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CIA2009: Management Accounting

Lecture 5: 11 October 2017

CHAPTER 8

Variable Costing and the


Costs of Quality and
Sustainability

Dr. Elaine Y.N. Oon


Learning Objective 1

Explain the accounting treatment of fixed


manufacturing overhead under absorption
and variable costing.

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8-2
Absorption Costing
A system of accounting for costs in which both fixed and
variable production costs are considered product costs.

Fixed
Costs
Product
Variable
Costs

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Variable Costing
A system of cost accounting that only assigns the variable
production cost to product cost.

Fixed
Costs
Product
Variable
Costs

8-4
Absorption and Variable Costing
Absorption Variable
Costing Costing

Direct materials
Direct labor Product costs
Product costs Variable mfg. overhead

Fixed mfg. overhead


Period costs
Period costs Selling & Admin. exp.

8-5
Absorption and Variable Costing
Absorption Variable
Costing Costing

Direct materials
Direct labor Product costs
Product costs Variable mfg. overhead

Fixed mfg. overhead


Period costs
Period costs Selling & Admin. exp.

The difference between absorption and variable


costing is the treatment of fixed manufacturing overhead
8-6
Variable Versus Absorption Costing

Variable costing excludes fixed manufacturing


overhead from the cost of products.

Variable Absorption
costing costing

Absorption costing includes fixed manufacturing


overhead in the cost of products.
7
Variable Costing and
Absorption Costing
On a variable-costing income statement, costs are
separated into the major categories of fixed and variable.
Revenue less all variable costs (both manufacturing
and non-manufacturing) is the contribution margin.

On an absorption-costing income statement, costs


are separated into the major categories of
manufacturing and non-manufacturing. Revenue
less manufacturing costs (both fixed and variable)
is gross profit or gross margin.
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Example: Variable Costing and
Absorption Costing
Condensed Comparison of 20X8 Income Statement ($000)
Variable Costing Absorption Costing
Revenue $8,000 Revenue $8,000
All Variable costs $5,200 All Manufacturing costs $6,500
Contribution Margin $2,800 Gross Margin $1,500
All Fixed costs $2,150 All Non-Manufacturing costs $1,050
Operating income $ 650 Operating income $ 450

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Learning Objective 2

Prepare an income statement under


absorption costing.

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Absorption and Variable Costing
Lets put some numbers to an example and
see what we can learn about the difference
between absorption and variable costing.

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Absorption and Variable Costing
Mellon Co. produces a single product with the following
information available:

Number of units produced annually 25,000


Variable costs per unit:
Direct materials, direct labor
and variable mfg. overhead $ 10
Selling & administrative
expenses $ 3
Fixed costs per year:
Mfg. overhead $ 150,000
Selling & administrative
expenses $ 100,000

8-12
Absorption and Variable Costing
Unit product cost is determined as follows:

Absorption Variable
Costing Costing
Direct materials, direct labor, and
variable mfg. overhead $ 10 $ 10
Fixed mfg. overhead
($150,000 25,000 units) 6 -
Unit product cost $ 16 $ 10

Under Absorption Costing, selling and


administrative expenses are always treated as
period expenses and deducted from revenue.
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Absorption Costing
Income Statements
Mellon Co. had no beginning inventory, produced 25,000 units, and sold
20,000 units this year at $30 each.

Absorption Costing
Sales (20,000 $30) $ 600,000
Less cost of goods sold:
Beginning inventory
Add COGM
Goods available for sale
Ending inventory
Gross margin
Less selling & admin. exp.
Variable
Fixed
Net income

8-14
Absorption Costing
Income Statements
Mellon Co. had no beginning inventory, produced 25,000 units, and sold
20,000 units this year at $30 each.
Absorption Costing
Sales (20,000 $30) $ 600,000
Less cost of goods sold:
Beginning inventory $ -
Add COGM (25,000 $16) 400,000
Goods available for sale $ 400,000
Ending inventory (5,000 $16) 80,000 320,000
Gross margin $ 280,000
Less selling & admin. exp.
Variable
Fixed
Net income

8-15
Absorption Costing
Income Statements
Mellon Co. had no beginning inventory, produced 25,000 units, and sold
20,000 units this year at $30 each.

Absorption Costing
Sales (20,000 $30) $ 600,000
Less cost of goods sold:
Beginning inventory $ -
Add COGM (25,000 $16) 400,000
Goods available for sale $ 400,000
Ending inventory (5,000 $16) 80,000 320,000
Gross margin $ 280,000
Less selling & admin. exp.
Variable (20,000 $3) $ 60,000
Fixed 100,000 160,000
Net income $ 120,000

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Learning Objective 3

Prepare an income statement under


variable costing.

