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Heat and Mass Transfer

Review

Nam Sun Wang


Process Engineering Economics and Design II
Cortez Fisher Megan Fretz Sean Roth Steven Acuna

1
Heat Transfer Introduction
Heat transfer (or heat) is thermal energy in transit due to a spatial
temperature difference
Three types of heat transfer processes
Convection
Conduction
Radiation

Types of process heating systems

Steam

Fire Heaters

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Analogies between Fluids and Heat Transfer Mechanisms
- Conduction is analogous to the classical fluids illustration of a layer by layer
movement between a static plate and a moving plate

- We can therefore think of conduction analogous to a frying pan where heat gets
conducted from the heat source to the pan, to ultimately the food (i.e. layer by
layer)
3
Analogies between Fluids and Heat Transfer Mechanisms

Convection is more analogous to the classical fluids example of fluid being driven
by a pressure gradient (where P1 > P2)
P1 P2

We can then think of convection as bulk movement by bulk flow


4
Conduction
Conduction is the process in which heat is transferred
directly through a substance when there is a difference
in temperature

Example: The handle of a metal spoon becomes hot


after sitting in hot coffee
Conduction
Follows Fouriers Law:

where Q is the amount of heat transfer, k is a thermal conductivity, A is area


T is the difference in temperature, and L is material thickness
Conduction

This process occurs mainly in solid materials.

Materials with higher k values are more


conductive, while materials with lower k
values are more insulating.
Conduction

Temperature profile over two walls made of different materials


Convection
Heat transfer that occurs between a surface and a moving fluid when the two mediums
are at different temperatures
Energy Transfer Mechanisms
Random molecular motion (diffusion)

Macroscopic motion of fluid

Radiation

Types of Convection
Forced

Free/Natural

Examples
Hot plate to bring water to a boil

Hot air balloon


9
Convection Examples
Convection
Convection Rate Equation:

Q positive if heat is transferred from surface

h depends on conditions in boundary layer


Surface geometry

Nature of fluid motion

Fluid Transport Properties

Thermodynamic properties

Typical Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients:


Convection Boundary Layers
Convective Boundary Layer Equations
Radiation
Radiation is energy emitted from matter in the
form of rays or waves.

Unlike conduction and convection it does not


require the presence of a material medium.

Example: Heat emissions felt on ones hands during


a campfire.
Radiation
- Radiation emitted by a surface is a function of the thermal energy of
matter and the rate of energy released per unit surface area (W/m2).
derived from the Stefan-Boltzmann Law
- The upper limit of Emissive Power is coined as the ideal radiator or
blackbody EB

TS is the absolute temperature of the surface (K)


EB=TS4 is the Stefan-Boltzman constant (5.67x10-8 W/m2*K4)

- Not all radiation is an ideal radiator and as such we add a limiting


coefficient such that
E=TS4
is the emissivity coefficient from 0 to 1, and varies depends on material
Radiation
- The rate of irradiation (i.e. rate of radiation on
the surface) can be designated as G
- Absorption of radiation increases the thermal
energy of the absorbing material
- Not all radiation is absorbed, we thus include
a limiting coefficient such that
Gabs=G
G is the rate of irradiation
Gabs is the irradiation absorbed
is the absorptivity coefficient bounded from 0 to 1

- It is important to know that depends on the


surface of the material and the source of
radiation into such material
Radiation
The net rate of radiation heat transfer from the
surface becomes;

qrad= q/A=Bb(Ts)-G = (TS4-TSur4)

In real world situations we simultaneously put


heat transfer along with radiation such that the
total rate of heat transfer from the surface
becomes:

q=qconv+qrad=hA(Ts-T)+(TS4-TSur4)
Boundary Conditions
Most Common Boundary Conditions:

Constant Surface Temperature


Constant Surface Heat Flux
Convective Surface Condition
One-Dimensional Steady State Heat
Conduction with no Heat Gen.
Constant Surface Temperature One-Dimensional Steady State Heat Conduction with no
Heat Gen.

where k is constant
Constant Surface Flux

S
Adiabatic = no heat flux

Convective Surface Condition


We can use heat equations and boundary conditions to determine
temperature profile
Case 1 (for conduction): Case 2 (for conduction):
BC 1: x=0, T =Ts1 BC 1: x=0, T =Ts
BC 2: x=L, T=Ts2
BC 2: x=L,
Based on , by BC 1
Based on , by BC 1

Based on BC 2
Based on BC 2

Hence,
Therefore,
Heat Transfer among Varying Shapes

SA= 2(ab+ac+bc) SA=2rh+2r2 SA= 4r2

V=abc V= r2h V=(4/3)r3


Conclusion
As chemical engineers we are to understand the
fundamentals of heat transfer so that we can apply
them to engineering processes such as:

- Heat Exchangers
- Distillation Columns
- Maintaining Desired Reactor Temperatures
- Designing novelty Insulating Materials

Understanding these processes allows us to better


design and maximize the parameters of these applications
to ensure desired results.
Works Cited
Bergman, Theodore L., et al. Fundamentals of heat
and mass transfer. John Wiley & Sons, 2011

Transport phenomena, R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart,


and E. N. Lightfoot, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New
York (1960).
http://www.auburn.edu/academic/forestry_wildlife/fi
re/heat_transfer.html
http://www.geek.com/news/2200f-space-shuttle-
heat-tiles-wont-burn-your-bare-hands-1559855/