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Seismogram

WEAK STRONG

P S surface waves

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Seismographs

Seismographs are devices that


record ground motion during
earthquakes.
The first seismographs were
constructed at the very end of the
19th century in Italy and Germany.
Observational Seismology
Some statistics
Observational Seismology
Some statistics
Residents of the National Capital Region (NCR), however, should not consider
themselves lucky that temblors of that magnitude will never affect them.
In all likelihood, it will.
Dr. Renato Solidum Jr., Phivolcs director, said the latest collaborative works of
geologists show that the West Valley faultwhich covers parts of Metro Manilahas
moved in the last 1.400 years, and has a cycle of between 400 to 600 years.
Aerial photographs, satellite imagery and topographic maps completed by the institute in
1991 showed movements in the fault.
The next killer quake may not strike until 2058 (the last major movement took place
in 1658), but this early government agencies were preparing for the worst, Solidum said.
Intense damage can be expected in Marikina, Quezon City, Pasig, Makati, Pateros, Taguig
and Muntinlupa, where the West Valley fault passes.
Based on studies by Phivolcs and the US Geological Services, the next big quaketo
hit either Metro Manila or central Visayas (again)would be between magnitude 6 and 7.
For planning purposes and based on the data we have, what we are planning for is a
magnitude 7.2 earthquake scenario, Solidum said.
In the case of Metro Manila, the scenario is based on the length of the West
Valley fault.
If a big quake hits the metropolis at night, the death toll could be as high as
31,000. Some 78 million square meters would be affected.
Phivolcs studied the buildings in Metro Manila and found that most of them are
old and needed retrofitting in order to survive the same type of shock as the Bohol
quake.
Source:http://www.manilatimes.net/killer-quake-can-hit-metro-or-central-visayas/65670/
SOME OF THE PHILIPPINES
NOTABLE EARTHQUAKE
EXPERIENCES

AUGUST 16, 1976


JULY 16, 1990
AUGUST 31, 2012
THE MINDANAO EARTHQUAKE
AND GULF OF MORO TSUNAMI
The Philippines Worst
Earthquake/Tsunami Disaster

M7.9
AUGUST 16, 1976
LOCATION
THE EARTHQUAKE
Occurring at night when schools and
offices were closed, the fatalities were
relatively low (about 800) despite
extensive damage to buildings due to
poor construction and/or inadequate
foundations.
Bridges and roads in Mindanao and the
city of Cotobato were damaged.
COTOBATO: DAMAGED BRIDGE
Unfortunately, there was no time for the
Pacific Tsunami Warning Center to issue
a warning before a large local tsunami
struck the region just minutes after the
earthquake,
THE GULF OF MORO TSUNAMI
The destructive tsunami generated in
the Gulf of Moro and in the Celebes Sea
killed about 90 percent of the estimated
8,000 total fatalities, hitting peope in
coastal communities in North and
South Zamboanga, North and South
Lanao, North Cotabato, Maguindanao
and Sultan Kudarat (Mindanao), and in
the neighboring Sulu Islands.
THE LUZON EARTHQUAKE

M7.8
JULY 16, 1990
4:26 pm
LOCATION

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1990_Luzon_
earthquake
OCCURRENCE
The earthquake occurred on the
Philippine fault system, a well-
known strike-slip fault zone.
The rupture produced a 125 km-
long surface scarp stretching from
Dingalan, Aurora to Cuvapo, Nueva
Eciia.
LESSONS LEARNED FOR
DISASTER RESILIENCE
ALL NOTABLE
EARTHQUAKES
PROTECTION OF
BUILDINGS AND
INFRASTRUCTURE
IS ESSENTIAL
FOR COMMUNITY
RESILIENCE.
Baguio City was isolated from
the rest of the Philippines for
48 hours after the quake.
BAGUIO CITY: DAMAGE TO
BUILDINGS
Baguio City, a popular tourist
destination, situated about 1,500 m
(1 mile) above sea level, was among the
areas hardest hit by the earthquake.
The collapsed and damaged buildings
in Baguio City included hotels,
factories, government and university
buildings, and homes..[
HYATT TERACES HOTEL: 80
DEAD
BAGUIO CITY: DAMAGE TO
LIFELINE SYSTEMS
Electric, water and communication
lines were destroyed.
Kennon Road, the main vehicular
route to Baguio, as well as other
access routes to the mountain city,
were shut down by landslides
FATALITIES
An estimated 1,621 people were
killed in the earthquake, with
most of the fatalities located in
the Central Luzon and Cord-
illera region
M7.6 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES 140 KM FROM
SAMAR PROVINCE ON
EAST COAST OF THE PHILIPPINES

34 KM DEEP
8:47 PM
AUGUST 31, 2012
LOCATION MAP
THE PHILIPPINES RENATO
SOLIDUM POINTS TO EPICENTER
LESSONS LEARNED FOR
DISASTER RESILIENCE
ALL NOTABLE
EARTHQUAKES
PREPAREDNESS
PLANNING FOR
THE INEVITABLE
GROUND
SHAKING IS
ESSENTIAL FOR
COMMUNITY
RESILIENCE.
CAGAYAN DE ORO:
A COLLAPSED HOUSE
DAMAGED ROAD
DAMAGED ROAD
LESSONS LEARNED FOR
DISASTER RESILIENCE
ALL NATURAL
HAZARDS
CAPACITY FOR
INTELLIGENT
EMERGENCY
RESPONSE IS
ESSENTIAL FOR
COMMUNITY
RESILIENCE.
Before an earthquake
Know the earthquake hazards in your area
Strap or bolt heavy furniture / cabinets to the
wall
Check the stability of hanging objects like
ceiling fans and chandeliers
Breakable items, harmful chemicals and
flammable materials should be stored
properly in the lowermost secured shelves
Before the Earthquake
Familiarize yourself with the exit routes
Know where fire extinguishers, first aid kits,
alarms and communication facilities are
located. Learn how to use them beforehand
Prepare a handy emergency supply kit with
first aid kit, canned food and can opener,
water, clothing, blanket, battery-operated
radio, flashlights and extra batteries
During an earthquake
Stay calm
When you are inside a structurally sound
building or home, STAY THERE
If possible quickly open the door for exit
Duck, cover hold under a sturdy desk or table
Stay away from glass windows, shelves,
cabinets and other heavy objects
Beware of falling objects
During an earthquake
If youre outside, move to an open area
Stay away from trees, power lines, posts and
concrete structures
Move away from steep slopes which may be
affected by landslides
If youre near the shore and feel an
earthquake, especially if its too strong, move
quickly to a higher ground. TSUNAMIS might
follow.
During an Earthquake
If youre in a moving vehicle, stop and get out!
Do not attempt to cross bridges, overpasses, or
flyovers which may have been damaged.
CHECK