Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 36

PRINCIPLES OF CARTOGRAPHY

GEO 362
CHAPTER 9
Map Production and Reproduction
Introduction

Principles of Map and


Cartography Cartographic
Geometric Aspects of Process
cartography Data Capture and
Cartographic Preparation
Information Sources Map Making and
History Generalization Production
Process Map Making
Map Compilation and Management
Design
Map Symbolization
Map Colour and
Typography

Knowledge and Theory of Cartography


MAP PRODUCTION AND
RE-PRODUCTION

Definition:

A process which involves the production of data collection,


mapping artwork, checking, editing, printing, and distributing.
MAP PRODUCTION AND
RE-PRODUCTION OF AN
ANALOG SYSTEM
ANALOG MAP PRODUCTION
AND RE-PRODUCTION
Definition:

Involves the use of traditional method in related map


production process, this includes, data collection,
management, designing, editing, coloring and printing.
Example: Topographic Map
General Flowchart of Topographic Map Production
Main stages in the map production & revision of maps from original survey
Topographic Map Process
from Aerial Photogrammetry
MAP PRODUCTION AND
RE-PRODUCTION OF A
DIGITAL SYSTEM
DIGITAL MAP PRODUCTION
AND RE-PRODUCTION
Definition:

Involves the use of computer in related map


production process, this includes, data collection,
management, designing, editing, coloring and
printing.
Digital Map Production Process
Advantages of Digital Map
Production

Reduce redundant work


Increasing map productivity
Updating map is much easier
Mapping quality is higher
Ability to make new products
Production monitoring is more effectives
Disadvantages of Digital Map
Production
Expensive price of computer hardware and software
High cost of systems maintenance
Training of operators is needed
Maintenance difficulties
Choose a Capability of How much
suitable an colour is
approach organization required?

Sufficient Accuracy
Manpower
instrument and quality

Financial
capability

Guideline to effective map production


Map Artwork

What is artwork?
Artwork is the working document which contains all the
necessary information for maps production purposes.

Types of artwork:
a) Positive artwork
b) Negative artwork
c) Digital artwork
Positive artwork
Type of artwork which produced normally with
manual drafting using printers or plotters.
Negative artwork
Converted positive artwork for reproduction
processes and can be produced using laser beam or
coating process.
Digital artwork
Type of mapping artwork which made based on
computer digitally.
Display on the screen
Map Artwork
How to choose the right artwork?

When? - Before you start mapping process

How? - Consider several factors: Size, amount of details,


symbols, amount of reduction, equipment
availability, desired quality, cost of the projects.
Digital Artwork Platform

A desktop computer is a personal A workstation is a high-end microcomputer


computer (PC) in a form intended for designed for technical or scientific
regular use at a single location, as applications.
opposed to a mobile laptop or portable local area network
computer multi-user operating systems
also been used to refer to a mainframe
computer terminal
DESKTOP WORKSTATION

Display

CPU
Mainframe is superior
Graphic than desktop in all those
Memory capacity aspects
Multi tasking capability
Workstation is optimized for the:
Visualization and manipulation of different
types of complex data,
Animation and rendering of images,
Mathematical plots.
Mapping Packages

Definition:

Software packages which have the ability to construct,


design, display, edit and send the digital artwork to
printer or plotter
Map Packages
Digital map can be produced through several methods:

Clip art Database


based maps based maps

Scratch
based maps
Mapping Packages

Clip art based maps:

- Produce map from clip art


operation only
- Deal with colour change, shape
change, modify style and lettering
editing
- Produce robust, and simple map
Mapping Packages
Database based maps:

- Possess an ability to import


databases of spatial and
attributes data
- Ability to perform spatial
analysis and presentation
- Ability to carry out
thematic map works
Mapping Packages
Ability & Advantages of Database Based Maps

1. Ability to perform basic and advanced spatial analysis


2. Ability to store attribute information
3. High quality of graphics preservation
4. Ability to carried out 3D mapping
5. Ability to perform dynamic, virtual mapping
6. Ability to perform web-based mapping
7. Ability to deal with high resolution image or data sources
8. Complete and easy projection transformation
9. Ability to perform thematic cartographic design
Mapping Packages

Scratch based maps:

- By using these software:


a) CADD software
b) Illustration and Paint
Mapping Packages
CAD software
Vector based mechanical drafting
Widely used in architecture, engineering, and construction industries
Early version support 2D, now, embedded 3D mapping
Accurate and precise mapping
Disadvantages:
- Not topologically structured
- Lack spatial analytical capabilities
- Lack of graphic sophisticated
Mapping Packages
Illustration & Paint
Software packages which include the capabilities of excellent
graphic design, coloring, dynamic lettering, shading, texturing
Example of Application in mapping:
- Symbol, lettering, fonts, map elements designing and editing.
- Tracing capabilities, from raster data.
- Editing lines, polygon and point
- Enlarge and reduce feature sizes
- Touching up map before undergo printing process
- Modification of raster images
Mapping Packages
Factors we need to consider for our mapping output:

Cost Quality Manpower

Purpose of
Expertise Knowledge
Map

Quantity Size
Map Output
Definition:
Map output process also known as printing out the map

Two main options:


- Raster devices
- Vector devices
Map Output
Raster devices:

- Several types of raster devices printers:


a) Ink jet printer
b) Electrostatic printer
c) Laser printer
d) Thermal printer
Raster Devices
Ink jet printer Electrostatic printer

Printer that forms an Process for printing or


image by using copying in which
electromagnetic Electrostatic forces
fields to guide are used to form the
electrically image in powder or
charged ink streams ink directly on the
onto the page surface to be printed
Laser printer Thermal printer
Printer that uses a Printer that produces
laser to produce an characters by applying
image on a rotating heat to special paper
drum before electro that is sensitive to
statically transferring heat
the image to paper.
Raster devices
Attribute 1 2 3 4

Quality

Thermal printer Laser printer Electrostatic Ink jet printer


printer
Speed

Electrostatic
Ink jet printer Laser printer Thermal printer
printer
Price

Thermal printer Laser printer Electrostatic Ink jet printer


printer
Vector Devices

Vector Plotter