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Cell & cell division

Anatomy
R.Arulmoli
Learning outcomes

Understand the cellular anatomy.


Describe the organelles of a typical cell and their
functions.
Outline the nucleus & its functions.
Describe the 2 types of cell division - mitosis and
meiosis.
Cell: Introduction

Cytology- study of cell.


Building blocks of human body.
Described by Robert Hooke in
1665.
Fundamental units of animal &
plant tissues.
Formed by division of pre
existing cells.
Smallest units performing vital
functions.
Cell : Types

Two primary types:

1.Prokaryotic cells -
Cells without true nucleus. Example: Bacteria.
Smaller in size than eukaryotic cells.

2.Eukaryotic cells -
Cells with nucleus.Example: Animals, plants and
fungi.
Cell : Structure

Parts of cell : Cytoplasm & nucleus.

Cytoplasm :
Located between the cell membrane
and nuclear membrane.
2 sub-divisions:
1.Cytosol or intracellular fluid:
Dissolved nutrients, ions,
soluble & insoluble proteins,
and waste products
2. Organelles:
Structures which perform
specific functions.
Cellular organelles

1. Non-membranous organelles
Cytoskeleton
Micro villi
Cilia
Ribosome
Centrioles
2. Membranous organelles
Endoplasmic reticulum-smooth and rough
Golgi apparatus
Lysosomes
Perioxisomes
Mitochondria
3. Nucleus
Cell : Structure
Cell : Structure
Cell membrane or plasma membrane

Forms the boundary for a cell.


Functions:
Physical barrier
Control over exchange of
materials
Very sensitive to any
change
Maintains the structure of
the cell
Composition:
Lipids
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Cell membrane or plasma membrane

Membrane Lipids:
Phospholipids,
Bilayered,
Hydrophobic.

Membrane Proteins:
Integral proteins Trans membrane proteins.
Peripheral proteins inner or outer surface.

Membrane Carbohydrates:
Proteoglycans, glycoproteins, glycolipids.
Glycocalyx.
Membrane permeability

Permeability:
Impermeable
Permeable
Selectively permeable

Energy requirement:
Active permeability
Passive permeability

Transport process:
Diffusion
Filtration
Carrier-mediated transport
Vesicular transport
Membranous organelles
Endoplasmic reticulum

Helps in synthesis of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.


Helps in storage of proteins and calcium ions.
Helps in transport of materials.
Helps in detoxification of materials.

2 Types: Rough and Smooth endoplasmic reticulum.

1.Smooth endoplasmic reticulum :


No Ribosomes.
Synthesizes phospholipids, cholesterol, sex hormones.
Stores and synthesizes triglycerides, calcium and glycogen.

2.Rough endoplasmic reticulum :


Has Ribosomes.
Synthesizes proteins, modification of proteins and transport.
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus

Enzymes and hormones


are modified and released
through exocytosis.
Transport vesicles,
secretory vesicles,
lysosomes.
Renews and modifies the
cell membrane.
Forms special enzymes
for use in cytosol.
Lysosomes

Helps in the defence of


the cell.
Cleans up and recycle
materials with in the
cell.
Primary & secondary
lysosomes.
Mitochondria

Structure-
- Outer and inner membrane.
- Numerous folds called
cristae (increases the
surface area of the
matrix of the
mitochondria)
Power house of a cell by
producing ATP.
Requires oxygen for its
activity aerobic
metabolism.
Mitochondrial DNA

Each cell contains


thousands of
mitochondria, which
contains DNA.
Mitochondrial DNA is in
larger quantities in a cell.
Nuclear DNA is larger in
size.
Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondria have their own genome of about 16,500 bp


that exists outside of the cell nucleus.
Each contains 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2
rRNAs.
They have a higher rate of substitution (mutations where
one nucleotide is replaced with another) than nuclear DNA
making it easier to resolve differences between closely
related individuals.
They are inherited only from the mother, which allows
tracing of a direct genetic line.
They don't recombine. The process of recombination in
nuclear DNA (except the Y chromosome) mixes sections of
DNA from the mother and the father.
Mitochondrial DNA

yeast
Human: 16 kb
Yeast: 84 kb
Corn: 570 kb
human
Mitochondrial DNA

We can compare mitochondrial DNA from the other living


humans.
See how related we are to each other.
Compare to prehistoric remains of human fossils.
Identify where our DNA originated.
Identify ancestral relationships between modern
populations.
Compare our mitochondrial DNA to other species.
Mitochondrial DNA is inherited from mom

Every sibling will get


their mitochondrial
DNA from their
mother.
Why?
Why mom?

