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Lecture Presentation

Chapter 4
Molecules and
Compounds

Catherine E. MacGowan
Armstrong State University
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Elements to Molecules

When two or more elements combine, a molecule


is formed.
Elements can be the same.
The molecular compound of oxygen, O2
Elements can be different.
The molecular compound of water, H2O

Molecules are compounds.

The great diversity of substances that we find in


nature is a direct result of the ability of elements
to form compounds.
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Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Water

The dramatic difference between the elements


hydrogen and oxygen and the compound water is
typical of the differences between elements and the
compounds that they form.

When two or more elements combine to form a


compound, an entirely new substance results.

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Law of Definite Proportion: Formation of
Molecules
A hydrogenoxygen mixture can have any
proportions of hydrogen and oxygen gas.
Water (H2O) has a definite proportion of hydrogen
to oxygen.
A water molecule always is composed of two hydrogen
atoms to every one oxygen atom.
A ratio of 2 hydrogen atoms : 1 oxygen atom

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Types of Chemical Bonds

Compounds are composed of atoms held together


by chemical bonds.

Chemical bonds result from the attractions between


the charged particles (the electrons and protons)
that compose atoms.

Chemical bonds are classified into three types:


Ionic
Covalent
Metallic
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Types of Chemical Bonds: Ionic versus
Covalent

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Ionic Bonds:
Between a Metal Atom and Nonmetal Atom
Ionic bonds occur between metals and nonmetals.
They involve the transfer of electrons from one atom to
another.

When a metal interacts with a nonmetal, it can


transfer one or more of its electrons to the
nonmetal.
The metal atom then becomes a cation.
The nonmetal atom becomes an anion.

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Ionic Bonds: Ionic Compounds

These oppositely charged ions attract one another


by electrostatic forces and form an ionic bond.

The result is an ionic


compound, which in
the solid phase is
composed of a lattice
(i.e., a regular three-
dimensional array of
alternating cations
and anions).

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Covalent Bonds: Bonds between
Nonmetal Atoms
Covalent bonds occur between two or more
nonmetals.
They involve the sharing of electrons between
two atoms.
When a nonmetal bonds with another nonmetal,
neither atom transfers electrons to the other.
Instead, the bonding atoms share some of their
electrons.
The covalently bound atoms compose a molecule.
Hence, they are referred to as molecular compounds.
Molecular compounds are composed of atoms covalently bonded
to each other.

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Representing Compounds:
Chemical Formulas and Molecular Models
A compound is represented by its chemical
formula.

Chemical formula indicates the type and number of


each element present in the compound.
Water is represented as H2O.
Carbon dioxide is represented as CO2.
Sodium chloride is represented as NaCl.
Carbon tetrachloride is represented as CCl4.

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Types of Chemical Formulas

Chemical formulas can generally be categorized


into three different types:
Empirical formula
Molecular formula
Structural formula

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Types of Chemical Formulas

An empirical formula gives the relative number of


atoms of each element in a compound.
It is the simplest whole-number (ratio) representation of
the type and number of elements present in a molecule.

A molecular formula gives the actual number of


atoms of each element in a molecule of a
compound.
(a) For C4H8, the greatest common factor is 4. The empirical formula is
therefore CH2.
(b) For B2H6, the greatest common factor is 2. The empirical formula is
therefore BH3.
(c) For CCl4, the only common factor is 1, so the empirical formula and
the molecular formula are identical.
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Types of Chemical Formulas: Structural

A structural formula is a sketch or diagram of


how the atoms in the molecule are bonded to
each other.
It uses lines to represent covalent bonds and shows
how atoms in a molecule are connected or bonded
to each other.
Example: The structural formula for H2O2 is shown below:

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Problem Solving: Molecular and Empirical
Formulas
Example 4.1 Molecular and Empirical Formulas
Write the empirical formula for the compound represented by each molecular formula.
a. C4H8 b. B2H6 c. CCl4

Solution
To determine the empirical formula from a molecular formula, divide the subscripts by the greatest common factor
(the largest number that divides exactly into all of the subscripts).

a. For C4H8, the greatest common factor is 4. The empirical formula is therefore CH2.
b. For B2H6, the greatest common factor is 2. The empirical formula is therefore BH3.
c. For CCl4, the only common factor is 1, so the empirical formula and the molecular formula are the same.

For Practice 4.1


Write the empirical formula for the compound represented by each molecular formula.
a. C5H12
b. Hg2Cl2
c. C2H4O2

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Types of Chemical Formulas: Summary

The type of formula used depends on how much is known


about the compound and how much information is to be
communicated.
A structural formula communicates the most information.
It conveys the type and actual number as well as the arrangement of
the atoms in the molecule.
Its a visual picture of the compound.
A molecular formula conveys the actual type and number
of elemental atoms in the compound.
It does not tell you how each of the atoms are bonded to
each other.
An empirical formula communicates the least.
It conveys the simplest whole-number (relative) relationship of atom
to atom in the molecule.
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Molecular Models: 3-D Representation of a
Molecule
A molecular model is a more
accurate and complete way to specify
a compound.

A ball-and-stick molecular model


represents atoms as balls and
chemical bonds as sticks; how the two
connect reflects a molecules shape.

The balls are typically color-coded to


specific elements.

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Molecular Models: 3-D Representation of a
Molecule
In a space-filling molecular model, atoms fill the space
between each other to more closely represent our best
estimates for how a molecule might appear if scaled to
visible size.

