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MIT SOLAR DECATHLON

PV TECHNOLOGY FOUNDAMENTALS
PV MANUFACTURERS

POWER SUPPLY GROUP/PRESENTATION MARCH 06

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SOLAR POWER OVERVIEW 2


PV TECHNOLOGY BASICS 3-13
PV MANUFACTURES-PROFILES 14-24
AVAILABLE SOLAR PANELS 26-50
PV PERIPHERALS 51
THE FUTURE
NANOCRYSTALLINE SOLAR CELLS 52-64
GENERAL OVERVIEW

PV was recognized as an important source of space power in


the 1950s,

Terrestrial PV development began in response to the 1970s


oil crises.

Concern for the environment, as well as global efforts to seek


indigenous sources of energy, drives the investment in PV
research and deployment.

Today, PV is a several-billion-dollar industry worldwide, with


more than 520 MW of PV modules shipped in 2002.

These include large, multi-megawatt installations feeding into


the utility grid, kilowatt rooftop systems supplying power to a
home or business, and single 50- or 100-W PV modules on
homes in developing countries.

. Photovoltaic research progresses rapidly from the lab to the market.


By Lawrence Kazmerski and Thomas Surek,
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
PV technology basics
Solar cells are semiconductor devices
that produce electricity from sunlight via the photovoltaic effect.

Sunlight strikes the cell, photons with energy above the


semiconductor bandgap impart enough energy to create
How PV Cells Work electron-hole pairs.

A junction between dissimilarly doped semiconductor layers sets


up a potential barrier in the cell, which separates the light-
A typical silicon PV cell is composed of a generated charge carriers.
thin wafer consisting of an ultra-thin layer of
phosphorus-doped (N-type) silicon on top of This separation induces a fixed electric current and voltage in the
a thicker layer of boron-doped (P-type) device. The electricity is collected and transported by metallic
silicon. contacts on the top and bottom surfaces of
the cell.
An electrical field is created near the top
surface of the cell where these two materials
are in contact, called the
P-N junction.

When sunlight strikes the surface of a PV cell,


this electrical field provides momentum and
direction to light-stimulated electrons, resulting
in a flow of current when the solar cell is
connected to an electrical load

Diagram of photovoltaic cell.


PV technology basics
Applicable semiconductor materials> Cell Efficiencies
silicon (Si),
gallium arsenide (GaAs),
cadmium telluride (CdTe),
copper indium diselenide (CIS),
hydrogenated amorphous silicon.

There are significant differences between the best performance and the theoretically predicted value for each
material; closing these gaps is the subject of ongoing research (see figure).
PV technology basics

In the case of a single-junction device, the PV Cells, Modules, & Arrays


efficiency of the solar cell, the ratio of the
power produced, and the incident light
power are limited.

Photons with energies below the bandgap of


the material produce only heat. Excess
energy above that needed to generate
electron-hole pairs also produces heat.

A multijunction device, in which two or


more solar cells are stacked on top of
each other, can exploit different portions
of the solar spectrum.

For example, a four-junction device with


bandgaps of 1.8, 1.4, 1.0, and 0.7 electron Photovoltaic cells are connected electrically in series and/or parallel
volts (eV) results in a theoretical efficiency of circuits to produce higher voltages, currents and power levels.
more than 52%.
Photovoltaic modules consist of PV cell circuits sealed in an
The multijunction approach, however, environmentally protective laminate, and are the fundamental
presents significant challenges in both building block of PV systems.
materials preparation and device design.
Photovoltaic panels include one or more PV modules assembled
as a pre-wired, field-installable unit. A photovoltaic array is the
complete power-generating unit, consisting of any number of PV
modules and panels.
PV technology basics
How a PV System Works

PV systems are like any other electrical power generating systems, just the equipment used is different than that used
for conventional electromechanical generating systems.

Depending on the functional and operational requirements of the system,


the specific components required, and may include major components
DC-AC power inverter,
battery bank,
system and battery controller,
auxiliary energy sources
and sometimes the specified electrical load (appliances).

In addition, an assortment of balance of system (BOS) hardware,


Including wiring, overcurrent, surge protection and disconnect
devices, and other power processing equipment.
PV technology basics
Why Are Batteries Used in Some PV Systems?
Batteries are often used in PV systems for the purpose of storing energy
produced by the PV array during the day, and to supply it to electrical loads
as needed (during the night and periods of cloudy weather).

Other reasons batteries are used in PV systems are to operate the PV array
near its maximum power point, to power electrical loads at stable voltages,
and to supply surge currents to electrical loads and inverters.

In most cases, a battery charge controller is used in these systems to protect


the battery from overcharge and overdischarge.

In many stand-alone PV
systems, batteries are used
for energy storage. Figure
shows a diagram of a typical
stand-alone PV system
powering DC and AC loads

Diagram of stand-alone PV system


with battery storage powering DC and AC loads.
PV technology basics

Types of PV Systems
How Are Photovoltaic Systems Classified?

Photovoltaic power systems are generally


classified according to:
functional and operational
requirements,

component configurations,

how the equipment is


connected to other power
sources and electrical
loads.

The two principle classifications are


grid-connected or utility-
interactive systems
stand-alone systems.

Photovoltaic systems can be designed to


provide DC and/or AC power service, can
operate interconnected with or independent
of the utility grid, and can be connected
with other energy sources and energy Diagram of grid-connected photovoltaic system
storage systems.1.7.1 Grid-Connected
(Utility-Interactive) PV Systems.
PV technology basics

photovoltaic hybrid system.

Stand-alone PV systems are


designed to operate independent of
the electric utility grid, and are
generally designed and sized to
supply certain DC and/or AC electrical
loads.