Ovum contains 23
chromosomes and cell
cytoplasm which
contains thousands of
maternal mitochondria.
Sperm contains 23
chromosomes with very
little cytoplasm.
Why mom?

When egg and


sperm are
fertilized only
female
mitochondria
survive and are
passed onto to
baby.
Mitochondrial Eve
Mitochondrial Eve,(our mother) who is
estimated to have lived approximately
140,000200,000 years ago, refers to the
matrilineal most recent common ancestor
(MRCA) of all currently living modern humans.
She was the most recent woman from whom all
living humans today descend, on their mothers
side, and through the mothers of those
mothers.
Mitochondrial Eve is named after mitochondria
and the biblical Eve.
Mitochondrial Eve is estimated to have lived
between 140,000 and 200,000 years ago, most
likely in East Africa when Homo sapiens
sapiens (modern humans) were developing as
a population distinct from other human sub-
species.
Nucleus
Nucleus
Control centre.
Nuclear membrane surrounds it.Double layered
separated by a perinuclear space.Connected to the
rough ER at many places.
Nuclear pores-
Chemical communication occurs between the
cytosol via pores.There is movement of ions, small
molecules.
DNA and proteins are big and cannot pass through.
Nucleoplasm-
Fluid content of the nucleus.
Matrix: is a network of filaments which provide
support
Has ions, enzymes, RNA & DNA nucleotide, RNA
and DNA.
Nucleolus-
Synthesize RNA
Contains - proteins histones, enzymes, RNA and
DNA
Chromatin

DNA is in Chromatin

DNA + proteins (+ RNAs ?)


1. Histones
2. Non-histone chromosomal proteins
Two main types of chromatin:
1. Euchromatin - dispersed in the nucleus,
transcriptionally active.
2. Heterochromatin densely packed in the
nucleus, transcriptionally inactive.
Chromatin

Structure of a
Eukaryotic
Nucleus
Chromosomes and DNA

Chromosomes are
present inside the
nucleus.
46 chromosomes,
combination from both
parents; 23
chromosomes from each
parent.
Chromosomes and DNA
DNA: Chemical composition

Two types of nitrogen - containing bases comprise


the chemical structure of DNA:
- purines = adenine and guanine, A & G
- pyrimidines = thymine and cytosine, T & C
Genome size
Complex organisms have large genomes = genetic
contents of a cell.
Genomic size increases with evolutionary complexity.
Size of DNA is measured in kb = kilobase pairs.
Size of large genomes is measured in Mb = megabase
pairs.
Genes and genomes
Gene = unique sequence of DNA bases, coding for a protein
Alleles = different variants of a gene in different organisms or
on the homologous chromosomes

Organism Genome Gene


size number

E. coli 4.6 Mb 2800

Yeast 12 Mb 6000
Genes and genomes

Organism Genome Gene


size number

C. elegans 100 Mb 20,000

A. thaliana 120 Mb 26,000

H. sapiens 3,000 Mb 40,000?

Z. mays 2,500 Mb 26,000?

Salamander 90,000 Mb 30,000?


Differences between plant and animal cells

ANIMAL CELL
PLANT CELL

No cell wall present outside


Cell wall present the cell membrane

Plastids occur in cytoplasm No plastids are found

Lysosomes not usually Lysosomes present in cytoplasm


evident
Centrioles present only in Centrioles always present
cells of lower plant forms
Large vacuoles filled with Vacuoles, if present, are
cell sap small and contractile or
temporary vesicles
Plant and animal cell
Cell cycle
The complete series of
events from one cell
division to the next.
It is usually divided into the
phases when DNA is
replicated (S phase).
The phase when the cell
actually divides into two
cells (M phase).
The two intervening gap
phases (G1 and G2).
A nondividing state called
"quiescence" (G0).
Cell cycle
Cell cycle takes different time depending on the organism.
For example, cell division in the bacteria (e.g. Escherichia
coli) can take as little as 20 minutes. In a single-celled
yeast it takes 90-120 minutes. One of the more rapidly
dividing mammalian cells has a cycle that takes about 24
hours.
First synthetic cell

