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What is fuel?

Substance consumed, oxidized, or otherwise


changed in the process of releasing heat
energy.

A material used to produce heat or power by


burning.
Why we use fuel alternatives?
Fuel is a non-renewable source of energy, we are using fuel in
our domestic as well as industrial level also.
Here some reasons to used fuel alternatives:

Conventional fuels are going to run out.


To reduce pollution.
To protect against global warming.
To save money
Can reuse waste
Fuel alternatives
Ethanol
An alcohol based alternative fuel made by fermenting and
distilling crops such as corn or wheat. It can be blended with
gasoline to increase octane levels and improve emissions
quality. Ethanol provides up to 30% fewer emissions than
carbon monoxide.
Natural Gas
Natural gas comes from gas wells. It is a form of fossil fuel and
is not considered a renewable resource, however, it is
considered an alternative fuel because it burns much cleaner
than gasoline or diesel. Proved to be the most effective fuel for
reducing emissions in an IC engines. It is very easy on the
engine, giving longer service life and lower maintenance costs.
Electricity
Electricity can be used as an alternative fuel for battery-powered
electric and fuel-cell vehicles. Battery powered electric vehicles store
power in batteries that are recharged by plugging the vehicle into a
standard electrical source. Fuel-cell vehicles run on electricity that is
produced through an electrochemical reaction that occurs when
hydrogen and oxygen are combined.
Hydrogen
Hydrogen does not occur free in nature; it can be made by"re-
forming" natural gas or another fossil fuel, or by using electricity to
split water into its components, oxygen and hydrogen. Hydrogen is
used in fuel-cell vehicles that run on electricity produced by the
petrochemical reaction that occurs when hydrogen and oxygen are
combined.
Methanol
Methanol, also known as wood alcohol, can be used as an
alternative fuel in flexible fuel vehicles that are designed to run on
M85, a blend of 85 percent methanol and 15 percent gasoline, but
automakers are no longer manufacturing methanol-powered
vehicles.

P-Series Fuels
P-Series fuels are a blend of ethanol, natural gas liquids and methyl-
tetra-hydro furan , a co-solvent derived from biomass. P-Series fuels
are clear, high-octane alternative fuels that can be used in flexible
fuel vehicles.
Liquefied Natural Gas
LNG is a clear, colorless and non-toxic liquid which forms when
natural gas is cooled to -162C. The cooling process shrinks the
volume of the gas 600 times, making it easier and safer to store and
ship. In its liquid state, LNG will not ignite. LNG is now also
emerging as a cost-competitive and cleaner fuel.

Liquefied Petroleum Gas


LPG, or liquid petroleum gas, has had popularity in the past due to its
low cost. The fuel made from a mixture of propane and butane gas
generally. This make up creates far fewer particles than traditional
fuels and it is also free of additives and tetra-ethyl lead- a lead based
toxin added to fossil to fuel to increase power and economy.
Biodiesel
Biodiesel is produced from soybeans, vegetable oil or used
restaurant grease, that includes animal fat.. Vehicle engines can be
converted to burn biodiesel in its pure form.
Biodiesel's physical properties are similar to those of petroleum
diesel, but it is a cleaner-burning alternative. It can be used in
existing diesel engines without modification and is covered by all
major engine manufacturers warranties, most often in blends of up to
5 percent or 20 percent biodiesel.
Lubrication
The action of applying a substance such as oil or grease to an
engine or component so as to minimize friction and allow
smooth movement.

Why we need lubrication?

We lubricate our machinery to minimize the resistance to movement.


To minimize the amount of heat produced.
To minimize wear in two mating parts.
To make possible smooth type of motion.
How it works?

A lubricant works by separating two surfaces


that are in relative motion & reduce friction
b/w them. This prevents the removing
particles from weaker surface. It also reduce
the force & power required to a machine to do
a desired task.
Lubricant characteristic

It must
sustain at high temperatures.
viscous & thicker enough.
supporting at higher speeds & powers.
should not mixed with any other liquid if leaks from
lubrication space.

Note:
Proper amount is required, less or excess amount causes
improper functioning.
Composition of lubricant
Lube oil is extracted from crude oil & a
particular chemical additive.
Processes
Sedimentation (remove any water and solid contaminants).
Fractionating (to collect higher & lower hydrocarbons separately).
Filtering & Solvent extraction (to remove undesired particles)
Additives (to impart desired properties)

Packaging after various quality control tests.


Types of lubrication
State of matter
Gaseous Liquid Semi-solid Solid

General
Mineral Synthetic Vegetable Animal
According to additives
Extreme pressure
Anti-wear
Friction modifiers
Corrosion inhibitors
Anti-oxidants
Dispersants
Detergents

Compounded
Anti-foaming agents
Pour point depressant
According to application

Engine oils
Gear oils
Hydraulic oils
Compressor oils
Quenching and heat transfer oils
Rust protection oils
Transformer oils (insulating oils)
Turbine oils
Chain lubricants
Wire rope lubricants
LUBRICANT CLASSIFICATION

There are two main classification criteria for motor oils:


Based on Viscosity (SAE)
Based on Performance (API, ACEA, manufacturer's specifications)

Best motor oil brands


Valvoline Wurth Triathlon Mobil 1 Castrol Total Lubricants