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Bell Ringer

What causes
sound?
Bell Ringer
Explain one station from yesterday.
How did length affect pitch?
How did sound travel through different
materials?
Waves & Sound
Vocabulary
Period: Time taken for one complete cycle
Variable: T
Unit: seconds
Frequency: Cycles per second
Variable: f
Unit: Hertz (Hz)
1 Hz = 1/second
Period and frequency are inverses of each
other
T = 1/f and f = 1/T
Vocabulary
Crest: High point of wave
Trough: Low point of wave
Amplitude: Distance from midpoint to
crest
Variable: A
Units: meters
Wavelength: Distance from crest to crest
Variable: l
Units: meters
Vocabulary
Catch a Wave Lab
Bell Ringer

Draw a wave and


label its crest, trough,
amplitude and
wavelength.
Types of Waves
Transverse: Motion of
medium is perpendicular
to direction wave travels

Longitudinal: Medium
moves in the same
direction as the wave
travels
Types of Waves
Types of Waves
Transverse: Motion of
medium is perpendicular
to direction wave travels

Longitudinal: Medium
moves in the same
direction as the wave
travels
The Origin of Sound
Produced by the vibration of material
objects
Pitch: Our impression of the frequency of
a sound
A high pitched sound has a high frequency
Young people hear pitches with
frequencies ranging from 20-20,000 Hz
Infrasonic: Sound waves with frequencies
below 20 Hz
Ultrasonic: Sound waves with frequencies
above 20,000 Hz
Sound in Air
Sound travels in the form of longitudinal
waves
A pulse vibrates through the air as a
series of compressions and rarefactions
When molecules compress, they leave areas
of low pressure behind them
Other molecules will move into these regions
Sound Transmission
Sounds can travel through solids, liquids,
and gases
Sound travels faster and more efficiently
through solids than liquids or gases
The speed of sound is different in
different materials
At room temperature (20oC), the speed of
sound is 340 m/s
Sound cannot travel in a vacuum
No molecules to compress or expand
Bell Ringer

What is the
relationship
between pitch and
frequency?
Wave Speed
Speed depends on the medium
(material) through which it travels

wave speed = wavelength x frequency

v= lf
.
Loudness
The intensity of a sound is related to the
amplitude
Measured by instruments such as an
oscilloscope
Unit: decibel (dB)
Loudness is how our brain senses the
sound (a.k.a. volume)
Source of Sound Level (dB)
Normal Breathing 10
Close Whisper 20
Library 40
Normal Speech 60
Busy Street Traffic 70
Subway Train 100
Loud Rock Music 115
Threshold of Pain 120
Jet Engine at 30 m 140
Interference
More than one wave can exist in the
same place at the same time
Wave effects may be increased,
decreased, or cancelled
Interference
Interference
Constructive Interference: Crest of one
wave overlaps the crest of another
Results in increased amplitude
Interference
Destructive Interference: Crest of one
wave overlaps the trough of another
Results in cancellation of amplitude
Interference and Beats
A receiver may hear two sound waves at
the same time:
In phase: Compressions and
rarefactions overlap each other
Out of phase: Compressions and
rarefactions of each wave are offset
If the crest of one wave overlaps the
trough of another, they will cancel
Beats: The periodic variation in the
loudness of a sound
Produced from two sounds of slightly
different frequencies
Interference and Beats
Interference and Beats
Bell Ringer
If a 400 Hz sound wave has a
wavelength of 3.71m as it travels
through water. What is the speed of
sound in water?
How does this compare with the speed
of sound in air?
Standing Waves
Created when a wave reflects on itself
Nodes: Parts of a standing wave which
remain stationary
Antinodes: Positions on a standing wave
with the largest amplitudes
Node

Antinodes
Standing Waves
Harmonics
To determine the harmonic of a standing
wave, count the antinodes.
1st Harmonic:

2nd Harmonic:

3rd Harmonic:

4th Harmonic:
Doppler Effect
The apparent change in frequency
due to the motion of the source or
receiver of the wave

Applies to both sound and light


Doppler Effect
Bow Waves
Wave shape produced when an
object moves faster than the speed of
the wave surrounding it
Two-dimensional
Shock Waves
Similar to a bow wave, except three-
dimensional
Cone shaped
Shock Waves
An object exceeding the speed of
sound will produce a shock wave
When the compressed air at the
edges of the shock wave reach the
ground, a sonic boom is heard
The object does not have to initially
make any sound in order to produce a
sonic boom
i.e.) The cracking of a whip is actually a
mini sonic boom!
Forced Vibrations
Sounds will be more intense if additional
material is made to vibrate
i.e. A guitar would not be audible if the sound
was not transmitted through its wooden body
Natural Frequency
Frequency at which the smallest amount
of energy is required to produce forced
vibrations
Any object made of elastic material will
vibrate at its own frequency when
disturbed
Natural frequency depends on the elasticity
and the shape of the object
Resonance
When the frequency of a forced vibration
matches the objects natural frequency
Dramatically increases the amplitude of the
sound wave
i.e.) Pumping a swing
Resonance