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There is universally shared

criterion for deciding when a conflict


of values falls within the province of
ethics rather than say, law.
law.

In this chapter we will


characterized and analyze a nu numb
mber
er
of important kinds of ethical issues
and conflicts associated with
contemporary science and
technology..
technology
 IFITION OF ETHI
IE ND ONF IT

 The facts of the Matter


 ffected patients and their interest
 ey concepts, criteria and principles
 arguments
Ethical theories and arguments
j   
  
 
Invitro fertilization ± involving the
unnatural separation of human
reproduction from sexual inter course
Transgenic nimals ± viewed by some
critics as a transgression of natural
animal ± species boundaries
½ Deontological Ethical rguments (2
Forms
1) Intervention ± free order of nature
- Natural and intrinsically³good
intrinsically³good´´
2) Technology ± not viewed as part of
the natural order but rather as artificial.
 omething has existed or has been
done in the so called natural way from
time immemorial and concludes that
therefore it should be done or
same way
continues to be done in that same
without technological intervention.
j   
     

Other ethical issues arise from the fact


that the use, failure to use, a withdrawal of
particular scientific procedures or items of
that adherents believe to be
exceptionless..
exceptionless
Examples:
- se of Nuclear weapons in war
- ³Harvesting´ of fetal tissue for use in
treating Parkinson¶s or lzheimer¶s
disease.
Distribution of cience or technology
Related Benefits

The fact that the benefits of


development in science and technology
are allocated in ways that do not seem
group..
equitable to one or another social group
Infliction of Harm or Exposure to
ignificant Risk of Harm without Prior
onsent

Ethical issues and conflicts engendered


by developments in science and
technology arises from activities that while
undertaken to benefit one group, inflict
harm or impose significant risk of harm on
another without the latter¶s prior consent
consent..
cience or Technology ± precipitated
value conflicts
 enetic test ± allowing those with access
their result to know something of a
sensitive nature about the health-
health-related
state or genetic predisposition of the
person tested have proliferated.
TET FOR VRIO ENETI
DIORDER
- Down yndrome - Tay achs Disease
- ickle ell nemia
cience or Technology ± engendered
³Positive´ Rights

In the modern era, ³human rights´ is


irrevocable entitlements that people
supposedly have simply because they are
human beings. The recognized human
rights are ³life´ and ³liberty´.
Public Harm of ggregation

arge number of people doing the


same thing is that substantial harm is
done to the environment.
Practitioner Problems

They are ethical problems associated


with the concrete processes and practices
of scientific and technological activity.
Problems of Execution: Edward Wenk
has identified ³3 inds of Ethical Issues´
faced practicing in their work.
1) Distributive Justice
To exposed people to a non-
non-trivial
degree of risk to their safety, health or
property without their consent.

2) Whistle Blowing
May become aware of deliberate
actions or negligence on the part
colleagues or employees that seem to
them to pose a threat to a threat to some
component of the public interest.
3) onsideration of ong Term Effects
n engineer in daily practices involves
³managing the future´ has a tendency to
focus designing, producing or installing
³hardware´ without adequately anticipating
longer term effects.
Problems of ommunication
1) Fraud
- Falsification of scientific data
- Base on June Price Tangue urveys,
85% believe that fraud is not common
32% suspected their colleagues in
falsifying data.
Major Motivations for Fraud:
 Desire for fame and recognition (56%)
 Job security and promotion (31%)
 Belief in or wish to promote a theory
(31%)
  aziness (15%)

2) Misrepresentation
- false presentation of findings
- unprofessional and unethical
Example:
misrepresentation of the activities that
has been accomplished.
ëualified Neo±
Neo±consequentalism
ethical theory and judgment about
actions, practices and policies and their
likely consequences that are accepted.
ëualities:
 Focused on harm and well-well-being
 Refined
 omprehensive
 Discriminating
 Prudent