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MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E

Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell

Appendix A
Data Modeling

A-1
Copyright 2001 Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Data and Process Modeling
During systems development both processes
and data must be modeled
Data modeling describes data used by system
Process modeling describes processes carried
out by system
Level of detail
Varies between highest summary and lowest
detail
Structured tools enable level of detail to be
varied
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Entity-Relationship Diagram
(ERD)
Documents firms data by identifying types
of data entities and their interrelationships
Prepared at big picture point of data
specification
Very flexible

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Entity Types

Environmental
Entity
Resource symbol

Important transaction

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Relationship
An association between two entity types
Relationship
symbol

Employee Fills out Time card

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Connectivity Number of times an entity occurs
in relation to another entity

Time card 1 1 Payroll


Produces check
A. One to one

Dosen
1 Sebagai dosen M Mahasiswa
wali
B. One to many
M M
Mahasiswa Mengambil Matakuliah

C. Many to many
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Attributes

Characteristics of an entity
Actually data elements
Identifiers are unique attributes of the entity
Descriptors describe the entity

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Preparation of an Entity-
Relationship Diagram
1. Identify the entities
2. Identify the relationships
3. Prepare a rough ERD
4. Map data elements to the entities
5. Perform a data analysis (through third normal
form is common)
6. Prepare a modified ERD
7. Review the ERD with users and refine

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Supplier number Supplier Rough ERD
1

Fills

Purchase Purchase M M Raw


Contains
order number order Material

M
Represents Item number

Accounts
Supplier number
payable
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Normalization

First normal form (1NF)


Eliminate repeating elements in an entity
Second normal form (2NF)
Ensure that descriptor attributes rely on the
entire composite key for the assignment of
values
Third normal form (3NF)
Ensure that an attribute value cannot be
determined by values of other attributes
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Supplier number

Data Elements
Supplier name Supplier
Supplier address

Purchase order number


Purchase order date
1
are Mapped
Fills
Supplier number
Supplier name M
Supplier address
Item number (n times) M M
Purchase Contains Raw
Item description (n times)
order Material
Item quantity (n times)
Item unit price (n times)
M
Item extended price (n time) Item number
Purchase order amount Represents Item description
Warehouse location
Supplier number 1 Item unit price
Supplier name Balance on hand
Supplier address Accounts Reorder point
Total accounts payable payable Order quantity
Quantity on hand A-11
Normalized Portion of ERD
PURCHASE 1 M PURCHASE 1 1 RAW
ORDER CONTAINS ORDER REPRESENTS MATERIAL
LINE

PURCHASE ORDER PURCHASE ORDER NUMBER LINE/ITEM NUMBER


NUMBER ITEM NUMBER
Item description
Purchase order date Item number Warehouse
Supplier number Item description location
Supplier Item quantity ordered Item unit price
Supplier address Item unit price Balance on hand
Purchase order amount Item extended price Recorder point
Order quantity
Quantity on order

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Data Dictionary

Written description of the data contained in


the database
First ones maintained in hardcopy form
Most are now maintained on a computer
Data flow dictionary entry describes data
flows on DFD

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Data Dictionary [cont.]

Data store dictionary entry describes unique


data stored in a DFD
Data structure dictionary entry is completed
for each structure listed on the data store
and data flow forms
Data element dictionary entry is used for
each data element, or attribute included in
all of the structures
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Data Flow Dictionary Entry
Data flow name: Sales Order

Description: The documents that are filled


out by customers to identify
the products, and the
quantities of each, that they
will wish to purchase.

From: 1. Open mail

To: 2. Enter sales order


information

Data structures: Sales order record

Comments:
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Data Store Dictionary Entry
Data store name: Sales order form

Description: The history file of sales order forms, after


the data has been entered into the sales
commission system.

Data structures: Sales order record

Volume: Approximately 140 per day

Activity:

Access: Order department personnel

Comments:

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Data Structure Dictionary Entry
Structure name:Sales order record

Description: The sales order form that the customer uses to


order merchandise.

Date elements: Customer.Number


Customer.Order.Number
Salesperson.Number
Customer.Order.Date
*Item.Number
*Item.Description
*Item.Quantity
*Item.Unit.Price
*Item.Extended.Price

Comments: Elements marked with asterisks occur for each


item record
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Data Element Dictionary Entry
Data element name: Salesperson.Number

Description: The number that identifies the salesperson

Type: Numeric

Length: 4

No. decimal pos.

Aliases: Salesman number, Sales rep number

Range of values: 0001-9999

Typical value:

Specific values:

Other editing details: A-18


Summary
During early years of computing, emphasis
was on the processes performed.
Currently, emphasis is on data
ERDs are a primary tool in data analysis
Data dictionaries provide a means of
documenting data

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