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PROCESS DESIGN

How to Make?

Text Chapter 7 (mainly)


THE MEANING OF PROCESS
A collection of (linked) activities, with
equipment, methods, people, and systems used
together to convert the inputs to the products/
service outputs required.

A broader interpretation than merely based on


physical material (Conversion, Fabrication,
Assembly, Inspection, Testing etc.)

Often run across multiple work-areas,


departments, or other organisational entities
Sample Processes ..
.. Sample Processes
BALANCING PROCESS PERSPECTIVES

Technical Specialists Perspectives:


Process/ Methods Engineer
Equipment and Tooling Manufacturers

(Operations) Managers Perspectives:


A means of achieving the output goals for the
product/ service (output may be more than just
meeting the quantity targets)
RANGE OF TECHNOLOGY CHOICES

Manual General Purpose

Mechanized Special Purpose

Automated
Fixed/ Hard automation
Flexible/ Programmable
automation
Managerial Assessment of Processes

Mechanics
Economics
Flow, Capacity and Bottlenecks
Yield and Quality
Uncertainties
Pre-requisites and Constraints
GENERIC PROCESS TYPES
Job Shop (Jumbled Flow):
For making a wide variety of products, each
requiring varying processing, in low volumes

Batch Production (Disconnected Flow):


A process structure for producing a moderate
variety of products, with somewhat similar
processing, in medium volumes (batches)
Generic Process Types
Production Line (Connected Flow):
For making identical products using dedicated
workstations at a controlled flow rate

Continuous Flow:
An often automated process structure that
converts raw materials into finished
undifferentiated products with continuous
processing and movement
The Product Process Matrix
THE PRODUCT PROCESS MATRIX

Authored by Hayes & Wheelwright, HBS (1979)


to help matching the process type with the
product-market characteristics

Just as the product and market pass through a


series of major stages, so does/ should the
process used in the manufacture of the product

Refer Figure 7.1 in text (not quite identical)


The Product Few High
Process Low Multiple Major Volume,
Matrix Volume, Products, Products, High
(original) One of a Low Higher Standard-
Kind Volume Volume ization
I. Commercial Flexibility (High)
Job Printer; Unit Cost (High)
Shop French Restaurant
These are
the major
II. Medium stages of
Batch Equipment
product and
process life
III.
Automobile cycles
Assembly
Assembly;
Line Burger King
IV.
Sugar
Continuous Refinery Flexibility (Low)
Flow Unit Cost (Low)
Process, Volume, and Variety
Text Fig. 7.1 Volume
Low Repetitive High
Volume Process Volume
High Variety
one or few Process Focus Mass Customization
units per run, projects, job shops (difficult to achieve,
high variety (machine, print, but huge rewards)
(allows carpentry) Dell Computer
customization) Standard Register
Changes in
Modules
modest runs,
standardized Repetitive
modules (autos, motorcycles)
Harley-Davidson
Changes in
Attributes Product Focus
(such as grade, (commercial
quality, size, Poor Strategy baked goods,
thickness, etc.) (Both fixed and steel, glass)
long runs only variable costs Nucor Steel
are high)