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Ways of Representing a Compound

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Lewis Structure Model: Representing a
Substances Valence Electrons
The Lewis Model:
Valence electrons are represented as dots.

Lewis electron-dot structures (Lewis structures) depict


the structural formula with its valence electrons.

Lewis structures focus on valence electrons because


chemical bonding involves the transfer or sharing of
valence electrons between two or more atoms.
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Lewis Theory and Bonding

The Lewis Model:


It is used mainly to illustrate covalent-bonded molecular
compounds but can be used to illustrate simple ionic
compounds.
Lewis Symbols:
They can be used to represent the transfer of electrons from
a metal atom (group 1Agroup 3A metals) to a nonmetal
atom, resulting in ions that are attracted to each other and
therefore bond.

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Octet Rule: A Guideline for Molecule
Formation
When atoms bond, they tend to gain, lose, or share electrons to
result in a noble gaslike configuration.
ns2np6

Nonmetal period 2 elements must obey the octet rule (i.e.,


eight valence electrons around each atom in the molecule).

Exceptions to the octet rule: expanded octets


They involve the nonmetal elements located in period 3 and below.
Nonmetals (period 3 on down in the periodic table) follow the octet rule
when they are not the center atom.
The center atom is the atom in the molecule that the other
elements individually bond (attach) to.
When they are the center atom, they can accommodate more than
eight electrons.
Using empty valence d orbitals that are predicted by
quantum theory
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Octet Rule: A Guideline for Molecule
Formation
Exceptions to the octet rule:
H, Li, Be, and B attain an electron configuration like that
of He.
He can have ONLY two valence electrons, a duet.
Li loses its one valence electron.
H shares or gains one electron.
Though it commonly loses its one electron to become H+
Be loses two electrons to become Be2+.
Though it commonly shares its two electrons in covalent
bonds, resulting in four valence electrons
B loses three electrons to become B3+.
Though it commonly shares its three electrons in covalent
bonds, resulting in six valence electrons

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Problem Solving: Using Lewis Structures
to Predict Compound
Example 4.2 Using Lewis Symbols to Predict the Chemical Formula
of an Ionic Compound
Use the Lewis model to predict the formula for the compound that forms between calcium and chlorine.

Solution
Draw Lewis symbols for calcium and chlorine based on their number of valence electrons, obtained from their group
number in the periodic table.

Calcium needs to lose its two valence electrons (to be left with an octet in its previous principal shell), while chlorine
only needs to gain one electron to get an octet. Therefore, you must have two chlorine atoms for each calcium atom.
The calcium atom loses its two electrons to form Ca2+, and each chlorine atom gains an electron to form Cl. In this
way, both calcium and chlorine attain octets.

Finally, write the formula with subscripts to indicate the number of atoms.

CaCl2

For Practice 4.2


Use the Lewis model to predict the formula for the compound that forms between magnesium and nitrogen.
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Lewis Theory Predictions for Ionic Bonding

Lewis theory predicts the number of electrons a


metal atom should lose or a nonmetal atom
should gain in order to attain a stable electron
arrangement.
The octet rule

Octet rule (guideline) allows us to predict the


formulas of ionic compounds that result;
relative strengths of the resulting ionic bonds based on
Coulombs law.

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Ionic Bonding Model versus Reality

Lewis theory
implies that the positions of the ions in the crystal lattice
are critical to the stability of the structure.

predicts that moving ions out of position should therefore


be difficult, and ionic solids should be hard.
Ionic solids are relatively hard compared to most molecular
solids.

implies that if the ions are displaced from their position


in the crystal lattice, repulsive forces should occur.

predicts that the crystal will become unstable and break


apart; Lewis theory predicts that ionic solids will be brittle.
Ionic solids are brittle. When struck, they shatter.

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Ionic Bonding Model versus Reality

Lewis theory
implies that, in the ionic solid, the ions are locked in
position and cannot move around.
predicts that ionic solids should not conduct electricity.
To conduct electricity, a material must have charged particles
that are able to flow through the material.
Ionic solids do not conduct electricity.

implies that, in the liquid state or when dissolved in


water, the ions will have the ability to move around.
predicts that both a liquid ionic compound and an ionic
compound dissolved in water should conduct electricity.
Ionic compounds conduct electricity in the liquid state or when
dissolved in water.
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Ionic Bonding and the Crystal Lattice

The extra energy that is released comes from the formation


of a structure in which every cation is surrounded by anions
and vice versa.
This structure is called a crystal lattice.

The crystal lattice is held together by the electrostatic


attraction of the cations for all the surrounding anions.
Electrostatic attraction is a nondirectional force.
Therefore, there is no ionic molecule.
The chemical formula is an empirical formula, simply giving the ratio
of ions based on charge balance.

The crystal lattice maximizes the attractions between


cations and anions, leading to the most stable arrangement.
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Energetics of Ionic Bond Formation:
Using NaCl as an Example
The ionization energy of the metal is endothermic.
Na(s) Na+(g) + 1 e H = +496 kJ/mol

The electron affinity of the nonmetal is exothermic.


Cl2(g) + 1 e Cl(g) H = 349 kJ/mol

Generally, the ionization energy of the metal is larger than the


electron affinity of the nonmetal; therefore, the formation of the
ionic compound should be endothermic.

