Contact

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NBC ZONE RECON (Cont)
Critical Task During a NBC Zone Recon:
Recon all Terrain Within the Zone for
Contamination
Locate all Previously Reported NBC Attack
Areas & Determine If Hazards Still Exists
Locate all Possible Contamination Within
the Zone

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NBC ZONE RECON (Cont)
Critical Task During a NBC Zone Recon:
(Continued)
Check all Water Sources for Contamination
Locate all Commercial Chemical or Nuclear
Facilities
Report all Information
Mark all Contamination
Locate & Mark Routes to By-Pass
Contamination

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NBC ZONE RECON
CONTROL MEASURES
Examples of Control Measures Used
During NBC Recons:
Line of Departure (LD)
Phase Line (PL)
Coordinating Points
Check Points

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ACTIONS ON CONTACT
Avoid Contact With Enemy Forces
Whenever Possible. Fight Only in Self
Defense
Develop the situation Rapidly When
Contact is Unavoidable
Deploy & Report
Reconnoiter
Choose a Course of Action (COA)
Report

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NBC ZONE RECON
TECHNIQUES
Search Techniques are Used During NBC
Route, Area, & Zone Recon Missions
Search Techniques That can be Employed:
Zig-Zag
Lane
Clover-Leaf

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NBC ZONE RECON
TECHNIQUES (Cont)
Survey Techniques can be Employed
Once Contamination is Located
3 Types of Survey Techniques
Employed:
Near Side-Far Side
Box
Star

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NBC ZONE RECON
TECHNIQUES (Cont)

NBC Surveillance is the Systematic


Observations of a Specific Area for
Indications of a NBC Attack
Observation Post (OP)
Routine Patrols

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FOX (M93)
Fox Capabilities
ID on the Move
Overpressurized
Detects & Identifies 60 Known Chemical
Agents
Marks Area Without Exposing the Crew
Air Conditioned

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FOX (M93)
Fox Capabilities (Continued)
VOS25/GPS
Fast
Swims
M240E1 Machine Gun & M250 Smoke
Grenade Launcher
Winch
4 AT- 4s

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FOX Phase III
Fox Phase III Capabilities
Digital Communications
M21
MET Station
Automatic Sampling Wheels
Commanders Display Unit

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FOX (M93)
Fox Limitations
Maintenance
Self Defense
Fratricide
Thin Skin
MM1 Takes 15-20 Minutes to Warm Up

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