These types of systems may be


powered by a PV array only, or may
use wind, an engine-generator or
utility power as an auxiliary power
source in what is called a PV-hybrid
system.
PV technology basics

The simplest type of stand-alone PV system is a direct-coupled system, where the DC


output of a PV module or array is directly connected to a DC load

Since there is no electrical energy storage (batteries) in direct-coupled systems, the load
only operates during sunlight hours, making these designs suitable for common
applications such as ventilation fans, water pumps, and small circulation pumps for solar
thermal water heating systems.

Matching the impedance of the electrical load to the maximum power output of the PV array
is a critical part of designing well-performing direct-coupled system.

For certain loads such as positive-displacement water pumps, a type of electronic DC-DC
converter, called a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) is used between the array and
load to help better utilize the available array maximum power output.

Direct-coupled PV system.
PV technology basics How PV Cells Are Made
The process of fabricating conventional single- and polycrystalline silicon PV
cells begins very pure semiconductor-grade polysilicon - a material processed
from quartz and used extensively throughout the electronics industry.
crystalline silicon
The polysilicon is then heated to melting temperature, and trace amounts of
The conventional technology that supports boron are added to the melt to create a P-type semiconductor material.
more than 85% of today's PV market is
Next, an ingot, or block of silicon is formed, commonly using one of two methods:
based on wafers of crystalline Si. 1) by growing a pure crystalline silicon ingot from a seed crystal
drawn from the molten polysilicon
Production capacities are expected to more or 2) by casting the molten polysilicon in a block, creating a
than double in the next three to five years, polycrystalline silicon material.
and the products are proven and accepted
Individual wafers are then sliced from the ingots using wire saws and then
in the markets. subjected to a surface etching process. After the wafers are cleaned, they are
placed in a phosphorus diffusion furnace, creating a thin N-type semiconductor
Single-crystal ingots are pulled from the layer around the entire outer surface of the cell.
melt, or polycrystalline ingots are cast in a
crucible that is consumed in the process. Next, an anti-reflective coating is applied to the top surface of the cell, and
electrical contacts are imprinted on the top (negative) surface of the cell.
Technical advances include the growth of
ingots as big as 300 kg, the growth of An aluminized conductive material is
multiple ingots with melt replenishment, deposited on the back (positive) surface of
and the reduction of consumable materials each cell, restoring the P-type properties of
and energy costs. Significant R&D effort the back surface by displacing the diffused
phosphorus layer.
has been focused on reducing defects,
improving doping, and automating the Each cell is then electrically tested, sorted
growth process. Still, for single-crystal Si, based on current output, and electrically
the best commercial module efficiencies connected to other cells to form cell
are only about 15%. circuits for assembly in PV modules.

Image: A solar cell, made from a poly-crystalline silicon wafer


PV technology basics
Thin-Film Photovoltaics
Si ribbon and sheet technologies,
which avoid the cost and material Thin-film photovoltaic modules are manufactured by
losses associated with slicing ingots, depositing ultra-thin layers of semiconductor material
on a glass or thin stainless-steel substrate in a
are the first of the new PV technologies
vacuum chamber.
to be commercialized. About 6% of
today's PV modules are made using
these methods. Most notable are the A laser scribing process is used to separate and weld
edge-defined, film-fed growth process, the electrical connections between individual cells in
the string ribbon process, and the Si- a module.
film process (growth of a high-speed,
continuous Si sheet of a variety of
substrates). Cell and module Thin-film photovoltaic materials offer great promise
efficiencies are similar to those for for reducing the materials requirements and
polycrystalline Si wafers from manufacturing costs for PV modules and systems.
ingotsabout 12% at bestwith
somewhat lower efficiencies for the
small-grained sheet materials.

Ongoing incremental improvements will


probably reduce manufacturing costs
and increase module performance,
keeping these technologies as the
mainstay of PV markets for years to
come.
PV technology basics
Pros and Cons of PV

Photovoltaic systems have a number of merits and unique advantages


over conventional power-generating technologies.

PV systems can be designed for a variety of


applications and operational requirements, and
can be used for either centralized or distributed
power generation.

PV systems have no moving parts, are modular, easily expandable


and even transportable in some cases. Energy independence and
environmental compatibility are two attractive features of PV
systems.

The fuel (sunlight) is free, and no noise or pollution is created from


operating PV systems. In general, PV systems that are well designed
and properly installed require minimal maintenance and have long
service lifetimes.

At present, the high cost of PV modules and equipment (as


compared to conventional energy sources) is the primary limiting
factor for the technology. Consequently, the economic value of PV
systems is realized over many years. In some cases, the surface area
requirements for PV arrays may be a limiting factor. Due to the diffuse
nature of sunlight and the existing sunlight to electrical energy
conversion efficiencies of photovoltaic devices, surface area
requirements for PV array installations are on the order of 8 to 12 m^2
(86 to 129 ft^2) per kilowatt of installed peak array capacity.
PV manufacturers> Spire BIPV

BIPV is Building Integrated Photovoltaics.


Its more than just mounting solar panels on a roof. Its
integrating solar electricity into the design of a building or
structure so that the solar components also serve as
Spire Corporation - Headquarters structural or design elements.
One Patriots Park
Bedford, MA 01730-2396 (USA)

Toll Free:
800-510-4815
Phone:
781-275-6000 http://www.spirecorp.com/spire-solar/turnkey-module-production-lines/index.php
Fax:
781-275-7470
Spire offers SPI-LINE turnkey production lines for
Email: module manufacturing at production capacities ranging
email@spirecorp.com from a few hundred kilowatt up to 50 megawatts per
year and beyond.

http://www.spirecorp.com/spire-solar/turnkey-module-production-lines/index.php

Spire provides state of the art production lines for the


manufacture of silicon wafers and solar cells.
PV manufacturers> Spire > considered leading in BIPV

Roof Systems

Ground Mounted Systems

Pole & Structure Mounted Systems

Spire installation examples


PV manufacturers > Spire > considered leading in BIPV

Awning Systems

Spire manufactured and retrofitted two BIPV systems for a


commercial building that serves as a vital community center. The
systems include a 25-kilowatt roof tile system and a 7-kilowatt
awning system.

