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Economic Plantwide Control:


Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a
Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process
Vladimiros Minasidis, Johannes Jschke and
Sigurd Skogestad
Department of Chemical Engineering,
Trondheim, Norway

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Outline
Introduction
Economic Plantwide Control
Case study - RSR process
Conclusions and future work

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Introduction
Most industrial process control strategies are not
designed to optimally handle frequent market
conditions changes.

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Introduction
Most industrial process control strategies are not
designed to optimally handle frequent market
conditions changes.
Integration between process optimization and control
is needed to reduce the production cost

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Introduction
Industry adapts simple control strategies that are
easily understood by the operators and engineers.

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Introduction
Industry adapts simple control strategies that are
easily understood by the operators and engineers.
Essential characteristics:
1. It has to be fairly simple
2. It has to be able to keep the process operation close-to-optimal
while satisfying the operational constraints
3. It has to be easily designed

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Introduction
Industry adapts simple control strategies that are
easily understood by the operators and engineers.
Essential characteristics:
1. It has to be fairly simple
2. It has to be able to keep the process operation close-to-optimal
while satisfying the operational constraints
3. It has to be easily designed.
Economic plantwide control can be used to design
control structures that satisfy the first two
characteristics

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Economic Plantwide Control


Formulate the economic operation as a mathematical
optimization problem and then design a control structure
that results in a close-to-optimal operation while satisfying
the stability and robustness requirements.

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Economic Plantwide Control


Formulate the economic operation as a mathematical
optimization problem and then design a control structure that
results in a close-to-optimal operation while satisfying the
stability and robustness requirements.

Top-down part:
Aims to find an optimal control structure
based on plant steady state economics

Bottom-up part:
Aims to find a simple and robust
regulatory control

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Economic Plantwide Control


Steps from top-down part of plantwide control design
procedure:
1. Define the operational objectives (economics) and
constraints.

Details in [Skogestad, 2012]


V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process
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Economic Plantwide Control


Steps from top-down part of plantwide control design
procedure:
1. Define the operational objectives (economics) and
constraints.
2. Determine the steady state optimal operation:
a) Identify the steady-state DOFs
b) Identify the important disturbances and their expected
range
c) Identify the expected active constrains regions

Details in [Skogestad, 2012]


V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process
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Economic Plantwide Control


Steps from top-down part of plantwide control design
procedure:
1. Define the operational objectives (economics) and
constraints.
2. Determine the steady state optimal operation:
a) Identify the steady-state DOFs
b) Identify the important disturbances and their expected
range
c) Identify the expected active constrains regions
3. Select primary (economic) controlled variables:
a) Control the active constraints
b) Select self-optimizing CVs
Details in [Skogestad, 2012]
V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process
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PC

Process description
PI
LC
CSTR MD
P
XD
1st order kinetics L
R D
A B
A 2C (undesired)
F0
XF

S
MR
F
FC V
TI FI
TR
MB

LC XB
B

Details can be found in Jacobsen et. al, [2011]

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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PC

Process description
PI
LC
CSTR MD
P
XD
1st order kinetics L
R D
A B
A 2C (undesired)
F0
XF

Column
S
30 stages MR
F
LV - configuration FC V
TI FI
TR
Assumptions: MB
Constant relative volatilities
Constant molar overflows
Constant pressure LC
B
XB

Details can be found in Jacobsen et. al, [2011]

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Economic Plantwide Control

Step 1:
Define the operational objectives (economics) and
constraints.

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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PC

Step 1:
PI
LC

Cost function: steam cost


P
MD
XD
J pF F0 pV V pP P pB B R D L

cost feed value products

F0
XF

S
MR
F
FC V
TI FI
TR
MB

LC XB
B

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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PC

Step 1:
PI
LC

Cost function: steam cost


P
MD
XD
J pF F0 pV V pP P pB B R D L

cost feed value products

F0
[ pF , pV , pP , pB ] [1, 0.01, 0.5, 2] XF

prices in $/kmol
S
MR
F
FC V
TI FI
TR
MB

LC XB
B

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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PC

Step 1:
PI
LC

Cost function: steam cost


P
MD
XD
J pF F0 pV V pP P pB B R D L

cost feed value products

F0
[ pF , pV , pP , pB ] [1, 0.01, 0.5, 2] XF

prices in $/kmol
S
MR
F
FC V
TI FI
TR
Operational constraints*: MB
xB , B 0.9 TR 390 K
M R 11000 mol V 30 mol/s LC XB
B
R 0 mol/s

*values are based on the work of Jacobsen et. al, [2011]

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Economic Plantwide Control

Step 2:
Determine the steady state optimal operation:
a) Identify the steady-state DOFs
b) Identify the important disturbances and their expected
range
c) Identify the expected active constrains regions

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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PC