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Variable Costing
Income Statements
Now lets look at variable costing by Mellon Co.
Variable Costing
Sales (20,000 $30) $ 600,000
Less variable expenses:
Beginning inventory $ -
Add COGM
Goods available for sale
Ending inventory
Variable cost of goods sold
Variable selling & administrative
expenses
Contribution margin
Less fixed expenses:
Manufacturing overhead
Selling & administrative expenses
Net income

8-18
Variable Costing
Income Statements
Now lets look at variable costing by Mellon Co.
We exclude
Variable the
Costing
Sales (20,000 $30) fixed manufacturing
$ 600,000
Less variable expenses: overhead.
Beginning inventory $ -
Add COGM (25,000 $10) 250,000
Goods available for sale $ 250,000
Ending inventory (5,000 $10) 50,000
Variable cost of goods sold $ 200,000
Variable selling & administrative
expenses
Contribution margin
Less fixed expenses:
Manufacturing overhead
Selling & administrative expenses
Net income

8-19
Variable Costing
Income Statements
Now lets look at variable costing by Mellon Co.
Variable Costing
Sales (20,000 $30) $ 600,000
Less variable expenses:
Beginning inventory $ -
Add COGM (25,000 $10) 250,000
Goods available for sale $ 250,000
Ending inventory (5,000 $10) 50,000
Variable cost of goods sold $ 200,000
Variable selling & administrative
expenses (20,000 $3) 60,000 260,000
Contribution margin $ 340,000
Less fixed expenses:
Manufacturing overhead $ 150,000
Selling & administrative expenses 100,000 250,000
Net income $ 90,000

8-20
Comparing Absorption and
Variable Costing
Lets compare the methods.
Cost of
Goods Ending Period
Sold Inventory Expense Total
Absorption costing
Variable mfg. costs $ 200,000
Fixed mfg. costs 120,000
$ 320,000

Variable costing
Variable mfg. costs $ 200,000
Fixed mfg. costs -
$ 200,000

8-21
Comparing Absorption and
Variable Costing
Lets compare the methods.
Cost of
Goods Ending Period
Sold Inventory Expense Total
Absorption costing
Variable mfg. costs $ 200,000 $ 50,000 $ -
Fixed mfg. costs 120,000 30,000 -
$ 320,000 $ 80,000 $ -

Variable costing
Variable mfg. costs $ 200,000 $ 50,000 $ -
Fixed mfg. costs - - 150,000
$ 200,000 $ 50,000 $ 150,000

8-22
Comparing Absorption and
Variable Costing
Lets compare the methods.
Cost of
Goods Ending Period
Sold Inventory Expense Total
Absorption costing
Variable mfg. costs $ 200,000 $ 50,000 $ - $ 250,000
Fixed mfg. costs 120,000 30,000 - 150,000
$ 320,000 $ 80,000 $ - $ 400,000

Variable costing
Variable mfg. costs $ 200,000 $ 50,000 $ - $ 250,000
Fixed mfg. costs - - 150,000 150,000
$ 200,000 $ 50,000 $ 150,000 $ 400,000

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Learning Objective 4

Reconcile reported income under absorption


and variable costing.

8-24
Reconciling Income Under Absorption and
Variable Costing
We can reconcile the difference between absorption and
variable net income as follows:

Variable costing net income $ 90,000


Add: Fixed mfg. overhead costs
deferred in inventory
(5,000 units $6 per unit) 30,000
Absorption costing net income $ 120,000

Fixed mfg. overhead $150,000


= = $6.00 per unit
Units produced 25,000
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Learning Objective 5

Explain the implications of absorption and


variable costing for cost-volume-profit analysis.

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Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
CVP includes all fixed costs to compute breakeven.
Variable costing and CVP are consistent as both treat fixed costs as a
lump sum.

Absorption costing defers fixed costs into inventory.


Absorption costing is inconsistent with CVP because absorption costing
treats fixed costs on a per unit basis.

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Learning Objective 6

Evaluate absorption and variable costing.

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Extending the Example

Lets look at
the second
year of
operations
for Mellon
Company.

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Mellon Co. Year 2
In its second year of operations, Mellon Co. started with an inventory of
5,000 units, produced 25,000 units, and sold 30,000 units at $30 each.

Number of units produced annually 25,000


Variable costs per unit:
Direct materials, direct labor
and variable mfg. overhead $ 10
Selling & administrative
expenses $ 3
Fixed costs per year:
Mfg. overhead $ 150,000
Selling & administrative
expenses $ 100,000

8-30
Mellon Co. Year 2
Unit product cost is determined as follows:

Absorption Variable
Costing Costing
Direct materials, direct labor,
and variable mfg. overhead $ 10 $ 10
Fixed mfg. overhead
($150,000 25,000 units) 6 -
Unit product cost $ 16 $ 10

There has been no


change in Mellons
cost structure.
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Mellon Co. Year 2
Now lets look at Mellons income statement
assuming absorption costing is used.