Curtain Wall Systems

BIPV panels can be mounted vertically on an exterior wall. An


opaque panel can take the place of traditional siding. A
transparent or semi-transparent panel can be mounted on an
exterior wall, or on the roof, acting as a power-generating
skylight. This allows the panel to be visible from indoors,
providing partial shade and casting attractive dapple patterns.

Spire BIPV system case studies


PV manufacturers >Spire > considered leading in BIPV
Custom BIPV

Spire manufactures its own BIPV modules, so it has the flexibility to produce
custom and one-of-a-kind designs. These can be integrated into unique
application solutions.

InSpire Solar Data Monitoring

InSpire systems are among the most user friendly monitoring


systems on the market, available only from Spire Solar. InSpire
systems range in capability from simplistic energy performance
data monitoring, to complex platforms that can be expanded
upon for whole building commissioning. With real time data BIPV systems enable architects and designers to develop customized
monitoring, the value of your PV system becomes a tangible photovoltaic applications, going beyond the typical installations afforded
asset available for instant use for educational or marketing by standard module design. To learn how Spire has developed and
purposes. implemented innovative solar solutions for its customers, read the Case
Studies
* State of the art, user friendly technology
* Touch screen monitors for desktop displays
* Kiosks with integrated touch screen monitors for lobby or
museum displays
* Online data monitoring that is available from anywhere with
Internet access

This InSpire graph shows the energy produced by several Spire


solar systems during a one week period in January 2006. These
systems are located in the northeast United States. InSpire lets
you easily monitor your own solar system.

InSpire Solar Data Monitoring


PV manufacturers> Spire
How much roof space do I need for a PV system?
A typical PV system requires about 100 square feet for every
kilowatt installed on a pitched roof, and up to 200 square feet per
kilowatt on a flat roof. PV systems should be installed facing south
for maximum electricity production.

The capacity of a PV system is stated in terms of the


number of watts, kilowatts, or megawatts it can
produce in standard sunlight conditions. For example,
in the city of Chicago, Illinois, U.S., Spire has installed solar
modules for which each kilowatt (kW) of PV capacity
produces about 1,200 - 1,400 kilowatt-hours per year,
depending on the angle at which the panels are
mounted.

The electricity you purchase from the utility is measured in


kilowatt-hours (kWh). Most single-family homes in the
U.S. use 20 kWh or more per day. A refrigerator uses
1.2 kWh per day and a computer uses 2.4 kWh per 8-
hour workday.

Spire's in-house manufacturing provides exceptional flexibility to


produce unique BIPV modules to meet almost any specifications
and design requirements. Spire has extensive experience working
through the US Green Building Council and working with architects,
designers and builders
to produce BIPV systems for integration into LEED-certified buildings.

Let Spire produce your next custom BIPV modules. Contact Spire at
pvsales@spirecorp.com to discuss your manufacturing needs.

Spire general facts


PV manufacturers> Evergreen

138 Bartlett Street | Marlboro, MA 01752-3016 USA |


TL: +1.508.357.2221 | FX: +1.508.229.0747
Cedar Series Photovoltaic Modules
www.evergreensolar.com

* Each module is individually tested to ensure field performance meets or exceeds specifications.
* Solar cells are matched to reduce internal losses and the possibility of hot spots.
* Rugged, durable anodized aluminum frame makes for strong, stable mechanical mounting.
* Industry standard EVA (Ethyl Vinyl Acetate) and Tedlar construction protects solar cells from
mechanical and environmental stress.

Advanced technology with promise for the future

* String Ribbon polycrystalline solar cells outperform thin


films and achieve comparable performance to bulk crystalline
technologies while using half as much silicon.
* The proprietary cell fabrication process is among the most environmentally friendly in the business.

The power of PV
* Photovoltaics (PV) provide clean, quiet, reliable electricity from sunlight.
* No moving parts to wear out.
* No emmisions - power that's good for the environment.
* The Sun - a limitless, readily-available power source.
PV manufacturers > > LOCAL INNOVATIVE PV COMPANY

Evergreen Solar and Q-Cells Announce Partnership with REC


Leading Solar Silicon Supplier Joins EverQ Venture

MARLBORO, Massachusetts, & THALHEIM, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Nov. 28,


2005--Evergreen Solar, Inc. (Nasdaq: ESLR), a manufacturer of solar power products with its
proprietary, low-cost String Ribbon(TM) wafer technology, and Q-Cells AG, the world's largest
independent manufacturer of crystalline silicon solar cells, today announced a partnership with
Renewable Energy Corporation ASA (REC), based in Hovik, Norway. The world's largest manufacturer
of solar-grade silicon and multicrystalline wafers, REC is joining EverQ, a strategic partnership
between Evergreen Solar and Q-Cells that is currently building a 30-megawatt solar wafer, cell and
module manufacturing plant in Thalheim, Germany.
PV manufacturers> Evergreen

The Company maintains strong ties to the


Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
including the active involvement of String
Ribbon's inventor, Prof. Emanuel Sachs.

The figure above illustrates the patented String Ribbon


manufacturing process ongoing within the furnace shown to the
right.
PV manufacturers> Sunpower

Our Company headquarters and


research and development facilities are
located in Sunnyvale, California, the
heart of Silicon Valley.

SunPower Solar

SunPower Corporation designs, manufactures and sells


high efficiency solar cells and solar panels that generate
electricity from sunlight for residential, commercial and
remote power applications.

Our proprietary all back contact silicon solar cell


technology produces up to 50% more power per square
foot compared to conventional solar cells.

Our SPR-200 solar panels feature a unique, uniformly


black design that many home and business owners
prefer.
SunPowers A-300 Solar Cell
A-300 SunPower solar cells are unique because the
metal contacts needed to collect and conduct
electricity are on the back surface of the solar cells
away from the sunlight.

