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# Heat and Mass Transfer

Review

## Nam Sun Wang

Process Engineering Economics and Design II
Cortez Fisher Megan Fretz Sean Roth Steven Acuna

1
Heat Transfer Introduction
Heat transfer (or heat) is thermal energy in transit due to a spatial
temperature difference
Three types of heat transfer processes
Convection
Conduction

## Types of process heating systems

Steam

Fire Heaters

2
Analogies between Fluids and Heat Transfer Mechanisms
- Conduction is analogous to the classical fluids illustration of a layer by layer
movement between a static plate and a moving plate

- We can therefore think of conduction analogous to a frying pan where heat gets
conducted from the heat source to the pan, to ultimately the food (i.e. layer by
layer)
3
Analogies between Fluids and Heat Transfer Mechanisms

Convection is more analogous to the classical fluids example of fluid being driven
by a pressure gradient (where P1 > P2)
P1 P2

## We can then think of convection as bulk movement by bulk flow

4
Conduction
Conduction is the process in which heat is transferred
directly through a substance when there is a difference
in temperature

## Example: The handle of a metal spoon becomes hot

after sitting in hot coffee
Conduction
Follows Fouriers Law:

## where Q is the amount of heat transfer, k is a thermal conductivity, A is area

T is the difference in temperature, and L is material thickness
Conduction

## Materials with higher k values are more

conductive, while materials with lower k
values are more insulating.
Conduction

## Temperature profile over two walls made of different materials

Convection
Heat transfer that occurs between a surface and a moving fluid when the two mediums
are at different temperatures
Energy Transfer Mechanisms
Random molecular motion (diffusion)

## Macroscopic motion of fluid

Types of Convection
Forced

Free/Natural

Examples
Hot plate to bring water to a boil

## Hot air balloon

9
Convection Examples
Convection
Convection Rate Equation:

Surface geometry

## Fluid Transport Properties

Thermodynamic properties

## Typical Convection Heat Transfer Coefficients:

Convection Boundary Layers
Convective Boundary Layer Equations
Radiation is energy emitted from matter in the
form of rays or waves.

## Unlike conduction and convection it does not

require the presence of a material medium.

## Example: Heat emissions felt on ones hands during

a campfire.
- Radiation emitted by a surface is a function of the thermal energy of
matter and the rate of energy released per unit surface area (W/m2).
derived from the Stefan-Boltzmann Law
- The upper limit of Emissive Power is coined as the ideal radiator or
blackbody EB

## TS is the absolute temperature of the surface (K)

EB=TS4 is the Stefan-Boltzman constant (5.67x10-8 W/m2*K4)

coefficient such that
E=TS4
is the emissivity coefficient from 0 to 1, and varies depends on material
the surface) can be designated as G
- Absorption of radiation increases the thermal
energy of the absorbing material
- Not all radiation is absorbed, we thus include
a limiting coefficient such that
Gabs=G
G is the rate of irradiation
is the absorptivity coefficient bounded from 0 to 1

## - It is important to know that depends on the

surface of the material and the source of
The net rate of radiation heat transfer from the
surface becomes;

## In real world situations we simultaneously put

heat transfer along with radiation such that the
total rate of heat transfer from the surface
becomes:

Boundary Conditions
Most Common Boundary Conditions:

## Constant Surface Temperature

Constant Surface Heat Flux
Convective Surface Condition
Conduction with no Heat Gen.
Constant Surface Temperature One-Dimensional Steady State Heat Conduction with no
Heat Gen.

where k is constant
Constant Surface Flux

S

## Convective Surface Condition

We can use heat equations and boundary conditions to determine
temperature profile
Case 1 (for conduction): Case 2 (for conduction):
BC 1: x=0, T =Ts1 BC 1: x=0, T =Ts
BC 2: x=L, T=Ts2
BC 2: x=L,
Based on , by BC 1
Based on , by BC 1

Based on BC 2
Based on BC 2

Hence,
Therefore,
Heat Transfer among Varying Shapes

## V=abc V= r2h V=(4/3)r3

Conclusion
As chemical engineers we are to understand the
fundamentals of heat transfer so that we can apply
them to engineering processes such as:

- Heat Exchangers
- Distillation Columns
- Maintaining Desired Reactor Temperatures
- Designing novelty Insulating Materials

## Understanding these processes allows us to better

design and maximize the parameters of these applications
to ensure desired results.
Works Cited
Bergman, Theodore L., et al. Fundamentals of heat
and mass transfer. John Wiley & Sons, 2011

## Transport phenomena, R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart,

and E. N. Lightfoot, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New
York (1960).