8-32
Mellon Co. Year 2
Units in ending inventory from the previous period.
Absorption Costing
Sales (30,000 $30) $ 900,000
Less cost of goods sold:
Beg. inventory (5,000 x $16) $ 80,000
Add COGM (25,000 $16) 400,000
Goods available for sale $ 480,000
Ending inventory - 480,000
Gross margin $ 420,000
Less selling & admin. exp.
Variable (30,000 $3) $ 90,000
Fixed 100,000 190,000
Net income $ 230,000

8-33
Mellon Co. Year 2
Absorption Costing
Sales (30,000 $30) $ 900,000
Less cost of goods sold:
Beg. inventory (5,000 x $16) $ 80,000
Add COGM (25,000 $16) 400,000
Goods available for sale $ 480,000
Ending inventory - 480,000
Gross margin $ 420,000
Less selling & admin. exp.
Variable (30,000 $3) $ 90,000
Fixed 100,000 190,000
Net income $ 230,000

25,000 units produced in the current period.


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Mellon Co. Year 2
Next, well look at Mellons income statement
assuming variable costing is used.

8-35
Mellon Co. Year 2
Variable Costing
Sales (30,000 $30) $ 900,000
Less variable expenses:
Beg. inventory (5,000 $10) $ 50,000
Add COGM (25,000 $10) 250,000
Goods available for sale $ 300,000
Ending inventory -
Variable cost of goods sold $ 300,000
Variable selling & administrative
expenses (30,000 $3) 90,000 390,000
Contribution margin $ 510,000
Less fixed expenses:
Manufacturing overhead $ 150,000
Selling & administrative expenses 100,000 250,000
Net income $ 260,000

Excludes fixed manufacturing overhead.


8-36
Summary
Income Comparison

Costing Method 1st Period 2nd Period Total


Absorption $ 120,000 $ 230,000 $ 350,000
Variable 90,000 260,000 350,000

In the first period, production (25,000 units)


was greater than sales (20,000).

In the second period, production (25,000 units)


was less than sales (30,000).
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Summary
Income Comparison

Costing Method 1st Period 2nd Period Total


Absorption $ 120,000 $ 230,000 $ 350,000
Variable 90,000 260,000 350,000

For the two-year period, total absorption


income and total variable income are the same.

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Variable Costing and Absorption Costing

The difference between income reported


under these two methods is entirely due to
the treatment of fixed manufacturing costs.

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Summary
Lets see if we can get an overview of what we have
done.

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Summary Comparison of Absorption (AC)
and Variable Costing (VC)

Total
Production versus Inventory
Sales Effect Period Expense Effect Profit Effect

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Produced > Sold Increase costs expensed < costs expensed AC > VC
AC VC

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


This was the Decrease
Produced < Soldcase in the first period when production
costs expensed > costs expensed
AC < VC
of 25,000 units was greater than sales of 20,000 units.
AC VC

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Inventory increased
Produced = SoldNo change from zero to 5,000 units and
costs expensed = costs expensed
AC = VC
AC VC
$120,000 absorption income was greater than
$90,000 variable income. 8-41
Summary Comparison of Absorption (AC)
and Variable Costing (VC)

Total
Production versus Inventory
Sales Effect Period Expense Effect Profit Effect

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Produced > Sold Increase costs expensed < costs expensed AC > VC
AC VC

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Produced < Sold Decrease costs expensed > costs expensed AC < VC
AC VC

In the second period Fixedsales


mfg. of 30,000
Fixed mfg.units
Produced = Sold No change costs expensed = costs expensed AC = VC
were greater than production
AC ofVC25,000.
8-42
Summary Comparison of Absorption (AC)
and Variable Costing (VC)
Total
Production versus Inventory
Sales Effect Period Expense Effect Profit Effect

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Produced > Sold Increase costs expensed < costs expensed AC > VC
AC VC

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Produced < Sold Decrease costs expensed > costs expensed AC < VC
AC VC

Inventory decreased from


Fixed mfg. 5,000Fixed
unitsmfg. to zero,
Produced = Sold No change costs expensed = costs expensed AC = VC
and $230,000 absorption AC
income was
VC
less
than $260,000 variable income. 8-43
Summary Comparison of Absorption (AC)
and Variable Costing (VC)
Total
Production versus Inventory
Sales Effect Period Expense Effect Profit Effect

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Produced > Sold Increase costs expensed < costs expensed AC > VC
AC VC
For the two-year period, units produced
Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.
equals units
Produced < Sold
sold, costs
Decrease
so expensed
total absorption income
> costs expensed AC < VC
equals total variable
AC income. VC

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Produced = Sold No change costs expensed = costs expensed AC = VC
AC VC
8-44
Summary Comparison of Absorption (AC)
and Variable Costing (VC)
Total
Production versus Inventory
Sales Effect Period Expense Effect Profit Effect

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Produced > Sold Increase costs expensed < costs expensed AC > VC
AC VC

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Produced < Sold Decrease costs expensed > costs expensed AC < VC
AC VC

Fixed mfg. Fixed mfg.


