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Lecture 3 : Shear Strength of Soils

(Part 1)

At the end of this lecture, students should be able:

CO1: to explain the lab procedure to conduct the


related tests and to calculate the shear strength
parameters of soils
Introduction
The ability of a soil deposit to
support an imposed loading or
of a soil mass to support itself is
governed by the shear strength
of the soil.
As a result, the shearing strength
of the soil becomes of primary
strip footing importance in foundation
engineering, highway, slope
stability problems, lateral earth
problems, retaining walls and
excavation bracing.
In the study of the shear strength
of soils, it is common to consider
two major categories of soil
types:
Cohesionless
Cohesive
Failure Surface
Introduction

The soil grains slide over


each other along the
failure surface.
failure surface

No crushing of individual
grains.
Coulomb Theory
Shear strength of soil (Coulomb)
= c + tan -------------------- (1)
Where,
= shear strength (sometimes, s is used)
c = cohesion
= normal pressure (stress)
= angle of internal friction
c and are referred to as the shear strength
parameters, and can be evaluated by lab or field tests.
Equation (1) is in total stress condition
Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion

f c tan

friction angle
cohesion
f
c


f is the maximum shear stress the soil can take without failure, under
normal stress of .
Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion

Shear strength consists of two


components: cohesive and frictional.

f
f c f tan
f tan frictional
component
c c
f
Quick Note

c and are the shear


strength parameters.

Higher the values, higher the


shear strength.
Terzaghis Concept
Terzaghi concept stated that the shear stress would only be
supported by soil skeleton and therefore provides this equation (2)
in effective stresses condition
f = c + tan -------------------- (2)

Where;
f = shear strength (sometimes, s is used)
c = effective soil cohesion
= effective normal pressure (stress)
= n
= pore water pressure
= effective angle of internal friction
Methods of Investigating Shear
Strength
1. Lab Tests
Unconfined Compression Stress
Direct Shear Test In UU, CU or CD
Procedures
Triaxial Compression Test
2. Field (In-Situ) Tests
Vane Shear Test
SPT
Cone Penetration Test
Penetrometer Test
Unconfined Compression Test
(ASTM D 2166)
Unconfined Compression Test
(ASTM D 2166)

1. Deformation gauge and Force gauge readings are taken


2. Deformation readings are used to calculate the Strain while the
force readings are used to calculate the Axial Stress
Unconfined Compression Test (ASTM
D 2166)
3. Plot the Stress-Strain
curve, and obtain the
failure condition (= qu =
unconfined compressive
strength)
4. Cohesion, c = qu/2
Direct Shear Test (ASTM D 3080)
Direct Shear Test (ASTM D 3080)
1. Soil specimen is placed in a
flat box, and normal load
applied.
2. The box is split into two
parts horizontally with
sufficient force (shear force)
until the specimen
experience shear failure
along the horizontal surface.
3. The procedure is carried out
a few times with different
normal loads (3 LOADS).
4. The maximum shear stresses
are (3 MAX SHEAR) obtained
from the graphs of Shears
vs. Displacements
Direct Shear Test (ASTM D 3080)
5. The 3 NORMAL LOADS (1,
2, 3 ) and the respective 3
MAX SHEAR ( 1, 2, 3 )
are then plotted on a graph,
to form a straight line as
shown in Figure.

3, 6. Note: Same scale must be


X used along both abscissa
and ordinate.
2, X
1 X 7. The cohesion, c and the
angle of friction () can be
determined from the graph,
c by measurement or
calculation
1, 2, 3

Direct Shear Test (ASTM D 3080)

Loose: Shear increases with displacement until the ultimate failure (ultimate / critical shear
strength) is reached, after that it will remain constant.
Dense: Shear increases with displacement until peak failure (peak shear strength) is
reached after that it gradually decreases until ultimate failure (ultimate / critical shear
strength).
Exercise
Time Normal Load Normal Load Normal Load
(s) 5.5 (kg) 15.5 (kg) 25.5 (kg)
Shearing Shearing Shearing Shearing Shearing Shearing
Force Displacement Force Displacement Force Displacement
(KN) (mm) (KN) (mm) (KN) (mm)
0 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.000
30 0.1064 0.110 0.1189 0.400 0.1392 0.415
60 0.1053 0.130 0.1143 0.425 0.1313 0.470
90 0.1121 0.445 0.1064 0.870
120 0.0940 1.440

