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The State Education Institution of Higher Professional Training The

First Sechenov Moscow State Medical University under Ministry of


Health of the Russian Federation

Protection of the population from


harmful and dangerous factors

Professor, Department of Life Safety and Disaster Medicine


MD Timoshevsky Alexander A.
Study questions:
1. Means and methods of control and monitoring of dangerous factors.
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2. Measures and methods of protection


3. Technical safety equipment.


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4. Individual health remedies.


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5. Sanitary and special treatment



Means and methods of control and monitoring

In order to protect themselves from the


harmful and dangerous factors, they should be
measured


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Means and methods of control and monitoring

Means of control are divided into:


contact;
non-contact (remote);
biological.
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The parameters to be controlled:

functional (productivity, the assessment of substance cycle, etc.);


structural (the absolute or relative values of physical, chemical,
or biological parameters).

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Means and methods of control and monitoring

General control scheme


:
1. sampling;
2. sample preservation;
3. sample transportation;
4. measurement of the controlled parameter;
5. processing and storage of the investigation results.

1. ;
2. ;
3. ;
4. ;
5.
Means and methods of control and monitoring

According to the classification of industrial hazards, the most commonly controlled


parameters are:
the noise level;
the level of ionizing radiation;
the level of electromagnetic radiation;
the content of hazardous substances in air, water and food;
the presence of pathogenic microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, rickettsia,
spirochetes, fungi, protozoa) and their metabolites.

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Protection of the population

Protection of the population is a complex of measures


interconnected by time, resources, and the site where they are
carried out. They are aimed at preventing or minimizing the loss of
people and the threat to their lives and health due to the action of
deleterious factors.

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The main measures to protect the population are:
:

The main protection measures:

notification of the population of danger;


evacuation;
engineering protection of the population;
the use of individual protective equipment;
health protection;
education of the population on civil defense and
protection in emergency situations.

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Notification of the population

Alerting - is making available to the public emergency information.


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To notify the population means to warn the people of the impending


danger and the present situation, as well as to inform them on procedure in
these circumstances.
The main means of communicating the prearranged alarm signal to the
public are electrical sirens. They are installed in cities and towns so as to
ensure, where possible, their massive sound coverage.


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Alerting
The radius of effective sound coverage provided by outdoor sirens is
about 300400 m.
The unit of notification is a network of street loudspeakers. One
loudspeaker in a town installed on the second-floor level provides reliable
delivery of information within 4050 m along the street.
In order to alert the population to danger, television, radio, and the
Internet are used.


300400 .
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4050 .
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vacuation

Evacuation - of the population is a series of


measures for the orderly withdrawal of
people from areas of emergency and their
temporary accommodation in safe areas.



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Evacuation options:
proactive (in advance);
emergency (urgent).

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vacuation

Types of evacuation: :

by the type of hazard evacuation


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from the areas of chemical, radioactive,

biological contamination (pollution), (), ,
severely destroyed, flooded, and others; ;


by the modes of evacuation different
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means of transport, on foot, by combined ;
methods;
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by remoteness local (in town),
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regional (within a region), national (within ( );
a country);
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by time temporary (with a return in a
);
few days); medium-term (up to 1 month); ( 1 );
prolonged (more than 1 month). ( 1).
Engineering protection of population and territories

Sheltering the population in protective


structures in emergencies is important,
especially if troubles arise and evacuation
cannot be completed. It reduces the degree of
exposure to all possible damaging factors..


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The classification of protective structures:
:
for sheltering the equipment and property;
for protection of people; ;
;
open (slit trench); (, );
closed (shelter). ().
Technical means of individual protection

Technical safety equipment is designed to protect


humans from toxic, radioactive substances, and
bacterial agents penetrating the body or getting on
the exposed skin and clothing.


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Classification of protection

- respiratory; -
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- for skin protection;
- () ;
- for eyes protection.
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Technical means of individual protection

Respiratory and eyes protection :


- masks (filtering and isolating), respirators;
- goggles and masks;
- simple remedy.
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Skin protection:
- protective clothing;
- overalls;
- airtight, heat-resistant clothing and footwear.