This design eliminates reflective metal contacts on


the front of the solar cell. In addition to improving
cell performance, this design leaves the front
surface with a uniformly black appearance.
PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCY

SunPowers Technology Path

Dr. Swanson (n 1988 Dr. Swanson founded SunPower to


commercialize high-efficiency photovoltaic cell technology for
use in solar concentrators) and his team at SunPower
discovered that their solar cell technology designed for
concentrators offered great advantages in other applications as
well. In 2001, SunPower solar cells were used to power NASAs
Helios solar powered airplane to a world record powered-flight
altitude of 96,863 feet.

The 22%-efficient lightweight solar cells were


incorporated directly into the curved wing surfaces.
PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCY

Superior Performance, Superior Aesthetics


SunPower's high performance solar cells and solar panels offer both maximum power from your roof as well
as a uniquely attractive system design. To review a slide presentation about our proprietary back contact
solar cell technology, (see attached pdf)
PV manufacturers LEADER IN EFFIENCY

Solar cells are semiconductor devices that directly convert sunlight into
electricity. Our A-300 solar cell has a rated power value of 3.1 watts and a
conversion efficiency of between 20% to 21.5%.

Our A-300 solar cell is designed without highly reflective metal contact
grids or current collection ribbons on the front of the solar cells. This
feature enables our solar cells to be assembled into solar panels that exhibit a
more uniform appearance than conventional
solar panels.
PV manufacturers > Overview Available Solar Panels

http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/bpsolar.html
http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/evsopa.html

http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/geensopa.html

http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/innergy.html

http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/global-solar-energy-flexible-solar-panels.html

http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/kyocera.html
http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/issopa.html

http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/mitsubishi-electric-solar-panels.html
http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/martrix.html
PV manufacturers > AVAILABLE SOLAR PANELS
http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/solarpanels.html

http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/sasopa.html
http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/ase.html

http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/sunwize.html
http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/siemens.html

http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/kaneka.html
http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/unisolar.html

http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/iowathinfilm.html
http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/yingli.html
PV solar panel specifications BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel
Unavailable in 2005
BP Solar BP 4170S
170 Watt 24V Monocrystalline Solar Panel

The BP 4170 solar panel is designed to provide superior performance for


residential, commercial, and industrial grid-connect systems. By increasing the
diameter of the cell, performance is maximized while improving aesthetics. With
time-tested monocrystalline silicon solar cells and installation-speeding
polarized connectors, it provides cost-effective power for systems that demand
premium module efficiency.

Electrical Specifications
Maximum Power: 170 Watts
Nominal Voltage: 34.7 volts
Voltage at Pmax: 34.7 Volts
Current at Pmax: 4.9 Amps
Warranted minimum Pmax: 161.5 Watts
Short-circuit current: 5.4 Amps
Open-circuit voltage: 44.0 Volts

Mechanical Specifications
Dimensions (LxWxD): 62.8 x 31.1 x 1.97 inches (1595x790x50) mm
Weight: 34 lbs (15.4kg)
Solar Cells: 72 cells in a 6x12 matrix connected in series
Output Cables: MC Connectors RHW AWG# 12 cable with polarized
weatherproof DC rated connectors
Diodes: Three 9A, 45V Schottky by-pass diodes included
Construction: Front: High-transmission 3mm (1/8th inch) tempered glass; Back:
***Unavailable in 2005*** Tedlar; Encapsulant: EVA
BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel Frame: Rugged clear anodized aluminum alloy type universal frame
1561 Your price: $999.00 pad Limited Warranty: 25 years

BP Solar BP-4170S, 170 Watt Solar Panel Quality and Safety Listings
ESTI, CE, TUV, UL Listed

Note: These panels must ship via truck freight due to size. Please call or email
for a shipping quote and to order.
PV solar panel specifications

170 watt-783.00 160 watt 799. 160 watt 725. 150 watt 699.
Most expensive
170 watt- 999.00

125 watt 629.00 125 watt 599. 80 watt 520. 65 watt 457. 60 watt 462.00

Cheapest
50Watt=354.00 40watt+353.00 30Watt 259.00 20watt 234.00
10 watt Solar panel- 149.00
PV solar panel specifications

Evergreen Solar EC-115-GD

$539.00

Electrical Specifications
Maximum Power: 115 Watts
Voltage @ Power Maximum: 17.3 Volts
Current @ Power Maximum: 6.65 Amps
Open-circuit Voltage: 21.5 Volts
Short-Circuit Current: 7.26 Amps
No. of Cells: 72
Max. Series Fuse: 15 Amps
UL System Voltage Rating: 600V
TUV System Voltage Rating: 800V
Evergreen Solar EC-102-GD, 102 Watt Solar Panel

$499.00
Mechanical Specifications
Length: 62.5"/1588 mm
Width: 25.69"/653 mm
Depth: 1.39"/35 mm
Weight: 28 lbs/12.7 kg

Safety and Quality Tests


IEC 1215 (IEC 503, ISPRA) Certified
UL Listed, Class C Fire Rating
TUV Safety Class II Certified
CE
Evergreen Solar EC-110-GD, 110 Watt Solar
25 year limited power warranty
Panel - Limited Supply
Temporarily Out of Stock
Your price: $524.00

Evergreen Solar EC-115-GD, 115 Watt Solar Panel


PV solar panel specifications

GE Energy Solar Panels

GE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar Panel


$599.00

GE Energy 165, 165 Watt Solar Panel


$719.00

GE Energy GEPV-072, 72 Watt Solar Panel GE Energy GEPV-065, 65 Watt Solar Panel
Your price: $459.00 Your price: $449.00

GE Energy GEPV-050-M 50 Watt Solar Panel


$365.00 GE Energy GEPV-030-M 30 Watt Solar Panel
$239.00
PV solar panel specifications