Step 2a:
PI
LC

Degrees of freedom: P
MD
XD

Steady state degrees of freedom: D L


R
uSS [ L,V , F , R, S ]
F0
XF

S
MR
F
FC V
TI FI
TR
MB

LC XB
B

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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PC

Step 2b:
PI
LC

Degrees of freedom: P
MD
XD

Steady state degrees of freedom: D L


R
uSS [ L,V , F , R, S ]
F0
XF

Disturbances
S
MR
Main disturbances: F
FC V
Feed flow TR
TI FI

Energy price
MB
d [ F0 , pV ]
Expected disturbance range 30% LC XB
B

V. Minasidis et al, Systematic controlled variable selection for a RSR process


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Step 2c:
Always active:
xB , B , TR , M R
Remaining
active constraints regions:
(I ) R
(II )
(III ) V
(IV ) V , R
(V ) Infeasible Operational constraints:

Maximum number of xB , B 0.9 TR 390 K


active constraint regions M R 11000 mol V 30 mol/s
ncon R 0 mol/s
2
V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process
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Step 2c:
Always active:
xB , B , TR , M R
Remaining
active constraints regions:
(I ) R
(II )
(III ) V
(IV ) V , R
(V ) Infeasible Operational constraints:
xB , B 0.9 TR 390 K
Operating point M R 11000 mol V 30 mol/s
R 0 mol/s

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Economic Plantwide Control

Step 3:
Select primary (economic) controlled variables:
a) Control the active constraints
b) Select the self-optimizing variables

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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PC

Step 3a:
PI
LC

An optimal operational point: P


MD
XD

F0,nom 0.8 [kmol/s] R D L

pV ,nom 0.06 [$/kmol]


F0 LC
XF
Active constraints:
xB , B , TR , M R , R S
MR
F
FC V
TI
Steady-state DOFs: TC
FI CC

TR
uSS [ L, V , F , R, S ] MB

Active constraints pairings (input, output): LC


B
XB

(V , xB , B ) ( S , TR ) ( F , M R ) ( R, Closedvalve)

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Economic Plantwide Control

Step 3:
Select primary (economic) controlled variables:
a) Control the active constraints
b) Select the self-optimizing variables

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Self-optimizing CVs
Linearized model
y G y u Gdy d
c HG y u HGdy d

Setpoint control
c cS H y 0
Feedback implementation of optimal
operation with separate layers for
optimization (RTO) and control

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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PC

Available measurements
PI
LC

MD
P
Candidate measurements (y): XD

D L
R
Compositions (noise 0.01):
xB , D , xB , B , xB , F
F0 LC
XF
Input flows (noise 10%):
S
L,V , D, B, F , F0 , R, P MR
F
Reactor level (noise 100 mol): TI
FC
FI
V
CC

MR TC
TR
MB
Column and reactor temperatures (noise 1 K):
T1 , T5 , T9 , T13 , T17 , T21 , T25 , T30 , TR LC XB
B

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Self-optimizing CVs selection


Combination of measurements based on Nullspace
method [Alstad et. Al, 2009]
Analytical solution using all the measurements based
on the Exact Local method [Halvorsen, 2003]
Individual or combination of measurements based on
Branch&Bound method [Kariwala et. al, 2008]
Individual or combination of measurements with
structural constraints based on MIQP formulation
[Yelchuru et. al, 2011]

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Self optimizing CVs selection


Remaining DOFs for Self-optimizing control:
uSS [ L]
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Self optimizing CVs selection


Remaining DOFs for Self-optimizing control:
uSS [ L]

Nullspace method [Alstad et. al, 2009]


H N (F T )
where N - nullspace
F - optimal sensitivity to disturbances

y opt
Need to estimate : F
d

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Self optimizing CVs selection


Remaining DOFs for Self-optimizing control:
uSS [ L]

Select the self-optimizing CV for L based on the


analytical solution [Yelchuru et al, 2011]:

H T (YY T )1 G y Q Scaled disturbances


where Y [ FWd Wn ] and noise
Q - any non singular matrix of n n d Wd d '
c c
n y Wn y n y
y opt y
Need to estimate : F and G y
d u

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Performance comparisson

Relative loss
J (u, d ) J opt (d )
LRel
J opt (d )

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Conclusions
Automated economic CVs selection could be
considered a successful first step for automating the
entire procedure
Integration of Economic Plantwide Control design
procedure in to popular process simulators could
potentially improve the production costs on a global
scale

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Future Work
Handling active constraint changes
Finding a single control structure over multiple active
constraints regions with an acceptable loss
Using the information from the active constraint maps
to estimate G y , Gdy , J uu

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process


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Future Work
Handling active constraint changes
Finding a single control structure over multiple active
constraints regions with an acceptable loss
Using the information from the active constraint maps
to estimate G y , Gdy , J uu

Thank you !

V. Minasidis et al, Automated Controlled Variable Selection for a Reactor-Separator-Recycle Process