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Mask device

Mask device
1 - filtering and absorbing box;
2 - face mask;
3 a bag;
5 intercom membranes.


1 - ;
2 -;
3 ;
4 .
Personal skin protective

Individual skin protection is intended to guard the skin against the agents
such as radioactive substances, bacterial aerosols and toxins, the luminous
radiation of a nuclear explosion.
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1 - protective cloak

2 - protective stockings

3 - protective gloves.

1- ,
2- ,
3 -
Personal eyes protection

Individual eye protection means are used for protecting the eyes against the
luminous radiation of a nuclear explosion.
They are:
- protective glasses
- protective films.

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1 - cloth;
2 - anti-fog membrane; 1 - ;
2 - ;
3 - protective glasses; 3 ;
4
4 case.
Individual health protection.
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Individual and medical protective equipment includes
chemical, chemotherapeutical, and biological agents as well as
dressings.
It is intended to prevent or reduce human exposure to the
damaging factors of emergency situations. These means can be
used independently or for mutual aid.

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Individual health protection

Individual package of
bandages

Individual anti-gas
packages


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First - Aid Kit


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First - Aid Kit
()

Individual first-aid kit is a regular means of rendering self-help and


mutual aid in case of injuries or lesions.

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1. Antibacterial agent no. 1 (chlortetracycline 0.006 g).
1
( 0,006 ) 2
5

2. Antibacterial agent no. 2 (sulfadimethoxine 0.2 g).


2
( 0,2 ) 1
15

3. Radioprotective agent no. 1 (cystamine 0.2 g).


3 1 5
1 ( 0,2 ) 2
2
6

4. Radioprotective agent no. 2 (potassium iodide


0.125 g).
2 ( 0,125 3 1 4
) 1 10

5. Antiemetic (ethaperazinum 0.006 g).


( 0,006 ) 1
6
Individual anti-gas packages

-11 -
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+ 500 - 200 .
24 .

IAP-11 is designed to prevent skin-resorptive lesions with


toxic chemicals through the exposed skin and for
decontamination of these substances on human skin and
clothing, and tools; temperature range from + 50 to - 20 C.
Protective effect lasts for 24 hours.
Individual package of bandages

Individual package of bandages consists of:


- two multilayer napkins;
- flexible (or gauze) bandage;
- plastic packaging.

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Napkins are of three layers:


- atraumatic (knitted mesh);
- sorption (cotton viscose fibers);
- protective (non-woven polypropylene fabric.)

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- (- );
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Sanitary and special treatment

Special treatment is a series of organizational and technical measures for


decontamination and removal of poisonous, highly toxic, radioactive and
biological substances from the body surface.


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Special treatment

Main elements:
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Degassing is decontamination of objects through


destruction (neutralization) or removal of chemicals;

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Decontamination is a removal of radioactive substances


from objects.
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Disinfection is destruction of pathogens and toxins.


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Sanitary treatment

Sanitary treatment is a complex of measures to eliminate


contamination of the population with poisonous, radioactive and
biological substances.
It includes:
neutralization of exposed parts of the body by disinfectants;
bathing the whole body with hot water and soap;
replacement of underwear, replacement or disinfection of
contaminated clothing.

It may be partial and total.


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Sanitary processing

Full sanitizing is performed on a sanitary treatment site which is


deployed in the non-affected area, along escape routes, or in
designated areas of evacuation.
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Deploying site health processing



Conclusion

Measures to protect the population are carried out both preventively (as
a precaution) and promptly (urgently) considering possible dangers and
threats.


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The knowledge of hazardous and deleterious factors of natural, anthropogenic


and technogenic origin, the means and methods of their control, the main measures
and methods of engineering and medical protection is necessary to everyone, and
especially to health workers, for them to be able to guard themselves and victimized
individuals against the consequences of emergency situations.

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The lecture is over. Thank you!

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