GE Energy GEPV-110-M 110 Watt Solar Panel


Electrical Performance

Typical Performance Characteristics


Peak Power (Wp): Watts 110
Maximum Power Voltage (Vmp): Volts 16.7
Maximum Power Current (Imp): Amps 6.6
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): Volts 21.2
Short Circuit Current (Isc): Amps 7.4
Short Circuit Temperature Coefficient: mA/?C +3
Open Circuit Voltage Coefficient: V/?C -0.08
Maximum Power Temperature Coefficient: %/?C -0.5
Maximum Series Fuse: Amps 15

Overall Physical Properties

Length: 58.1 inches (1,477 mm)


GE Energy's technologically advanced solar electric power products offer Width: 26.0 inches (661 mm)
high quality and customer value. They are all based on crystalline silicon, Depth of Frame: 1.4 inches (35 mm)
the material of choice for efficiency and reliability for more than 25 years. Depth Including J-box: 2.2 inches (55 mm)
Our single-crystal solar cells are among the most efficient commercially Connector Length (when applicable): 15.0 inches (381 mm)
available today. We offer a full line of photovoltaic (PV) cells, solar Weight: 26.1 pounds (11.9 kg)
modules which utilize a series of cells wired together and complete
packages for residential, commercial and industrial systems. Mounting Hole Locations
Center Spacing: 25.3 inches (643 mm)
Designed for optimum use in residential, commercial and battery charging Edge Distance: 16.4 inches (417 mm)
Width Spacing: 24.3 inches (616 mm)
the GEPV-110-M solar module
applications, Mounting Hole Diameter: 0.26 inches (6.7 mm)
contains 36 single-crystal cells connected in Physical Design Properties
series, and generates a peak power of 110
Weight (Wind) Bearing Potential: 50 lb/ft (125 mph equivalent)
watts at 16.7 volts. Hailstone Impact Resistance: 1 inch at 50 mph (25 mm at 80 kph)
PV solar panel specifications

GSE Portable Power Pack 48 Watt 24 Volt Desert Camo


Global Solar Energy Flexible Solar Panels Your price: $789.00

GSE Portable Power Pack 48 Watt 12 Volt Desert Camo


http://www.affordable-solar.com/affordablesolar/gse-solar-apps.html Your price: $789.00

GSE SUNLINQ 12 Watt Portable Solar Panel


$167.00
GSE Portable Power Pack 55 Watt 12 Volt Desert Camo

Your price: $869.00


PV solar panel specifications

Global Solar Energy Flexible Solar Panels

GSE P3 55 Watt 12 Volt Flexible Solar Panel Desert Camo


In Stock and Ready to Ship
Global Solar's thin-film photovoltaic technology is enabling solar power products to be portable, flexible, foldable, durable and
lightweight. As a result we are able to create solutions for a wide range of military power requirements. The overall benefits of
our military solar power products are to, enable extended missions, improve logistics by enabling field charging thereby reducing
the number of batteries in the field and provide a significant cost reduction when compared to primary batteries. Global Solar
Energy works closely with CECOM and the US Army's Rechargeable Battery Program.

Portable Power Pack (P3)


The P3 is a solar-energized power generator for mobile power needs. Incorporating solid state, thin-film, PowerFLEX solar
technology, the P3 provides an excellent choice for situations that require lightweight, durable, silent power. Re-charge batteries,
power communication equipment and mobile electronics, plus reduce the battery logistic challenge with the P3. It provides silent
energy independence to the user.

The P3 Portable Power Pack is used worldwide to provide users an alternate power generator for charging lead-acid, Nickel
Cadmium (NiCd), Nickel-Metal-Hydride (NiMH) and Lithium Ion rechargeable batteries. The P3 will enable extended missions,
provide energy security, restore power silently and can provide power for remote, portable surveillance equipment.

A primary battery can only be used once. Secondary batteries can be recharged several hundred times. Recent studies show
that a P3 solar charger pays for itself in fewer than fifteen recharges. That is equivalent to several hundred FREE BATTERIES!

Twice the power to weight ratio of alternative solar generators, the P3 is ideal for situations requiring power renewal to batteries
and mobile electronics. The P3 Portable Power Pack folds for easy transport and storage
PV solar panel specifications
Applications
Water pumping
Communications
Outdoor lighting
Rural electrification
Recreational vehicles
Stand-alone or grid-connected AC applications

Isofoton Solar Panels Electrical Characteristics


Nominal Voltage: 24 volt
Maximum Power: 150 W
Short-Circuit Current: 4.45 Amps
Open Circuit Voltage: 43.2 Volts
Isofoton is the leading solar panel Maximum Power Current: 4.35 Amps
manufacturer in Europe and their panels Maximum Power Voltage: 34.6 Volts
are now available in the USA. Since its
founding in 1981, Isofoton has grown to Physical Characteristics
become the leading supplier of PV in Cell type: 125 mm Mono Crystal
Europe and is the 8th largest PV Number of cells: 72
manufacturer in the world. Their Length: 1224mm/48.19"
Isofoton 150 Watt steadfast commitment to research and Width: 1047mm/41.22"
24 Volt Solar Panel development has lead to the
development of a reliable, proven mono-
Depth: 39.5mm/1.56"
Weight: 17.0kg/37.5 lb
crystalline cell that is then chemically Type of Output Terminal: J-box with MC cables
$665.00
textured with an anti-reflective layer and
finally trimmed almost square for Certifications
maximum power density. The finished IEC 61215 Certified
cells are covered with tempered, anti- UL Listing, Class C Fire Rating
relective glass that maximizes light T Safety Class II Certified
transfer, providing a high quality finished CEC Rating: 134.3
module that meets the highest level of Warranty: 25 years
compliance with ISO, TUV, CE, and UL
standards for photovotaic products. Note: Minimum order of 4 panels. These panels
Approved by the California Energy must ship via truck due to size. Please call for a
Commission. shipping quote and to order. There is a quantity
price break if you are ordering 20+ panels.
PV solar panel specifications
d.Blue is ideal for installation on all types of
buildings, from residential to large scale commercial
systems. The stylish dark blue cells, combined with
Kyocera Solar Panels black panel frames, allow the panels to blend in with
the buildings architecture while producing energy at
exceptional efficiencies.

