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Schumanns Acculturation Model

Social Factors
May either inhibit or promote contact
between second language group (2LL group)
and the target language group (TL group)
Assumption: the greater the social distance
between the two groups, the more difficult it
is for members of 2LL group to acquire the
language of the TL group (Schumann, 1976)
Social Factors
1. Social dominance pattern
2. Integration of assimilation, preservation and
3. Enclosure
4. Cohesiveness and size
5. Congruence and similarity between the life-style
and value systems
6. Attitude
7. Intended length of residence in the TL area
Social Dominance Pattern First Social
If the 2LL group is politically, culturally, and
technically or economically superior (or consider
themselves superior) than the TL group, they will
tend not to learn the target language.
Reverse situation: If the 2LL group is inferior (or
consider themselves inferior) to the TL group,
social distance can rise between the two groups
and the 2LL will tend to resist learning the target
Social Dominance Pattern - Second
Involves three integration strategies:
1. Assimilation
2. Preservation
3. Acculturation
Involves giving up ones life-style and values in
favour of another
The best of the three strategies..why?
Leads to maximum contact between two
groups and facilitates language learning
Represents a compromise procedure of
adapting to the way of life and language of the
TL group
Second best because it yields varying degrees
of contact between the two groups
Is the opposite extreme because it involves
maintaining ones culture
Results in social distance and will give rise to
resistance in language learning
Enclosure third social factor
Amount of sharing of such social constructs as
schools, churches, recreational facilities, professions
and trades that the 2LL group enjoys with the TL
Such sharing enhances contact between the two
groups and consequently facilitates the language
learning process
But, the fewer social constructs the 2LL group shares
with the TL group, the more it will encounter
difficulties in learning the TL
Cohesiveness and Size 4th Social Factor

If the group tends to be always together to such an

extent it separates itself from the other group, then
its cohesion will make language learning difficult,
since it will give rise to social distance between the
two groups.
If the group is large, then the interaction with the
group will increase while opportunities for contact
with members of the other group will decrease.
Hence resulting to social distance and difficulties in
language learning.
Congruence and Similarity bet. the life-style and
value system of the 2LL and TL groups

If the language of the two groups belong on

the same language family, there will probably
be close similarity between their language
Both of them will enhance points of contact
between the two groups, and language
learning will be facilitated.
Attitude 6th factor

For learning to be made easier, it is important that

the members of the 2LL group hold positive ethnic
stereotypes about the TL group.
If it holds a negative stereotype of the TL group or if
both 2LL and TL groups have negative attitudinal
orientation towards each other, then social distance
can emerge and set up obstacles to effective
language learning.
Intended length of residence in the TL area 7th
If the 2LL group intends to stay longer in the
TL area, this fact will tend to reduce social
distance and ameliorate motivation.
If the 2LL group intends to stay in the area
permanently, the chances of success in
learning the TL are enhanced.
Schumann in 1976 pointed out:
All the seven factors interact such that one
affects the others.
For example, a groups cohesiveness may
result in high enclosure and affect attitudinal
Affective Factors
Language Shock
Culture Shock
Ego permeability
1. Language Shock

Stengal (1979) described it as learners

fear that he will appear comic when he
tries to speak to the TL
The less language shock the learner
experiences, the more probable it is that
he will learn to speak the TL.
If he succeeds in conquering his
inhibitions and fears, he will more likely
to learn the TL.
2. Culture Shock
Schumann (1975) defines it as anxiety resulting from
disorientation encountered upon entering a new
Reason: persons inability to cope with his new set
of problems, since the problem-solving mechanisms
which he was used to, do not seem to work in the
new setting.
Results in the individual rejection of himself and his
culture, even the people of his host country.

Larsen and Smalley (1972)

What the learner needs is a small

community of sympathetic people who
will help him in the difficult period when
he is a linguistic and cultural child-adult.
He needs a new family to help him grow
3. Motivation
The learners reason for trying to learn the
target language.
Gardner and Lambert integrative and
instrumental motivation
4. Ego Permeability
An individuals language ego develops with his
mastery of the phonology, morphology, syntax, and
lexicon of TL.
His language competence then becomes objectified
and develops from outlines and boundaries.
In early stage of development, the language ego
boundaries are permeable but later they become
fixed and rigid.
This rigidity is equated with heightened levels of
inhibition; when inhibition is lowered, ego
permeability is enhanced resulting to learn the TL