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# BFC 34402

CHAPTER 2.0

STRESS IN SOIL
INTRODUCTION
The deformations of soils are similar to the deformations of structural
framework such as a truss.
The truss deforms from changes in loads carried by each member. The
same is true for soils.
The principle of effective stress was first recognized by Terzaghi (1883
1963) in the mid-1920s during his research into soil consolidation.
The principle of effective stress is the most important principle in soil
mechanics. Deformations of soils are a function of effective stresses, not
total stresses.
The principle of effective stresses applies only to normal stresses and not to
shear stresses.
Soils cannot sustain tension. Consequently, the effective stress cannot be
less than zero.
Porewater pressures can be positive or negative. The latter are sometimes
called suction or suction pressure.
INTRODUCTION
EFFECTIVE STRESSES @ INTER-GRAIN STRESSES: CONT
EFFECTIVE STRESSES @ INTER-GRAIN STRESSES: CONT
EFFECTIVE STRESSES @ INTER-GRAIN STRESSES: CONT
STRESS IN SOIL

Introduction
STRESS IN SOIL
Introduction
Soils are stable under the existing effective overburden stresses.
However, when additional loads are placed on the ground surface, such as by footings,
These extra stresses are major sources of the settlement of soils.
In this sub-chapter, equations for the vertical stress increments in soil mass due to
various types of load on the ground surface are discussed. They will be used in
settlement computation
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By A Point Load
Boussinesq(1883) suggested that for normal stresses at a point caused by the point load P as
shown in below figure is:

Rewritten an equation:

## * Refer page 313 (text) for variation of I1 at various values

of r/z
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By A Point Load

Exercise

## A pole carries a vertical load of 200 kN. Determine the

vertical total stress increase at a depth 5 m (a) directly
below the pole and (b) at a radial distance of 2 m.
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By A Point Load
Exercise
STRESS IN SOIL
2.1.2 Stresses Caused By A Line Load

Vertical Horizontal

@
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By A Line Load

Exercise

## * Refer page 315 (table 10.2)

STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By A Line Load

Exercise
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By A Strip Load
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By A Strip Load
Exercise
STRESS IN SOIL

## * Refer page 327 (text) for I2

(Osterbergs Chart)
Exercise
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By Uniformly Loaded Circular area

## Below The Center Below At Any Point

Stresses Caused By Uniformly Loaded Circular area

Exercise
Stresses Caused By Uniformly Loaded Circular area
Exercise

c) It was observed that the culvert line is at point A (8m under the center of the
2
ring) and can sustain maximum of 150 kN/m vertical stress. Analyze the stress
that subjected to the culvert before and after the construction of this silo.
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By Rectangular Loaded Area

At any point

## * Refer table 10.9 and figure 10.26 for I3

STRESS IN SOIL
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By Rectangular Loaded Area
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By Rectangular Loaded Area

Exercise
STRESS IN SOIL
Stresses Caused By Rectangular Loaded Area

At center
STRESS IN SOIL
STRESS IN SOIL
Influence Chart (Newmark Chart)
Newmark constructed an influence chart, based on the Boussinesq solution, enabling the vertical stress
to be determined at any point below an area of any shape carrying a uniform pressure q.
STRESS IN SOIL
Influence Chart (Newmark Chart)
Influence Chart (Newmark Chart)
Exercise
LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE

## At Rest Active Passive

Ratio between the lateral & Ratio between the lateral & Ratio between the lateral &
vertical principle effective vertical principle effective vertical principle effective
stresses when an earth stresses when an earth stresses when an earth
retaining structure remains retaining structure moves retaining structure is forced
rigid and no movement away from the retained soil against to soil mass
LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE
Lateral Earth Pressure At Rest

Coefficient of earth * For coarse-grained soils (Jaky 1944) good result for
loose sand
pressure at rest

## * For a dense (compacted) sand backfill (Sherif & Fang

1984)

Ko increasing on Sherif & Fang equation is due to consolidation, so Mayne & Kulhawy (1982) recommended a modification to
Jaky equation to;

(Masarsch 1979)