The d.Blue panels are available in 190-watt, 170-


watt and 125-watts panels. All of these feature Multi-
Contact output cables, a heavy-duty box-style
anodized aluminum frame, and an industry-high 25
year power output warranty.

Applications

Kyocera KC200GT, 200 Watt Solar Panel * Residential roof top system

Kyocera KC190GT, 190 Watt Solar Panel * Large commercial grid tie system
Kyocera KC200GT, 200 Watt Solar Panel
* Water Pumping Systems
$879.00
* High Voltage stand alone systems

Specifications:
KYOCERA has perfected its new surface Max Power: 190 Watts
treatment technology and is introducing it Max Voltage: 26.1 Volts
on a new line of panels named d.Blue, for Max Current: 7.28 Amps
its dark blue color. Dimensions (LxWxD): 56.2"x39"x1.4"
Weight: 40.7 pounds
The newly developed treatment method
processes multi-crystalline silicon cells in
order to produce a surface texture that
minimizes surface reflectance and
maximizes output. The result is a
maximum conversion efficiency of 15%,
one of the highest conversion efficiencies
in the polycrystalline panel industry.
PV solar panel specifications
Independently Certified
* The ASE-270/DGF-50 is independently certified to meet IEEE 1262,
IEC 61215 and UL 1703 standards
* It is also the only panel in the industry to receive a UL (Underwriters
Laboratories) Class A fire rating

Flexible Versions
A variety of wiring and framing options
are available upon request.

Electrical Data
Power (max): 270 Watts
Voltage: 49.5 Volts
RWE Schott Solar Panels
Current: 5.45 Amps
ASE is possibly the finest module Open-circuit voltage: 60.0 Volts
Short-circuit Current: 6.1 Amps
currently available on the market.
Dimensions and Weights
315 watt, 300 watt and 285 watt modules. Prices Length: 74.5"/1892.3 mm
start are $4.03/watt for cases of (20) modules. Width: 50.5"/1282.7 mm
Call for availablity. Weight: 107 (+/- 5) lbs/46.6 (+/- 2) kg
Area: 26.13 ft sq/ 2.43 sq meters

Characteristic Data
Solar cells per panel: 216
Type of solar cell: Semi-crystalline solar cells (EFG process)
Connections: 10 AWG single conductor, stranded copper with Multi-
Contact connector. Junction box comes with 6 built-in bypass diodes.

Certifications and Warranty


The ASE-270-DGF/50 has been independently certified to IEC 1215 and
IEEE 1262, UL 1703 (Class A Fire rating)
The ASE-270-DGF-50 comes with a 20 year power warranty.
PV solar panel specifications

More Reliability
* Bypass diode protection for every 18 solar cells in series, thus minimizing power loss, and
mitigating overheating/safety problems
* Advanced encapsulation system ensures steady long-term panel performance by
eliminating degradation associated with traditional EVA-encapsulated panels
* A weather barrier system on both sides of the panel protects against tears, perforations, fire,
electrical conductivity, delamination and moisture
* Patented no-lead, high-reliability soldering system guarantees long life and ensures against
RWE Schott Solar Panels environmental harm should the panel break or be discarded

Higher Quality
* Each of the panel's 216 individual semi-crystalline silicon cells is inspected and power
matched to ensure consistent performance between panels
* Every panel is tested utilizing a calibrated solar simulator to ensure that the electrical ratings
are within the specified tolerance for power, voltage and current
* Panel-to-panel wiring loss is factored into the panel's labeled electrical ratings by testing
through the panel's cable/connector assemblies

ASE-300-DGF/50, ASE-300-DGF/50, ASE-300-DGF/50,


285 watt 300 Watt Solar 315 Watt Solar Panel
$1,334.00 Panel $1,329.00
$1,404.00
Today, building integrated
photovoltaic systems are able to Schott BIPV - Photovoltaics with ASI Glass
provide:
# Solar electricity
# Light management
# Comfort
# Effective shading
# Glare protection
# Thermal management
# Innovative architecture
Insulated Facade Opaque Cladding

The maximum size of ASI Glass modules is


1.2m x 2.4m (~4 x 7 10)
PV solar panel specifications
The HIT 190 panel has a cell conversion efficiency of 18.5%
and a panel conversion efficiency of 16.1% that is significantly
higher than conventional SANYO solar cells.

High conversion efficiency and lightweight design conserve space


and weight. The outstanding conversion efficiency and high power
output of the HIT 190 save approximately 20% of installation space.
SANYO Solar Panels HIT 190 panels can be installed on narrow roof spaces which
previously presented difficulties. In addition, with fewer solar
Sanyo HIP-190BA3, HIT 190 Watt Solar Panel panels, there is less weight on the roof.

SANYO HIT 190 Specifications:


Model Number: HIP-190BA3
Max. Power (Pmax): 190 Watts
Max. Power Voltage (Vpm): 54.8 Volts
Max. Power Current (Ipm): 3.47 Amps
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): 67.5 Volts
Short Circuit Voltage (Isc): 3.75 Amps
Cell Conversion Efficiency: 18.5%
Panel Conversion Efficiency: 16.1%
Warranted Minimum (Pmin): 171.0 Watts
PTC Rating: 178.7 Watts
Max. System Voltage: 600 Volts
Series Fuse: 15 Amps
Temp. Coefficient of Pmax (%/C): -0.3
Dimensions: 51.9" x 35.2" X 1.4" (1319mm X 894mm x 35mm)
Weight: 30.9 lbs. (14kg)
Certificate: UL 1703
Class C fire rating
HIT panels can withstand 1 inch diameter hailstones at 50 mph.