The data show the results obtained at failure in a series of direct


shear box tests using specimens made of clayey sand. Determine
the values of shear strength parameters of the soil sample if
given the areas of all samples are 60 mm x 60 mm.
.
Answer
0.00012

0.0001

0.00008

20.5 Kg
0.00006
10.5 Kg
5.5 Kg

0.00004

0.00002

0
0 0.415 0.47 0.87 1.44
Answer
0.00012

3
0.0001

0.00008
20.5 Kg
2
0.00006
10.5 Kg

1
0.00004
5.5 Kg

0.00002

0
0 0.415 0.47 0.87 1.44
Answer
Therefore,
Sample Shear Stress, Normal Stress,
1 (From Graph) = 1 = (5.5 kg x 9.81) / (60x60) = 1
2 (From Graph) = 2 = (15.5 kg x 9.81) / (60x60) = 2
3 (From Graph)= 3 = (25.5 kg x 9.81) / (60x60) = 3
Answer
Note: Same scale must be used
along both abscissa and
ordinate.
The cohesion, c and the angle of
friction () can be
determined from the graph,
3, by measurement or
X calculation
2, X
1 X

c
1, 2, 3

Example 8.3:
A specimen of dry sand was subjected to
a direct shear stress that was carried out
until the specimen sheared. A normal
stress of 96.0 kN/m2 was imposed for the
test, and shear stress at failure was 6.0
kN/m2.

Find the sands angle of internal friction.


Example 8.3 (Answer)

Given data are plotted on


shear diagram. Note that
both the ordinate and
abscissa scales are the
same.

By measuring the angle of


the slope, = 340

By computation:
Tan = 65/96 = 0.6771
= 340
Triaxial Compression Test (ASTM D 2850)

Note: The Procedure and Data


Analysis for this method
have been covered in Lab II

3 = Lateral Pressure
= Minor principal Stress
p = Deviator Stress at failure
1 = Major principal stress
= 3 + p
Triaxial Compression Test (ASTM D 2850)

3
3 = Lateral Pressure
= Minor principal Stress
3 3
p = Deviator Stress at failure
1 = Major principal stress
3 = 3 + p

p
The Mohrs Circle

1
X 3

3 1

1- 3 Relation at Failure
The Mohrs Circle (Fig 8.8)

Two or more Mohrs circles can be used to draw the best Strength Envelope
Example 8.4:
Triaxial compression tests on three specimens
of soil sample were performed. Each test was
carried out until the specimen experienced
shear failure. The test data are tabulated as
follow:
Specimen No 3 p
1 69 276

2 136 328
3 207 359

Determine the soils cohesion and angle of internal friction


Example 8.4: (Answer)
Field (In-Situ) Tests
Methods Standard
Vane Test 1. ASTM D 2573
2. Discussed in Soil Mechanics &
Lab II
SPT 1. ASTM D 1586
2. Discussed in Soil Mechanics

Cone Penetration Test 1. ASTM D 3441 & D 5778


2. Discussed in Soil Mechanics
Penetrometer test 1. Discussed in Soil Mechanics
Quiz (Problem 8.2)
A series of direct shear tests was performed on a
soil sample. Each test was carried out until the
specimen sheared (failed). The laboratory data
for the tests are tabulated as follows. Determine
the soils cohesion and angle of friction.

Specimen No Normal Stress Shearing Stress


(kN/m2) (kN/m2)
1 10 22.5
2 20 26.0
3 30 29.5
4 50 37.0
Quiz (Problem 8.3)

The data shown in the following table were


obtained in triaxial compression tests of three
identical soil specimens. Find the soils
cohesion and angle of internal friction.
Specimen No 3 1
1 35 161
2 70 270
3 105 375