But the heat of formation of most ionic compounds is exothermic


and generally large. Why is this?
Na(s) + Cl2(g) NaCl(s) Hf = 411 kJ/mol

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Crystal Lattice and Lattice Energy of NaCl

Lattice Energy
The extra stability that accompanies the formation of the crystal
lattice is measured as the lattice energy.
It is the energy released when the solid crystal forms from separate
ions in the gas state.
Always exothermic
Lattice energy is
measured directly but
is calculated from
knowledge of other
processes.
It depends directly on
the size of charges and
inversely on distance
between ions.

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Conductivity of NaCl
In NaCl(s), the ions are In NaCl(aq), the ions
stuck in position and are separated and
not allowed to move to allowed to move to the
the charged rods. charged rods.

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Conductivity of NaCl
Ionic compounds are composed of cations (metals) and
anions (nonmetals) bound together by ionic bonds.
Examples of ionic compounds:
NaBr, Al2(CO3)3, CaHPO4, and MgSO4
The basic unit of an ionic compound is the formula unit, the
smallest, electrically neutral collection of ions.
Example:
The ionic compound table salt, with the formula unit NaCl, is composed
of Na+ and Cl ions in a one-to-one ratio.
Summarizing Ionic Compound Formulas
Ionic compounds always contain positive and negative ions.
In a chemical formula, the sum of the charges of the positive
ions (cations) must equal the sum of the charges of the
negative ions (anions).
The formula of an ionic compound reflects the smallest whole-
number ratio of ions.
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Practice Writing Ionic Compound Formulas
Example 4.4 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
Write the formula for the ionic compound that forms between calcium and oxygen.

Procedure For
Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

Solution
Step 1 Write the symbol for the metal cation and its charge Ca2+ O2
followed by the symbol for the nonmetal anion and its
charge. Determine charges from the elements group
number in the periodic table (refer to Figure 3.12).

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Practice Writing Ionic Compound Formulas
Example 4.4 Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds
Continued

Step 2 Adjust the subscript on each cation and anion to Ca2+ O2


balance the overall charge.
CaO

Step 3 Check to make sure the sum of the charges of the cations: 2+
cations equals the sum of the charges of the anions. anions: 2
The charges cancel.

For Practice 4.4


Write the formula for the compound formed between aluminum and nitrogen.

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Naming Ionic Compounds
Ionic compounds can be categorized into two types, depending on
the metal in the compound.

The first type contains a metal The second type are metals
whose charge is invariant from one that can vary in charge from
compound to another. one compound to another.
Their charge remains the Examples: Transition
same when forming an metals, Inner Transition
ionic bond. metals & p-block metals.
Examples: Alkali (1+), Alkaline
earths (2+), Zinc (2+), Al (3+) &
Ag (1+).
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Naming Binary Ionic Compounds of
Type I Cations
Binary compounds contain only two different elements. The names of
binary ionic compounds take the following form:

For example, the name for KCl consists of the name of the cation,
potassium, followed by the base name of the anion, chlor, with the
ending -ide.
KCl is potassium chloride.

The name for CaO consists of the name of the cation, calcium, followed
by the base name of the anion, ox, with the ending -ide.
CaO is calcium oxide.
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Problem Solving: Naming Type I Ionic
Compounds

Example 4.5 Naming Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That


Forms Only One Type of Cation
Name the compound CaBr2.

Solution
The cation is calcium. The anion is from bromine, which becomes bromide. The correct name is calcium bromide.

For Practice 4.5


Name the compound Ag3N.

For More Practice 4.5


Write the formula for rubidium sulfide.

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Multivalent Metals: Naming Type II Ionic
Compounds
The metals in this category tend to have multiple charges (i.e.,
multivalent cations):
Their charge cannot be predicted as in the case of most
representative elements and must be noted in their name.
Multivalent metals
Transition and inner transition metals
Iron (Fe) forms a 2+ cation in some of its compounds and a
3+ cation in others.
FeSO4: Here iron is a 2+ cation (Fe2+).
Fe2(SO4)3: Here iron is a 3+ cation (Fe3+).

Many of the p-block metals


Not all p-block metals are multivalent.
Some main-group metals, such as Pb, Tl, and Sn, form more than
one type of cation.

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Naming Type II Binary Ionic Compounds

For these types of metals, the name of the cation is followed by a


roman numeral (in parentheses) that indicates the charge of the
metal in that particular compound.
For example, we distinguish between Cu2+ and Cu+ as follows:
Cu2+ Copper(II)
Cu+ Copper(I)

The full names for compounds containing metals that form more
than one kind of cation have the following form:
Cu2O Copper(I) oxide
CuO Copper(II) oxide

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Type II Cation

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Naming Type II Binary Ionic Compounds
Example: CrBr3
To name CrBr3,determine the charge on the
chromium.
Total charge on cation + total anion charge = 0
Cr charge + 3(Br charge) = 0
Since each Br has a 1 charge, then
Cr charge + 3(1) = 0
Cr charge + (3) = 0
Cr = +3
Hence, the cation Cr3+ is called chromium(III), and
Br is called bromide.
The name for CrBr3 is chromium(III) bromide.

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Naming Type II Binary Ionic Compounds
Example: SnCl2
To name SnCl2, determine the charge on the tin.
Total charge on cation + total anion charge = 0
Sn charge + 2(Cl charge) = 0
Since each Cl has a 1 charge, then
Sn charge + 2(1) = 0
Sn charge + (2) = 0
Sn = +2
Hence, the cation Sn2+ is called tin(II), and Cl is
called chloride.
The name for SnCl2 is tin(II) chloride.