Sanyo HIP-190BA3, HIT 190 Watt Solar Panel


$975.00
PV solar panel specifications

Since 1959, Sharp has been harnessing the power of the sun
to improve the quality of life. Today, we are the world's #1
manufacturer of solar cells. In fact, Sharp's high quality,
Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems are used for Sharp 208 Watt Solar Panel SHARP NT-185U1, 185 Watt Solar Panel
everything from satellites to lighthouses, industrial $882.00 $969.00
applications to residential use.

Sharp's solar energy systems take advantage of the natural,


inexhaustible resource of sunlight to generate electricity. No
environmentally harmful compounds, no fossil fuel pollution,
no global warming. Just clean, safe, reliable solar energy for
living.

SHARP NE-165U1,
Sharp ND-167U1, 165 Watt Solar Panel
167 Watt Solar Panel price: $727.00
$779.00
Sharp ND-N0ECU,
140 Watt Solar Panel
$669.00

Sharp ND-070ERU, Sharp ND-070ELU,


70 Watt Solar Panel Right Triangle 70 Watt Solar Panel Left Triangle
$429.00 $429.00
PV solar panel specifications
Features
Left and right triangular modules offer greater flexibility and greater
integration for roofline aesthetics
High-power module (70W) using 21 square multi-crystal silicon solar
cells with 13.44% cell conversion efficiency
Bypass diode minimizes the power drop caused by shade
Black anodized aluminum frame and "L" hook design located along
frame perimeter for easy integration with residential sytem mounting
hardware
Water white, tempered glass, EVA laminate, and a weather-proof film
yield long-life modules while enhancing cell performance
Nominal 7 VDC output is ideal for residential system applications
Manufactured in ISO 9001 certified facilities
25-year limited warranty on power output

Sharp ND-070ELU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Left Triangle Electrical Characteristics


Cell: Multi-crystal silicon
No. of Cells and Connections: 21 in series
Open Circuit Voltage (Voc): 12.43 Volts
Max. Power Voltage (Vpm): 9.98 Volts
Short Circuit Current (Isc): 7.81 Amps
Maximum Power Current (Ipm): 7.02 Amps
Maximum Power (Pm): 70 Watts
Minimum Power (Pm): 63 Watts
Encapsulated Solar Cell Efficiency: 13.44%
PTC Rating (W): 61.46 Watts
Maximum System Voltage: 600VDC
Series Fuse Rating: 15 Amps
Type of Output Terminal: Lead Wire with MC Connector

Mechanical Characteristics
Dimensions: 45.86" x 38.98" x 1.81" (1165mm x 990mm x 46mm)
Weight: 26.9lbs/12.2kg
Packing Configuration: 2 pcs per carton

Sharp ND-070ERU, 70 Watt Solar Panel Right Triangle

Left and right triangular modules


PV solar panel specifications

Shell Solar Panels

Shell Solar SQ175-PC, 175 Watt Solar Panel Shell Solar SQ165-PC, 165 Watt Solar Panel
$805.00 Your price: $779.00

Shell Solar 85-P, 85 Watt Solar Panel Shell Solar 80-P, 80 Watt Solar Panel
$499.00
PV solar panel specifications Shell ST40, 40 Watt CIS Thin Film Solar Panel

Shell ST40, 40 Watt 12 Volt Thin Film Solar Panel


Shell Solar Panels The Shell ST40 solar panel is composed of a monolithic
structure of series connected Copper Indium Diselenide
(CIS) based solar cells. It can generate a peak power of
40 watt at 16.6 volts. The Shell ST40 solar panel has been
designed for rural and industrial applications.
Shell ST40, 40 Watt Thin Film Solar Panel
$276.00 The Shell Solar CIS/thin film modules deliver high power and
reliable performance in all operational conditions backed by a
10 year warranty. The range is particularly suitable for low
Junction Box light level environments and where uniform appearance and
The junction box provides a high quality, aesthetics is important.
dust protected and splash proof IP44-rated
housing. The housing contains a rigid Benefits
connection block with screw terminals and
by-pass diodes providing "hot spot" * Exceptional performance under low light conditions,
protection for the solar cells. shade and high temperature tolerance that offers reliable
power in adverse or changeable conditions.
Electrical Characteristics * Class leading efficiency and stable output power
Rated Power: 40 watts delivering reliable high performance for many years.
Peak Power: 40 watts * Highly transparent tempered glass delivering more power
Peak Power Voltage: 16.6 volts and ensuring high impact resistance and protection against
Peak Power Current: 2.41 amps hail, snow, ice, and storms.
Open Circuit Voltage: 23.3 volts * Uniform appearance ideal for applications where
Short Circuit Current: 2.68 amps aesthetics are an important factor.
Series Fuse Rating: 5 amps * 10 years research and over 3 years commercial
Minimum Peak Power: 36 Watt manufacturing experience has been appllied to the
development of our CIS thin-film range to ensure that our
Mechanical Specifications products have a long and reliable service life backed by a 10
A torsion and corrosion-resistant anodized year warranty.
aluminum frame ensures dependable
performance, even under harsh weather Qualifications and Certificates
conditions. Pre-drilled mounting holes are
provided for ease of installation. * UL-Listing 1703
* All Shell Solar Panels are produced in EN-ISO 9001
Dimensions (LxWxD): 50.9" x 12.9" x 1.3" certified factories
(1293x328x35mm)
Weight: 15.4lbs
PV solar panel specifications

SunWize Solar Panels SunWize OEM40, 40 Watt Solar Panel


$269.00

SunWize OEM20, 20 Watt Solar Panel


$165.00

SunWize SW90, 90 Watt Solar Pane

SunWize OEM10, 10 Watt Solar Panel


$115.00

SunWize SW85, 85 Watt Solar Panel


PV solar panel specifications

UniSolar FLEXIBLE Solar Panel

How are Panels Connected to an Electrical System?