Produced = Sold No change costs expensed = costs expensed AC = VC
AC VC
8-45
Impact on the Manager
Opponents of absorption costing argue that
shifting fixed manufacturing overhead costs
between periods can lead to faulty decisions.

These opponents argue that variable costing income


statements are easier to understand because net operating
income is only affected by changes in unit sales. This
produces net operating income figures that are
more consistent with managers expectations.

46
CVP Analysis, Decision Making
and Absorption costing
Absorption costing does not support CVP analysis
because it essentially treats fixed manufacturing
overhead as a variable cost by assigning a per unit
amount of the fixed overhead to each unit of
production.
Treating fixed manufacturing overhead as a
variable cost can:
Lead to faulty pricing decisions and keep-or-drop
decisions.
Produce positive net operating income even
when the number of units sold is less than the
breakeven point. 47
Evaluation of Variable Costing
Management finds it Consistent with
easy to understand CVP analysis
and more useful

Easier to estimate profitability


of products and segments
Advantages
Emphasizes contribution in
short-run pricing decisions
Impact of fixed
costs on profits Profit for period not
emphasized affected by changes
in fixed mfg. overhead 8-48
Evaluation of Absorption Costing
Fixed manufacturing overhead is
treated the same as the other product
costs, direct material and direct labor.

Consistent with long-run


Advantages pricing decisions that must
cover full cost.

External reporting
and income tax law
require absorption costing.
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Variable versus Absorption Costing

Fixed manufacturing
costs must be assigned Fixed manufacturing
to products to properly costs are capacity costs
match revenues and and will be incurred
costs. even if nothing is
produced.

Absorption Variable
Costing Costing 50
Impact of JIT Inventory Methods
In a JIT inventory system . . .

Production tends
to equal sales . . .

So, the difference between variable and


absorption income tends to disappear.
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Learning Objective 7

Prepare a quality-cost report.

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Costs of Assuring Quality
Grade Quality

Grade refers to the


extent of its Quality of design refers
capabilities in to how well it is conceived
or designed for its
performing an intended use.
intended purpose, in Quality of conformance
relation to other refers to the extent to
products with the which a product meets
same functional use. the specification of its
design.

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There are four types of quality costs.

Prevention costs are the costs of preventing


defects.

Appraisal costs are the costs of determining


whether defects exist.

Internal failure costs are the costs of repairing


defects found prior to product delivery.

External failure costs are those costs incurred


after product delivery.
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Learning Objective 8

Discuss two contrasting views of the optimal


level of product quality.

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8-55
What is the Optimal Level
of Product Quality?

The optimal level of product quality is reached when:

Prevention costs = Internal failure costs


+ Appraisal costs + External failure costs

8-56
ISO 9000 Standards
ISO 9000 standards require that a
company have a well-defined quality
control system in place and that the target
level of product quality is consistently
maintained.

These standards have been


adopted in the US and other
countries.

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Learning Objective 9

Understand the different types of environmental costs


and discuss management of environmental costs.

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Costs of Environmental
Sustainability
Sustainable development includes business activity that
produces the goods and services needed in the present without
limiting the ability of future generations to meet their meets.
Environmental costs are the costs of dealing with
environmental issues, such as BPs costs in cleaning up the
companys spill in the Gulf of Mexico.
Environmental cost management is the strategic
implantation of systems for identifying, measuring, controlling,
and reducing the private environmental costs borne by a
company or other organization.

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Environmental costs may be
categorized in several ways:
Private environmental costs are those borne by a company or
individual. Social environmental costs are those borne by the
public at large.
Visible environmental costs are those that are known and
clearly identified as tied to environmental issues. Hidden
social environmental costs cannot be clearly tied to
environmental issues.

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Visible and hidden environmental costs may be further
classified into one of three types.
Monitoring costs include the costs of monitoring the regulatory
environmental as well as monitoring the production process to determine
if pollution is being generated.
Abatement costs include costs to reduce or eliminate pollution.
Remediation costs include on-site and off-site remediation costs. On-site
remediation includes costs of reducing or preventing the discharge into
the environment of pollutants that have been generated in the production
process. Off-site remediation includes the costs of reducing or
eliminating pollutants from the environment after they have been
discharged.

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End of Chapter 8

The End

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