Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36



Channel Access methods
OFDM concept
OFDM advantages and disadvantages
Wavelet Transform
Wavelet Based OFDM Systems
OFDM is a special case of FDM. OFDM
provides high level of spectral efficiency when
compared with FDM.
Conventional OFDM uses FFT,IFFT and CP
mainly. They result in high side lobes and
These drawbacks are overcome by using
wavelet transform in place of FFT and IFFT.
Transmitting and receiving voice and data
using electromagnetic waves in open space.
Information is carried over well defined
Each channel has fixed frequency bandwidth
and capacity.
Different channels can be used to transmit
information in parallel and independently.
Received Signal
Transmitting Signal

Transmitting Receiving
Antenna Antenna

No wires are needed.

Information is conveyed quickly.
Can access internet anywhere without using
wireless networks are cheaper to install and

It is easy for hackers to grab the wireless

signals that are spread in air.
There is risk to lose information.
Wireless communication require strong
security protocols to secure the wireless

many users at same time.

share a finite amount of radio spectrum.
multiplexing techniques are used.
Frequency-division Multiple Acess
FDMA advantages

does not need base control station.

channel operations are simple.
no need of equalization.
FDMA algorithms are simple.
No need of bits for synchronization.
FDMA Disadvantages

Stations can not receive data from more than

one transmission source.
Data rate is small and fixed for every channel.
Due to guard bands, capacity is reduced.
Require special filters to avoid interference
between channels.
Time-division Multiple Access

TDMA can easily adapt to transmission of

data as well as voice communication.
Since TDMA technology separates users
according to time, it ensures that there will be
no interference from simultaneous
TDMA is the most cost effective technology to
convert an analog system to digital.

Disadvantage using TDMA technology is that the

users has a predefined time slot. When moving
from one cell site to other, if all the time slots in
this cell are full the user might be disconnected.
Another problem in TDMA is that it is subjected
to multipath distortion. To overcome this
distortion, a time limit can be used on the
system. Once the time limit is expired the signal is
Code-Division Multiple Access
CDMA is multiple access scheme that allows
many users to share the same bandwidth
3G (WCDMA), IS-95
Basic Principles of CDMA
Each user is assigned a unique spreading code
The processing gain protects the useful signal and
reduces interference between the different users

PG = (Bandwidth after spreading)/(Bandwidth before spreading)

One of the main advantages of CDMA is that
dropouts occur only when the phone is at
least twice as far from the base station. Thus,
it is used in the rural areas where GSM cannot
Another advantage is its capacity; it has a very
high spectral capacity that it can
accommodate more users per MHz of
Channel pollution, where signals from too many cell
sites are present in the subscriber. s phone but none of
them is dominant. When this situation arises, the
quality of the audio degrades.
When compared to GSM is the lack of international
roaming capabilities.
The ability to upgrade or change to another handset is
not easy with this technology because the network
service information for the phone is put in the actual
phone unlike GSM which uses SIM card for this.
Limited variety of the handset, because at present the
major mobile companies use GSM technology.
Comparisons of FDMA, TDMA, CDMA
Allocated 12.5 MHz 12.5 MHz 12.5 MHz
Frequency reuse 7 7 1
Required channel 0.03 MHz 0.03 MHz 1.25 MHz
No. of RF channels 12.5/0.03=416 12.5/0.03=416 12.5/1.25=10
Channels/cell 416/7=59 416/7=59 12.5/1.25=10
Control 2 2 2
Calls/RF Channel 1 4* 40**

Voice channels/cell 57x1=57 57x4=228 8x40=320

Sectors/cell 3 3 3
Voice calls/sector 57/3=19 228/3=76 320
Capacity vs FDMA 1 4 16.8
method that encodes digital data
on multiple carriers.
special case of FDM technology
handles multipath effects at the
OFDM principle
modulation and multiplexing is done in this
subcarriers are separated in such a way that
they are orthogonal to each other
these sub carriers are used to carry data
The data is divided into several parallel data
streams or channels, one for each subcarrier.
the orthogonality of the sub carriers should
satisfy the following equations
Sub carriers
The sub carriers are expressed as
Sub carriers
The sum of sub carriers of OFDM signal is
expressed as
conventional OFDM uses Discrete Fourier
Transform for modulation purpose.
IFFT is used at the transmission
FFT is used at the receiver
this process is shown in the OFDM system
OFDM system
OFDM advantages
Efficient use of spectrum
It is resistant to frequency selective fading
eliminates ISI and ICI by using cyclic prefix
Using adequate channel coding and
interleaving one can recover symbols lost due
to the frequency selectivity of the channel.
Channel equalization becomes simple.
OFDM advantages
It is possible to use maximum likelihood
decoding with reasonable complexity.
OFDM is computationally efficient by using
FFT techniques to implement the modulation
and demodulation functions.
Is less sensitive to sample timing offsets than
single carrier systems are.
Provides good protection against co channel
interference and impulsive parasitic noise.
OFDM disadvantages
The OFDM signal has a noise like amplitude
with a very large dynamic range, therefore it
requires RF power amplifiers with a high peak
to average power ratio.
It is more sensitive to carrier frequency offset
and drift than single carrier systems are due to
leakage of the DFT.
Need for OWPDM
In conventional OFDM, modulation is done
using FFT and IFFT. They use rectangular
window which have large side lobes. Use of CP
results overhead.
Fourier transform is replaced with wavelet
transform which results high suppression of
side lobes. It also reduces ISI and ICI without
using cyclic prefix.
Wavelet packet Transform
The basis function is
(t) = (2t-n)h(n)
the orthonormality condition is
h[n]h[n-2m] = [m] and (-1)n h[n] =0
Dilation equation is
(t) = (2t-n)g[n]
Wavelet Based OFDM transmitter
Wavelet Based OFDM receiver
OWPDM advantages
High suppression of side lobes
Reduces ICI and ISI without cyclic prefix
Over AWGN and Rayleigh channel they offer
low SNR.
Reduces overhead thus increasing bandwidth.

Conventional OFDM system and Wavelet

Based OFDM system is studied. The potential
in studying OWDM is to obtain good
orthogonality with minimum Inter Symbol
Interference (ISI) and Inter Carrier
Interference (ICI) in addition with spectral
efficiency without CP.
T Rappaport, Wireless Communications Principles, Prentice Hall, 2nd
edition, 2002.

G.L. Stuber,"Principles of Mobile Communication", Norwell, MA: Kluwer

Academics Publishers, 2nd ed., 2001.

Yong Soo Cho, Jaekwon Kim, Won Young Yang, Chung Gu Kang, "MIMO-
OFDM Wireless Communications with MATLAB", 1st edition, John Wiley &
Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, 2010.

Ramjee Prasad, OFDM for wireless Communication Systems, Artech

House Publishers, 2004.

Peng Tan, Norman C. Beaulieu, A Comparison of DCT-Based OFDM and

DFT-Based OFDM in Frequency Offset and Fading Channels, IEEE Trans.
Commun, vol 54, NO.11, Nov. 2006.