Each panel comes with 8 ft. of tinned wire with a 2-pin SAE-connector and is packaged
with a 2 ft fused battery cable. An extension cable of 10 feet is also available. Typically
UniSolar FLX-32 Flexible 32 Watt Solar Panel the solar panel is connected directly to the battery. It can also be connected to any point
$275.00 on the electrical system where 12 volt is present. If a charge controller is used, it is
placed in the line between the solar panel and the battery.
Specifications
Rated power: 32 Watts Bypass diodes are connected across each cell, allowing the modules to produce power
Battery Voltage: 12 Volts even when partially shaded. Blocking diodes are included within each potted junction
Typical Amp Hours/Day: 12 box (edge connector) to prevent battery discharge into the module.
Bypass Diode Included: Yes
Blocking Diode Included: Yes The cell assembly is sealed in flexible an durable weather resistant polymers that
Length: 55.77" provide longlife and high reliability.
Width: 16.7"
Weight: 4.7 lbs.
Cable Length: 8 ft
Warranty on Power Output: 5 yr
PV solar panel specifications

Unique and Durable


The unique design of the UNI-PAC features a lightweight construction
without glass or fragile crystalline to break, crack, or add on extra weight.
The tough nylon fabric covering allows the unit to be folded to a
convenient book size, for easy storage and transport. The UNI-PAC 10
UniSolar UNI-PAC 30 - 34 Watt Foldable Flexible Panel offers dual voltage charging for 12V and 24V, the UNI-PAC 15 and the
$729.00 UNI-PAC 30 are for 12V charging. The UNI-PAC was designed to
meet military requirements for durability, performance and reliability.
Tefzel (by DuPont) serves as a strong, long-lasting front cover. Individual
solar laminates contain by-pass diodes, making the UNI-PAC solar
chargers tolerant of severe shadow or partial covering. Charging rate and
voltage can even be adjusted to meet specific needs.

Dimensions & Specifications


Rated Power: 34.0 Watts
Operating Voltage: 17.6 Volts
Operating Current: 1.9 Amps
UniSolar UNI-PAC 15 - 15.5 Watt Foldable Flexible Panel
Open Circuit Voltage: 26.0 Volts
$595.00
Short Circuit Current: 2.4 Amps
Size, Folded (LxWxH): 17" x 7" x 2"
Size, Deployed: 55.9" x 33.9"
Weight: 4.7 lbs
PV solar panel specifications

Kaneka Solar Panels Model GEA / GSA


Nominal Power (W) 60
OC Voltage (V) 92
SC Current (A) 1.19
Voltage in mpp (V) 67
Current in mpp (A) 0.9
Weight (kg) 13.7
Dimensions (mm) 990x960x40

Certifications and Qualifications

GEA GSA
- IEC61646
- Safety Class II equipment
- CE mark - UL Listed
Kaneka 60 Watt Solar Module - CEC registered

Highlights: *25 Year Power Output Warranty


GEA/GSA PV module will maintain more than 80% of minimum
* Thin-film amorphous silicon panel rated power for 25 years (based on data from silicon PV modules
* Superior performance under high temperature installed over a month under conditions of 25C, A.M. 1.5 and
* High shade tolerance 100mW / cm2).
* MC Connectors
* Black frame
* Dimensions 39" x 37.8" Kaneka 60 Watt Solar Modules
$269.00
PV solar panel specifications

Yingli YL80 80 Watt Solar Module

Yingli makes high efficiency polycrystalline solar modules. Power tolerance is a


respectable 5% so you can be assured you will be receiving at least 95% of the
wattage specified.

Modules are made with tempered high transmission glass with antireflective
coating, EVA encapsulant, TPT backsheet and aluminum frame with predrilled
holes for mounting. Water proof junction box contains cord grip connectors, bypass
diodes and barrel sleeve connector for use with special pinout connectors (available
with 10 USE 10 ga. below).

Warranty is 25 years. Modules larger than 65 watts are packaged 2 per shipping
box.
PV solar panel specifications

R15-1200 Rollable Solar Charger

Because PowerFilm integrated solar panels (thin film on plastic) are


developed and manufactured with a proprietary roll-to-roll process, by Iowa
Thin Film Technologies, they are truly rollable unlike other thin film
technologies that are only somewhat flexible. PowerFilm solar panels are
monolithically integrated which eliminates the need for damage-prone manual
connections of individual solar cells. PowerFilm is made of silicon, a natural
resource in abundant supply. Also PowerFilm performs well in diverse
enviroments, including hot sun, and does not suffer from wasted over-voltage.
Cadmium Free.
Iowa Thin Film Technologies
Direct Power

12V systems can be directly powered with PowerFilm Rollable Solar Panels.
As with any solar technology, the solar panel power output must be greater
than the power consumption of the 12V system.

Technical Specifications

Operating Voltage (V) 15.4

Operating Current (Amps) 1.2

Weight (lbs) 1.9

Rolled Dimensions (in )) 12x4.25x4.5

R15-1200 Rollable Solar Charger Unrolled Dimensions (in) 12x73


$274.00
PV solar panel PERIPHIRALS specifications

Zomeworks Universal Trackers

Universal* Track Rack Sizes:


UTR 020 - 20 Sq. Ft. Module Space
UTRK 040 - 40 Sq. Ft. Module Space
UTR F64 - 64 Sq. Ft. Module Space
UTR F90 - 90 Sq. Ft. Module Space
UTR F120 - 120 Sq. Ft. Module Space
UTR F168 - 168 Sq. Ft. Module Space

UTRF 168 Zomeworks Universal Tracker

Six Sizes Fit All


The Zomeworks Universal Rack System allows for almost limitless adjustment in both the
east-west and north-south directions. Available in six standard sizes for holding 2 to 32
modules, Universal Track Racks are designed to fit all common photovoltaic modules,
including ASE, Astro Power/PV, BP/Solarex, Evergreen, First Solar, Kyocera,
Photowatt/Matrix, Sanyo, Sharp, Shell/Siemens/Arco, SunWize, UniSolar, and most other
popular modules. This flexibility translates to faster delivery, better quality and overall
economy.
Solar Decathlon 2005 PV panel Specifications
KONARKA