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Problem Solving: Naming Type II Ionic
Compounds
Example 4.6 Naming Ionic Compounds Containing a Metal That
Forms More Than One Type of Cation
Name the compound PbCl4.

Solution
The charge on Pb must be 4+ for the compound to be charge-neutral with 4 Cl anions. The name for PbCl4 is the
name of the cation, lead, followed by the charge of the cation in parentheses (IV), and the base name of the anion,
chlor, with the ending -ide. The full name is lead(IV) chloride.

PbCl4 lead(IV) chloride

For Practice 4.6


Name the compound FeS.

For More Practice 4.6


Write the formula for ruthenium(IV) oxide.

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Oxyanions

Most polyatomic ions are oxyanions, anions containing


oxygen and another element.

Notice that when a series of oxyanions contains different


numbers of oxygen atoms, the oxyanions are named
according to the number of oxygen atoms in the ion.

If there are two ions in the series,


the one with more oxygen atoms has the ending -ate; and
the one with fewer has the ending -ite.
For example,
NO3 is nitrate SO42 is sulfate
NO2 is nitrite SO32 is sulfite

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Oxyanions

If there are more than two ions in the series, then


the prefixes hypo-, meaning less than, and per-,
meaning more than, are used.

ClO hypochlorite BrO hypobromite


ClO2 chlorite BrO2 bromite
ClO3 chlorate BrO3 bromate
ClO4 perchlorate BrO4 perbromate

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Naming Ionic Compounds Containing
Polyatomic Ions
Ionic compounds that contain a polyatomic ion
rather than a simple anion (e.g., Cl) are named in
the same manner as binary ionic compounds,
except that the name of the polyatomic ion is used.

For example, NaNO2 is named according to


its cation, Na+, sodium; and
its polyatomic anion, NO2, nitrite.
Hence, NaNO2 is sodium nitrite.

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Common Polyatomic Ions

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Problem Solving: Naming Ionic Compounds
Containing Polyatomic Anions

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Problem Solving: Naming Ionic Compounds
Containing Polyatomic Anions
Example 4.7 Naming Ionic Compounds That Contain a Polyatomic Ion
Name the compound Li2Cr2O7.

Solution
The name for Li2Cr2O7 is the name of the cation, lithium, followed by the name of the polyatomic ion, dichromate.
Its full name is lithium dichromate.

Li2Cr2O7 lithium dichromate

For Practice 4.7


Name the compound Sn(ClO3)2.

For More Practice 4.7


Write the formula for cobalt(II) phosphate.

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Hydrated Ionic Compounds

Hydrates are ionic compounds containing a


specific number of water molecules associated
with each formula unit.

For example, the formula for epsom salts is


MgSO4 7H2O.
Its systematic name is magnesium sulfate
heptahydrate.

Another example: CoCl2 6H2O is cobalt(II) chloride


hexahydrate.

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Hydrates
Common hydrate Other common hydrated ionic
prefixes compounds and their names
hemi = are as follows:
mono = 1
di = 2 CaSO4 H2O is called
tri = 3 calcium sulfate hemihydrate.
tetra = 4 BaCl2 6H2O is called
barium chloride
penta = 5 hexahydrate.
hexa = 6 CuSO4 5H2O is called
hepta = 7 copper sulfate pentahydrate.
octa = 8
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Covalent Bonding: Bonding and Lone Pair
Electrons
Electrons that are shared by atoms are called
bonding pairs.

Electrons that are not shared by atoms but


belong to a particular atom are called
lone pairs.
Also known as nonbonding pairs

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Single Covalent Bonds

When two atoms share one pair of electrons, the


result is called a single covalent bond.
Two electrons

One atom may use more than one single bond to


fulfill its octet.
To different atoms
H only duet

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Double Covalent Bond

When two atoms share two pairs of electrons,


the result is called a double covalent bond.
Four electrons between the two atoms
Example: O2

Elements that can double-bond with each other


and themselves are C, N, O, S, and P.
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Triple Covalent Bond

When two atoms share three pairs of electrons,


the result is called a triple covalent bond.
Six electrons between the two atoms
Example: N2

Elements that can triple-bond with each other


and themselves are C, N, O, and S.

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Covalent Bonding: Model versus Reality

Lewis theory
implies that some combinations should be stable,
whereas others should not.
Stable combinations result in octets.

allows us to predict the formulas of molecules of


covalently bonded substances.
Hydrogen and the halogens are all diatomic molecular
elements, as predicted by Lewis theory.
Oxygen generally forms either two single bonds or a double
bond in its molecular compounds.
There are some stable compounds in which oxygen has one
single bond and another in which it has a triple bond, but it
still has an octet.

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Covalent Bonding: Model versus Reality

Lewis theory of covalent bonding


implies that the attractions between atoms are
directional.
The shared electrons are most stable between the
bonding atoms.

predicts that covalently bonded compounds will be


found as individual molecules.
Rather than an array like ionic compounds
Compounds of nonmetals are made of individual
molecule units.

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Problem Solving: Ionic versus Molecular
Compounds

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Molecular Compounds:
Formulas and Names
The formula for a molecular compound cannot
readily be determined from its constituent
elements because the same combination of
elements may form many different molecular
compounds, each with a different formula.

Nitrogen and oxygen form all of the following unique


molecular compounds:
NO, NO2, N2O, N2O3, N2O4, and N2O5.

