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Gas Metering
By SNGPL-Metering Department
OVERVIEW
Metering Department is responsible for accurate measurement of
gas, operation and maintenance of all metering and regulating
stations having following major scope of work.

Operation and maintenance of instruments like Valves,


Regulators, Relief Valves, Electronic Volume Corrector, Meters
etc.
Calibration of Instruments such as Pressure / Temperature
Recorders, Calorimeters, Gauges etc.
Design of metering and Regulating Stations
Schedule meter replacement
Operation and Augmentation of Distribution network
Repair of all types of meters at Central and Regional meter
shops and generation of impartial and accurate Meter
Inspection Report
What is natural Gas?
Natural gas is a gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons,
comprising primarily of methane (CH4) with other
hydrocarbons, inert and impurities as minor
constituents.

Composition of natural gas depends on the Production


field from which it is extracted
Processes of Natural Gas
Extraction & Utilization

Exploration
Extraction
Production
Well Completion
Processing

Transportation
Distribution
Exploration
In the early days of the industry, the only way of locating
underground petroleum and natural gas deposits was to
search for surface evidence of these underground
formations. Those searching for natural gas deposits were
forced to scour the earth, looking for seepages of oil or
gas
By surveying and mapping the surface and sub-surface
characteristics of a certain area, the geologist can
extrapolate which areas are most likely to contain a
petroleum or natural gas reservoir.
Once the geologist has determined an area where it is
geologically possible for a natural gas or petroleum
formation to exist, further tests can be performed to gain
more detailed data about the potential reservoir area.
Arguably the biggest breakthrough in petroleum and Seismology in Practice
natural gas exploration came through the use of basic
seismology.
The basic concept of seismology is quite simple. As the
Earth's crust is composed of different layers, each with its
own properties, energy (in the form of seismic waves)
traveling underground interacts differently with each of
these layers. These seismic waves, emitted from a source,
will travel through the earth, but also be reflected back
towards the source by the different underground layers. It
is this reflection that allows for the use of seismology in
discovering the properties of underground geology.
Offshore Seismic Exploration
Extraction
Once a potential natural gas deposit has been
located by a team of exploration geologists and
geophysicists, it is up to a team of drilling
experts to actually dig down to where the
natural gas is thought to exist.
The exact placement of the drill site depends on
a variety of factors, including the nature of the
potential formation to be drilled, the
characteristics of the subsurface geology, and
the depth and size of the target deposit.
If the new well, once drilled, does in fact come A Small Drill Gas Well Schematic
in contact with natural gas deposits, it is
developed to allow for the extraction of this
natural gas, and is termed a 'development' or
'productive' well. At this point, with the well
drilled and hydrocarbons present, the well may
be completed to facilitate its production of
natural gas. However, if the exploration team
was incorrect in its estimation of the existence
of marketable quantity of natural gas at a well-
site, the well is termed a 'dry well', and
production does not proceed.
Installing Well Casing
Production
Well Completion
Once a natural gas or oil well is drilled, and it
has been verified that commercially viable
quantities of natural gas are present for
extraction, the well must be 'completed' to
allow for the flow of petroleum or natural gas
out of the formation and up to the surface.
This process includes strengthening the well
hole with casing, evaluating the pressure and
temperature of the formation, and then
installing the proper equipment to ensure an
efficient flow of natural gas out of the well.

Well Heads

Production Continue ..
- Processing Natural Gas . Production
Natural gas, as it is
used by consumers, is much
different from the natural gas
that is brought from
underground up to the wellhead.
Natural gas processing consists
of separating all of the various
hydrocarbons and fluids from
the pure natural gas, to produce
what is known as 'pipeline
quality' dry natural gas. Major
transportation pipelines usually
impose restrictions on the
make-up of the natural gas that
is allowed into the pipeline.
That means that before the
natural gas can be transported
it must be purified. While the
ethane, propane, butane, and
pentanes must be removed from
natural gas, this does not mean
that they are all 'waste
products'.
Transportation
The efficient and effective movement of natural gas
from producing regions to consumption regions
requires an extensive and elaborate transportation
system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a
particular well will have to travel a great distance to
reach its point of use. The transportation system for
natural gas consists of a complex network of pipelines,
designed to quickly and efficiently transport natural gas
from its origin, to areas of high natural gas demand.
There are essentially three major types of pipelines
along the transportation route: the gathering system,
the transmission/interstate pipeline, and the
distribution system. The gathering system consists of
low pressure, low diameter pipelines that transport raw
natural gas from the wellhead to the processing plant.
Should natural gas from a particular well have high
sulfur and carbon dioxide contents (sour gas), a Gas Transmission Line
specialized sour gas gathering pipe must be installed.
Sour gas is extremely corrosive and dangerous, thus its
transportation from the wellhead to the sweetening
plant must be done carefully.
To ensure that the natural gas flowing through any one
pipeline remains pressurized, compression of this
natural gas is required periodically along the pipe. This
is accomplished by compressor stations, usually placed
at 40 to 100 mile intervals along the pipeline. The
natural gas enters the compressor station, where it is
compressed by either a turbine, motor, or engine.
Distribution
Local distribution companies typically transport natural gas from delivery points along
transmission pipelines through thousands of miles of small-diameter distribution pipe.
Delivery points to (Local Distribution Company) LDCs (i.e. Distribution Regions),
especially for large municipal areas, are often termed 'city-gates', and are important
market centers for the pricing of natural gas. Typically, LDCs (i.e. Distribution Regions)
take ownership of the natural gas at the citygate, and deliver it to each individual
customer's location of use. This requires an extensive network of small-diameter
distribution pipe.