Dr. Craig Venter and Dr. Hamilton Smith from Craig Venter
Institute, California, USA, announced on 20 May 2010 the first
synthetic cell.
It is synthetic because the cell is totally derived from a synthetic
chromosome.
Applications:
To investigate how life works.
To create bacteria designed for the production of bio fuels and
cleaning the environment.
Working on ways to speed up vaccine production.
Cell division
Mitosis

Mitosis is nuclear division plus cytokinesis to produce


two identical daughter cells during prophase,
prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Interphase is often included in discussions of mitosis,
but interphase is technically not part of mitosis.
Interphase

The cell is engaged in


metabolic activity and
prepare for mitosis.
Chromosomes are not
clearly visible in the
nucleus.
Prophase

Chromatin in the nucleus


begins to condense and
becomes visible as
chromosomes.
The nucleolus disappears.
Centrioles begin moving to
opposite ends of the cell
and fibers extend from the
centromeres as mitotic
spindle.
Metaphase

Spindle fibers align the


chromosomes along the
middle of the cell nucleus.
This line is referred to as
the metaphase plate.
This organization helps to
ensure that in the next
phase, when the
chromosomes are
separated, each new
nucleus will receive one
copy of each
chromosome.
Anaphase

The paired
chromosomes separate
at the kinetochores and
move to opposite sides
of the cell.
Telophase

Chromatids arrive at
opposite poles of cell,
and new membranes
form around the
daughter nuclei.
The chromosomes
disperse.
The spindle fibers
disperse, and
cytokinesis or the
partitioning of the cell
may also begin during
this stage.
Cytokinesis

In animal cells, cytokinesis


results when a fiber ring
composed of a protein
called actin around the
center of the cell contracts
pinching the cell into two
daughter cells, each with
one nucleus.
Meiosis

Meiosis is the type of cell division by which germ cells


(ovum and sperm) are produced.
Meiosis involves a reduction in the amount of genetic
material.
Meiosis comprises two successive nuclear divisions with
only one round of DNA replication.
Four stages can be described for each nuclear division.
Meiosis I

In meiosis I, chromosomes in a diploid cell


resegregate, producing four haploid daughter
cells. It is this step in meiosis that generates
genetic diversity.
Meiosis I : Prophase I

DNA replication precedes


the start of meiosis I.
During prophase I,
homologous chromosomes
pair and form synapses, a
step unique to meiosis.
The paired chromosomes
are called bivalents, and
the formation of chiasmata
caused by genetic
recombination becomes
apparent.
Prometaphase I

The nuclear membrane


disappears.
One kinetochore forms
per chromosome and
the chromosomes
attached to spindle
fibers begin to move.
Metaphase I

Bivalents, each composed


of two chromosomes (four
chromatids) align at the
metaphase plate.
The orientation is random,
with either parental
homologue on a side.
This means that there is a
50-50 chance for the
daughter cells to get
either the mother's or
father's homologue for
each chromosome.
Anaphase I

Chiasmata separate.
Chromosomes, each with
two chromatids, move to
separate poles.
Each of the daughter cells
is now haploid (23
chromosomes), but each
chromosome has two
chromatids.
Telophase I

Nuclear envelopes may


reform, or the cell may
quickly start meiosis II.
Cytokinesis

Analogous to mitosis
where two complete
daughter cells form.
Meiosis II

Second division of meiosis: Gamete formation


Prophase 2: DNA does not replicate.
Metaphase 2: Chromosomes align at the
equatorial plate.
Anaphase 2: Centromeres divide and sister
chromatids migrate separately to each pole.
Telophase 2: Cell division is complete. Four
haploid daughter cells are obtained.
Meiosis

One parent cell produces four daughter cells.


Daughter cells have half the number of
chromosomes found in the original parent cell
and with crossing over, are genetically different.
Meiosis differs from mitosis primarily because
there are two cell divisions in meiosis, resulting
in cells with a haploid number of chromosomes.
Meiosis
Summary
Cell and its organelles

Cell membrane
Endoplasmic reticulum
Ribosomes
Golgi apparatus
Lysosome
Mitochondria
Nucleus

The nucleus is the control center of a cell through


genetic information stored in the nucleus.
Genes are made of the nucleic acid DNA. Hundreds of
genes are linked together as chromosomes
(chromatin).
Genes can be switched on or off and are indirectly
responsible for making proteins which do the work of
the cell.
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