## * For fine-grained, over consolidated soils

RANKINE, COULUMB & CULMANN THEORY
Rankine Theory

## There is no adhesion or friction between the wall and soil

Lateral pressure is limited to vertical walls
Failure (in the backfill) occurs as a sliding wedge
Lateral pressure varies linearly with depth and the resultant
pressure is located one-third of the height (H) above the
base of the wall
The resultant force is parallel to the backfill surface.
Rankine Theory

failure line

At Rest

## Active Mohr circle- for cohesionless soil (c=0)

Horizontal principle
stress decrease

Rankine Theory

## Passive- For frictionless wall, vertical back & horizontal backfill

Horizontal principle
stress increase
Mohr circle- for cohesionless soil (c=0)

## Potential slip plane

Rankine Theory

Generalized Case For Active & Passive - For frictionless wall, inclined backfill
Rankine Theory

## Active - For frictionless wall, inclined backfill

Pa = active force
for unit length

Rankine Theory

## Passive - For frictionless wall, inclined backfill

Pp = Passive force
for unit length
Special case: for = 0

## Location & direction of resultant Rankine force (Passive Case)

RANKINE, COULOMB & CULMANN THEORY

Coulomb Theory

## The Coulomb Theory

(similar to Rankine Theory except ;)

There is friction between the wall and soil and takes this
into account by using a soil-wall friction angle of . Note
that ranges from /2 to 2/3 and = 2/3 is commonly
used.
Lateral pressure is not limited to vertical walls
The resultant force is not necessarily parallel to the backfill
surface because of the soil-wall friction value.
Coulomb Theory

Active Passive
Coulomb Theory

Active

Passive
RANKINE, COULOMB & CULMANN THEORY

Culmann Theory
(graphic solution for coulombs active earth pressure )

## Culmann (1875) had developed the graphical solution which fit

to Coulombs earth pressure theory. It can be used for any wall
friction. Hence, it provides a very powerful technique for
estimating lateral earth pressure. The steps in Culmanns
solution are described in next slides:
Culmann Theory
(graphic solution for coulombs active earth pressure )
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE

At Rest

## Partially submerged soil

LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE

At Rest
Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE

At Rest
Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Cohesionless Soil With Horizontal Backfill

Active Passive
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Partially Submerged Cohesionless Soil supporting Surcharge

Active Passive
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Partially Submerged Cohesionless Soil supporting Surcharge

Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Partially Submerged Cohesionless Soil supporting Surcharge
Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Partially Submerged Cohesionless Soil supporting Surcharge

Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Partially Submerged Cohesionless Soil supporting Surcharge

Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Cohesive Soil With Horizontal Backfill

Active
Drained Condition Undrained Condition

## Pa after Tensile Crack Occurs

LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Cohesive Soil With Horizontal Backfill

Passive
Drained Condition Undrained Condition
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Cohesive Soil With Horizontal Backfill

Exercise
Cohesive Soil With Horizontal Backfill

Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Cohesive Soil With Horizontal Backfill

Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Cohesive Soil With Horizontal Backfill

Exercise Exercise
LATERAL PRESSURE ON EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE
Cohesive Soil With Horizontal Backfill

Exercise

## A retaining wall has to be constructed in UTHM to support clay in undrained

condition. The soil properties were observed as followed;
Bulk unit weight = 19kN/m3
Cohesion = 30kN/m2
The height of proposed retaining wall is 7m. Determine;

## a) Pa before tensile crack

b) Pa after max tensile crack
c) Pa when GWT raised up to 2m below the retaining wall surface.
APPLICATION OF SOIL STRESS THEORY IN DESIGN