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Molecular Compounds

Molecular compounds are composed of two or


more nonmetals.
Names of Molecular Compounds:
Write the name of the element with the smallest group
number first.
If the two elements lie in the same group, then write the
element with the greatest row number first.
The prefixes given to each element indicate the number
of atoms present.

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Binary Molecular Compounds

These prefixes are the same as those used in


naming hydrates:
mono = 1 hexa = 6
di = 2 hepta = 7
tri = 3 octa = 8
tetra = 4 nona = 9
penta = 5 deca = 10

If there is only one atom of the first element in the


formula, the prefix mono- is normally omitted.
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Problem Solving: Naming Molecular Compounds
Example 4.8 Naming Molecular Compounds
Name each compound.
a. NI3 b. PCl5 c. P4S10

Solution
a. The name of the compound is the name of the first element, nitrogen, followed by the base name of the second
element, iod, prefixed by tri- to indicate three and given the suffix -ide.

NI3 nitrogen triiodide

b. The name of the compound is the name of the first element, phosphorus, followed by the base name of the second
element, chlor, prefixed by penta- to indicate five and given the suffix -ide.

PCl5 phosphorus pentachloride

c. The name of the compound is the name of the first element, phosphorus, prefixed by tetra- to indicate four,
followed by the base name of the second element, sulf, prefixed by deca- to Indicate ten and given the suffix -ide.

P4S10 tetraphosphorus decasulfide

For Practice 4.8


Name the compound N2O5.

For More Practice 4.8


Write the formula for phosphorus tribromide.

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Formula Mass/Molecular Mass of a
Compound
Molecular Mass:
The mass of an individual molecule or formula unit is known
as molecular mass or molecular weight of the compound.
It is the mass of ONE MOLE of that compound.

Determining a Compounds Molecular Mass:


Sum of the masses of the atoms in a single molecule or
formula unit
Example: What is the molecular mass of water (H2O)?

2(1.01 amu H) + 16.00 amu O = 18.02 amu

One mole of water has a molecular mass of


18.02 grams.
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Problem Solving: Calculating Formula Mass

Example 4.9 Calculating Formula Mass


Calculate the formula mass of glucose, C6H12O6.

Solution
To find the formula mass, add the atomic masses of each atom in the chemical formula.

formula mass = 6 (atomic mass C) + 12 (atomic mass H) + 6 (atomic mass O)


= 6(12.01 amu) + 12(1.008 amu) + 6(16.00 amu)
= 180.16 amu

For Practice 4.9


Calculate the formula mass of calcium nitrate.

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Using Molar Mass to Count Molecules by
Weighing
Molar mass in combination with Avogadros
number can be used to determine the number of
atoms in a given mass of the element.

Use molar mass to convert to the amount in moles.


Then use Avogadros number to convert to number
of molecules.

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Problem Solving: Using the Mole Concept to
Convert between Mass and Number of
Particles

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Problem Solving: Using the Mole Concept to
Convert between Mass and Number of
Particles
Example 4.10 The Mole ConceptConverting between Mass and
Number of Molecules
An aspirin tablet contains 325 mg of acetylsalicylic acid (C 9H8O4). How many acetylsalicylic acid molecules does
it contain?

SOLUTION
SORT You are given the mass of acetylsalicylic acid and asked to find the number of molecules.

GIVEN 325 mg C9H8O4

FIND number of C9H8O4 molecules

STRATEGIZE First convert to grams and then to moles (using the molar mass of the compound) and then to number
of molecules (using Avogadros number). You need both the molar mass of acetylsalicylic acid and Avogadros number
as Conversion factors. You also need the conversion factor between g and mg.

CONCEPTUAL PLAN

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Problem Solving: Using the Mole Concept to
Convert between Mass and Number of
Particles
Example 4.10 The Mole ConceptConverting between Mass and
Number of Molecules
Continued
RELATIONSHIPS USED
C9H8O4 molar mass = 9(12.01) + 8(1.008) + 4(16.00)
= 180.15 g/mol
6.022 10 = 1 mol
23

1 mg = 103 g

SOLVE Follow the conceptual plan to solve the problem.

SOLUTION

CHECK The units of the answer, C9H8O4 molecules, are correct. The magnitude is smaller than Avogadros number, as expected, since
you have less than one molar mass of acetylsalicylic acid.

For Practice 4.10


Find the number of ibuprofen molecules in a tablet containing 200.0 mg of ibuprofen (C13H18O2).

For More Practice 4.10


What is the mass of a sample of water containing 3.55 1022 H2O molecules?
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Composition of Compounds
A chemical formula, in combination with the molar masses
of its constituent elements, indicates the relative quantities
of each element in a compound.

The percentage of each element in a compound can be


determined from
1. the formula of the compound; and
2. the experimental mass analysis of the compound.

molecular mass of element Z


% mass of element Z = 100%
mass of 1 mol of compound

The percentages may not always total to 100% due to


rounding.
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Problem Solving: Mass Percent
Composition
Example 4.11 Mass Percent Composition
Calculate the mass percent of Cl in Freon-112 (C2Cl4F2), a CFC refrigerant.

SOLUTION
SORT You are given the molecular formula of freon-112 and asked to find the mass percent of Cl.