## In previous parts, you were introduced to various theories of lateral earth

pressure. Those theories will be used to design various types of retaining walls. In
general, retaining walls can be divided into two major categories: (a) conventional
retaining walls and (b) mechanically stabilized earth walls. Conventional
retaining walls can generally be classified into four varieties:
1. Gravity retaining walls
2. Semi-gravity retaining walls
3. Cantilever retaining walls
4. Counterfort retaining walls
APPLICATION OF SOIL STRESS THEORY IN DESIGN
Gravity retaining walls (Figure 13.1a) are
constructed with plain concrete or stone masonry.
They depend for stability on their own weight and
any soil resting on the masonry. This type of
construction is not economical for high walls.
In many cases, a small amount of steel may be used
for the construction of gravity walls, thereby
minimizing the size of wall sections. Such walls are
generally referred to as semi-gravity walls (Figure
13.1b).
Cantilever retaining walls (Figure 13.1c) are made of
reinforced concrete that consists of a thin stem and a
base slab. This type of wall is economical to a height
of about 8 m (25 ft). Figure 13.2 shows a cantilever
retaining wall under construction.
Counterfort retaining walls (Figure 13.1d) are
similar to cantilever walls. At regular intervals,
however, they have thin vertical concrete slabs
known as counterforts that tie the wall and the base
slab together. The purpose of the counterforts is to
reduce the shear and the bending moments.
APPLICATION OF SOIL STRESS THEORY IN DESIGN

To design retaining walls properly, an engineer must know the basic parameters;
the unit weight, angle of friction, and cohesion of the soil retained behind the wall
and the soil below the base slab.
Knowing the properties of the soil behind the wall enables the engineer to
determine the lateral pressure distribution that has to be designed for.
There are two phases in the design of a conventional retaining wall. First, with the
lateral earth pressure known, the structure as a whole is checked for stability. The
structure is examined for possible overturning, sliding, and bearing capacity
failures.
Second, each component of the structure is checked for strength, and the steel
reinforcement of each component is determined. This sub-chapter presents the
procedures for determining the stability of the retaining wall. Checks for strength
can be found in any textbook on reinforced concrete.
APPLICATION OF SOIL STRESS THEORY IN DESIGN

## In designing retaining walls, an

engineer must assume some of
their dimensions called
proportioning.
Such assumptions allow the
engineer to check trial sections of
the walls for stability.
If the stability checks yield
undesirable results, the sections
can be changed and rechecked.
Figure 13.3 shows the general
proportions of various retaining-
wall components that can be used
for initial checks.
APPLICATION OF SOIL STRESS THEORY IN DESIGN
To use lateral earth pressure theories in design, an
engineer must make several simple assumptions.
In the case of cantilever walls, the use of the
Rankine earth pressure theory for stability checks
involves drawing a vertical line AB through point
A, located at the edge of the heel of the base slab in
Figure 13.4a.
The Rankine active condition is assumed to exist
along the vertical plane AB.
Rankine active earth pressure equations may then
be used to calculate the lateral pressure on the face
AB of the wall.
In the analysis of the walls stability, the force Pa
(Rankined), the weight of soil above the heel, Ws
and the weight of the concrete, Wc all should be
taken into consideration.
APPLICATION OF SOIL STRESS THEORY IN DESIGN

A similar type of analysis may be used for gravity walls, as shown in Figure 13.4b. However,
Coulombs active earth pressure theory also may be used, as shown in Figure 13.4c. If it is
used, the only forces to be considered are Pa (Coulomb) and the weight of the wall, Wc .
APPLICATION OF SOIL STRESS THEORY IN DESIGN

If Coulombs theory is used, it will be necessary to know the range of the wall friction angle,
with various types of backfill material. Following are some ranges of wall friction angle for
masonry or mass concrete walls:

In the case of ordinary retaining walls, water table problems and hence hydrostatic pressure are
not encountered. Facilities for drainage from the soils that are retained are always provided.
APPLICATION OF SOIL STRESS THEORY IN DESIGN

## A retaining wall may fail in any of the

following ways:
i. It may overturn about its toe. (See
Figure 13.5a.)
ii. It may slide along its base. (See
Figure 13.5b.)
iii. It may fail due to the loss of
bearing capacity of the soil
supporting the base. (See Figure
13.5c.)
iv. It may undergo deep-seated shear
failure. (See Figure 13.5d.)
APPLICATION OF SOIL STRESS THEORY IN DESIGN
Deep shear failure can occur along a cylindrical surface, such as abc shown in Figure 13.6, as a
result of the existence of a weak layer of soil underneath the wall at a depth of about 1.5 times
the width of the base slab of the retaining wall.
In such cases, the critical cylindrical failure surface abc has to be determined by trial and error,
using various centers such as O.
Assignments

13.13
13.14
13.15
13.19
13.20

THE END

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