GIVEN C2Cl4F2

FIND mass percent Cl

STRATEGIZE The molecular formula tells you that there are 4 mol of Cl in each mole of Freon-112. Find the mass
percent composition from the chemical formula by using the equation that defines mass percent. The conceptual plan
shows how to use the mass of Cl in 1 mol of C2Cl4F2 and the molar mass of C2Cl4F2 to find the mass percent of Cl.

CONCEPTUAL PLAN

RELATIONSHIPS USED

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Problem Solving: Mass Percent
Composition
Example 4.11 Mass Percent Composition
Continued

SOLVE Calculate the necessary parts of the equation and substitute the values into the equation to find mass percent Cl.

SOLUTION

CHECK The units of the answer (%) are correct. The magnitude is reasonable because (1) it is between 0 and 100% and
(2) chlorine is the heaviest atom in the molecule and there are four of them.

For Practice 4.11


Acetic acid (C2H4O2) is the active ingredient in vinegar. Calculate the mass percent composition of oxygen in
acetic acid.

For More Practice 4.11


Calculate the mass percent composition of sodium in sodium oxide.

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Conversion Factors from Chemical Formula

Chemical formulas contain within them inherent


relationships between numbers of atoms and
molecules.
Or moles of atoms and molecules

1 mol CCl2 F2 : 2 mol Cl

These relationships can be used to determine


the amounts of constituent elements and
molecules.
Such as percent composition

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Problem Solving: Using Chemical Formulas
as Conversion Factors
Example 4.12 Using Mass Percent Composition as a
Conversion Factor
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that a person consume less than 2.4 g of sodium per
day. What mass of sodium chloride (in grams) can you consume and still be within the FDA guidelines? Sodium
chloride is 39% sodium by mass.

SOLUTION
SORT You are given a mass of sodium and the mass percent of sodium in sodium chloride. You are asked to find the
mass of NaCl that contains the given mass of sodium.

GIVEN 2.4 g Na
FIND g NaCl

STRATEGIZE Convert between mass of a constituent element and mass of a compound by using mass percent
composition as a conversion factor.

CONCEPTUAL PLAN

RELATIONSHIPS USED
39 g Na: 100 g NaCl
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Problem Solving: Using Chemical Formulas
as Conversion Factors
Example 4.12 Using Mass Percent Composition as a
Conversion Factor
Continued

SOLVE Follow the conceptual plan to solve the problem.

SOLUTION

You can consume 6.2 g NaCl and still be within the FDA guidelines.

CHECK The units of the answer are correct. The magnitude seems reasonable because it is larger than the given
amount of sodium, as expected, because sodium is only one of the elements in NaCl.

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Problem Solving: Using Chemical Formulas
as Conversion Factors
Example 4.12 Using Mass Percent Composition as a
Conversion Factor
Continued

For Practice 4.12


What mass (in grams) of iron(III) oxide contains 58.7 g of iron? Iron(III) oxide is 69.94% iron by mass.

For More Practice 4.12


If someone consumes 22 g of sodium chloride per day, what mass (in grams) of sodium does that person consume?
Sodium chloride is 39% sodium by mass.

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Problem Solving: Using Chemical Formulas
as Conversion Factors
Example 4.13 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors
Hydrogen may replace gasoline as a fuel in the future. Most major automobile companies are developing vehicles that
run on hydrogen. These cars are environmentally friendly because their only emission is water vapor. One way to
obtain hydrogen for fuel is to use an emission free energy source such as wind power to form elemental hydrogen from
water. What mass of hydrogen (in grams) is contained in 1.00 gallon of water? (The density of water is 1.00 g/mL.)

SOLUTION
SORT You are given a volume of water and asked to find the mass of hydrogen it contains. You are also given the
density of water.

GIVEN 1.00 gal H2O


dH2O = 1.00 g/mL

FIND g H

STRATEGIZE The first part of the conceptual plan shows how to convert the units of volume from gallons to liters
and then to milliliters. It also shows how you can then use the density to convert mL to g.

The second part of the conceptual plan is the basic sequence of

mass moles moles mass.

Convert between moles and mass using the appropriate molar masses, and convert from mol H2O to mol H using the
conversion factor derived from the molecular formula.
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Problem Solving: Using Chemical Formulas
as Conversion Factors
Example 4.13 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors
Continued

CONCEPTUAL PLAN

RELATIONSHIPS USED
3.785 L = 1 gal
1 mL = 103 L
1.00 g H2O = 1 mL H2O (density of H2O)
molar mass H2O = 2(1.008) + 16.00 = 18.02 g/mol
2 mol H : 1 mol H2O
1.008 g H = 1 mol H

SOLVE Follow the conceptual plan to solve the problem.

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Problem Solving: Using Chemical Formulas
as Conversion Factors
Example 4.13 Chemical Formulas as Conversion Factors
Continued

SOLUTION

CHECK The units of the answer (g H) are correct. Since a gal of water is about 3.8 L, its mass is about 3.8 kg. H is
a light atom, so its mass should be significantly less than 3.8 kg, as it is in the answer.

For Practice 4.13


Determine the mass of oxygen in a 7.2-g sample of Al2(SO4)3.

For More Practice 4.13


Butane (C4H10) is the liquid fuel in lighters. How many grams of carbon are present within a lighter containing
7.25 mL of butane? (The density of liquid butane is 0.601 g/mL.)

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Determining a Chemical Formula from
Experimental Data
Empirical Formula:
Simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms of elements in
a compound

Can be determined from elemental analysis


Masses of elements formed when a compound is
decomposed, or that react together to form a compound
Combustion analysis
Percent composition
Note: An empirical formula represents a ratio of atoms or a ratio
of moles of atoms, not a ratio of masses.

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Finding an Empirical Formula
1. Convert the percentages to grams.
a) If not given, assume you start with 100 g of the compound.
b) Example: 24.5% C means 24.5 g C.

2. Convert mass (grams) to moles.


a) Use molar mass of each element.
b) Example: 24.5 g C (1 mol C/12.01 grams) = 2.04 mol C

3. Divide all by the smallest number of moles to obtain the atom-to-


atom ratio for each of the elements in the compound.
a) If the result is within 0.1 of a whole number, round to the whole
number.

4. Multiply all mole ratios by a number to make all whole numbers.


a) If ratio is .5, multiply all by 2; if the ratio is .33 or .67, multiply all
by 3; and so on.
b) Skip if already whole numbers.
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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Experimental Data
Example 4.14 Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data
A compound containing nitrogen and oxygen is decomposed in the laboratory and produces 24.5 g nitrogen and
70.0 g oxygen. Find the empirical formula of the compound.

Procedure For
Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data

Solution
Step 1 Write down (or calculate) as given the masses of GIVEN 24.5 g N, 70.0 g O
each element present in a sample of the compound. FIND empirical formula
If you are given mass percent composition, assume
a 100-g sample and calculate the masses of each
element from the given percentages.

Step 2 Convert each of the masses from Step 1 to moles by


using the appropriate molar mass for each element
as a conversion factor.

Step 3 Write down a pseudoformula for the compound N1.75O4.38


using the number of moles of each element (from
Step 2) as subscripts.

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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Experimental Data
Example 4.14 Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data
Continued
Step 4 Divide all the subscripts in the formula by the
smallest subscript.

Step 5 If the subscripts are not whole numbers, multiply N1O2.5 2 N2O5
all the subscripts by a small whole number (see The correct empirical formula is N2O5.
table) to determine whole-number subscripts.

For Practice 4.14


A sample of a compound is decomposed in the laboratory and produces 165 g carbon, 27.8 g hydrogen, and 220.2 g
oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula of the compound.

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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Experimental Data
Example 4.15 Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data
A laboratory analysis of aspirin determined the following mass percent composition:
C 60.00% H 4.48% O 35.52%
Find the empirical formula of aspirin.

Procedure For
Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data

Solution
Step 1 Write down (or calculate) as given the masses of GIVEN In a 100-g sample: 60.00 g C,
each element present in a sample of the compound. 4.48 g H, 35.52 g O
If you are given mass percent composition, assume FIND empirical formula
a 100-g sample and calculate the masses of each
element from the given percentages.

Step 2 Convert each of the masses from Step 1 to moles by


using the appropriate molar mass for each element
as a conversion factor.

Step 3 Write down a pseudoformula for the compound C4.996H4.44O2.220


using the number of moles of each element (from
Step 2) as subscripts.
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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Experimental Data
Example 4.15 Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Experimental Data
Continued
Step 4 Divide all the subscripts in the formula by the
smallest subscript.

Step 5 If the subscripts are not whole numbers, multiply C2.25H2O1 4 C9H8O4
all the subscripts by a small whole number (see The correct empirical formula is C9H8O4.
table) to determine whole-number subscripts.

For Practice 4.15


Ibuprofen has the following mass percent composition:
C 75.69%, H 8.80%, O 15.51%.
What is the empirical formula of ibuprofen?

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From Empirical to Molecular Formulas for
Compounds
The molecular formula is a multiple of the
empirical formula.
It is the actual formula of the compound.
Knowing the molecular formula, you can determine the
molecular mass of the compound.

To determine the molecular formula, you need to


know the empirical formula and the molar mass of
the compound.

Molecular formula = (empirical formula)n,


where n is a positive integer.
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Molecular Formulas for Compounds

The molar mass is a whole-number multiple of the


empirical formula molar mass, the sum of the
masses of all the atoms in the empirical formula:

molar mass
n=
empirical formula molar mass

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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Experimental Data
Example 4.16 Calculating a Molecular Formula from an Empirical
Formula and Molar Mass
Butanedionea main component responsible for the smell and taste of butter and cheesecontains the elements
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The empirical formula of butanedione is C2H3O, and its molar mass is 86.09 g/mol.
Find its molecular formula.

SORT You are given the empirical formula and molar mass of butanedione and asked to find the molecular formula.

GIVEN empirical formula = C2H3O


molar mass = 86.09 g/mol

FIND molecular formula

STRATEGIZE A molecular formula is always a whole-number multiple of the empirical formula. Divide the molar
mass by the empirical formula mass to determine the whole number.

SOLVE Calculate the empirical formula mass. Divide the molar mass by the empirical formula mass to find n. Multiply
the empirical formula by n to obtain the molecular formula.

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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Experimental Data
Example 4.16 Calculating a Molecular Formula from an Empirical
Formula and Molar Mass
Continued

CHECK Check the answer by calculating the molar mass of the formula as follows:

4(12.01 g/mol) + 6(1.008 g/mol) + 2(16.00 g/mol) = 86.09 g/mol

The calculated molar mass is in agreement with the given molar mass.

For Practice 4.16


A compound has the empirical formula CH and a molar mass of 78.11 g/mol. What is its molecular formula?

For More Practice 4.16


A compound with the percent composition shown here has a molar mass of 60.10 g/mol. Determine its molecular
formula.
C, 39.97% H, 13.41% N, 46.62%
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Combustion Analysis
A common technique for analyzing compounds is to burn
a known mass of compound and weigh the amounts of
product made.
This is generally used for organic compounds containing
C, H, or O.

By knowing the mass of the product and composition of


constituent element in the product, the original amount of
constituent element can be determined.
All the original C forms CO2, the original H forms H2O,
and the original mass of O is found by subtraction.

Once the masses of all the constituent elements in the


original compound have been determined, the empirical
formula can be found.
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Combustion Analysis Set-up

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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Combustion Analysis
Experimental Data
Example 4.17 Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Combustion
Analysis
Upon combustion, a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen produces 1.83 g CO2 and 0.901 g H2O.
Determine the empirical formula of the compound.

Procedure For
Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Combustion Analysis
Solution
Step 1 Write down as given the masses of each combustion GIVEN 1.83 g CO2, 0.901 g H2O
product and the mass of the sample (if given). FIND empirical formula

Step 2 Convert the masses of CO2 and H2O from Step 1 to


moles by using the appropriate molar mass for each
compound as a conversion factor.

Step 3 Convert the moles of CO2 and moles of H2O from


Step 2 to moles of C and moles of H using the
conversion factors inherent in the chemical
formulas of CO2 and H2O.
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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Combustion Analysis
Experimental Data
Example 4.17 Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Combustion
Analysis
Continued

Step 4 If the compound contains an element other than C and H, The sample contains no elements other
find the mass of the other element by subtracting the sum of than C and H, so proceed to next step.
the masses of C and H (obtained in Step 3) from the mass of
the sample.

Finally, convert the mass of the other element to moles.

Step 5 Write down a pseudoformula for the compound using the C0.0416H0.100
number of moles of each element (from Steps 3 and 4) as
subscripts.

Step 6 Divide all the subscripts in the formula by the smallest


subscript. (Round all subscripts that are within 0.1 of a
whole number.)

Step 7 If the subscripts are not whole numbers, multiply all the
subscripts by a small whole number to determine whole-
number subscripts. C1H2.4 5 C5H12
The correct empirical formula is C5H12.

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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Combustion Analysis
Experimental Data
Example 4.17 Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Combustion
Analysis
Continued

For Practice 4.17


Upon combustion, a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen produces 1.60 g CO2 and 0.819 g H2O.
Find the empirical formula of the compound.

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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Combustion Analysis
Experimental Data
Example 4.18 Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Combustion
Analysis
Upon combustion, a 0.8233-g sample of a compound containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen produces 2.445 g
CO2 and 0.6003 g H2O. Determine the empirical formula of the compound.

Procedure For
Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Combustion Analysis
Solution GIVEN 0.8233-g sample, 2.445 g
Step 1 Write down as given the masses of each combustion product CO2, 0.6003 g H2O
and the mass of the sample (if given). FIND empirical formula

Step 2 Convert the masses of CO2 and H2O from Step 1 to moles
by using the appropriate molar mass for each compound as a
conversion factor.

Step 3 Convert the moles of CO2 and moles of H2O from Step 2 to
moles of C and moles of H using the conversion factors
inherent in the chemical formulas of CO2 and H2O.

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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Combustion Analysis
Experimental Data
Example 4.18 Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Combustion
Analysis
Continued

Step 4 If the compound contains an element other than C and H,


find the mass of the other element by subtracting the sum of
the masses of C and H (obtained in Step 3) from the mass of
the sample.

Finally, convert the mass of the other element to moles.

Step 5 Write down a pseudoformula for the compound using the C0.05556H0.06662O0.00556
number of moles of each element (from Steps 3 and 4) as
subscripts.

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Problem Solving: Obtaining Empirical
Formula from Combustion Analysis
Experimental Data
Example 4.18 Obtaining an Empirical Formula from Combustion
Analysis
Continued

Step 6 Divide all the subscripts in the formula by the


smallest subscript. (Round all subscripts that
are within 0.1 of a whole number.)

Step 7 If the subscripts are not whole numbers, The subscripts are whole numbers; no
multiply all the subscripts by a small whole additional multiplication is needed. The
number to determine whole-number correct empirical formula is C10H12O.
subscripts.

For Practice 4.18


Upon combustion, a 0.8009-g sample of a compound containing only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen produces
1.6004 g CO2 and 0.6551 g H2O. Find the empirical formula of the compound.

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Organic Compounds

Early chemists divided compounds into two types:


organic and inorganic.

Compounds from living things were called organic;


compounds from the nonliving environment were
called inorganic.
Organic compounds are easily decomposed and could
not be made in the lab.
Inorganic compounds are very difficult to decompose but
are able to be synthesized.

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Modern Organic Compounds

Today organic compounds are commonly made in


the lab and we find them all around us.
Organic compounds are mainly made of C and H,
sometimes with O, N, P, S, and trace amounts of
other elements.
The main element that is the focus of organic
chemistry is carbon.

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Carbon Bonding

Carbon atoms bond almost exclusively covalently.


Compounds with ionic bonding C are generally
inorganic.

When C bonds, it forms four covalent bonds:


Four single bonds, two double bonds, one triple bond
and one single bond, etc.

Carbon is unique in that it can form limitless chains


of C atoms, both straight and branched, and rings
of C atoms.

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Carbon Bonding of Organic Molecules

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Common Hydrocarbons

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