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GIS has three primary data types

Feature Classes Rasters

Data Sources
Hardcopy Sources Digitizing Tablet

Manually drawn maps

Legal records
Coordinate lists with associated
tabular data Coordinate GPS
Aerial photographs

Field Coordinate Measurement

Coordinate Surveying
GPS Image Data

Image Data Spatial Data in a GIS

Manual or automated classification

Direct raster data entry
Common Input Methods

Manual Digitizing

Automatic Map Scanning

Text Keyboard Entry

Text Scanning

Format Conversion
Digitising methods

Method Devices
Manual digitising Coordinate entry via keyboard
Digitising tablet with cursor
Mouse cursor on the computer
monitor: on screen digitising
Automatic digitising Scanner

Semi-automatic Scanner and line-following software

Digitising methods
On-screen digitising procedure

Open/import an existing layer into your GIS

The image will be shown on the screen
The features can be traced by a mouse
The x, y coordinates of these features are recorded
and stored as spatial data

Georeferencing is the process of assigning a raster image that can represent a

map or satellite image coordinates and spatial location

The steps are: choosing control points, then creating links, and
recalculating raster image in the end.
Georeferencing and coordinate

All GIS datasets can be overlaid . . .

. . . because they have a spatial reference

Spatial Reference: A coordinate system used to locate features and rasters on

the earths surface
Map Anatomy: Map Scale

Usually recorded as a ratio, such as 1:100,000, or a fraction, such as

Large scale (Fine scale) maps, such as 1/10,000, show finer detail,
less area
Small scale (Broad scale) maps, such as 1/500,000, show less detail,
greater area
Think of large & small scale as the value of 1 in the fraction.
Example 1/10,000 > 1/500,000
Map Anatomy: Map Scale 1:25,000 Large Scale
Map Anatomy: Map Scale 1:250,000
Smaller Scale
Map Anatomy: Map Scale 1:500,000
Smaller than before
Map Anatomy: Map Scale 1:1,000,000 Small Scale
smaller than before
Georeferencing: What to do?

The image is a photo of

the 3D model

Data are not yet

structured into
classified and coded
Image data has to be
vectorised and
structured first

Data is referenced to a location on the earths surface

Geographic coordinate systems
Projected coordinate systems
Georeferencing: What to do?

Establish control points

from the base map
At least four points with
known coordinates should
be marked on the map
Control Points

Control points are know

locations for a physical feature
that can be identified

These are the points that will be

used to georeference the image.

Control points can be collected

using GPS, determined using tics
on a paper map, or from known
features from a base layer
Georeferencing: What to do?

Write down the x,

y coordinate of
each point
Preparing GPS data for use in GIS

GPS waypoint X, Y coordinates may need to be converted for use in GIS,

use Excel to convert data using formula below
GIS requires a single X, single Y value
Most commonly used: Decimal degrees
Degrees: units of measurement in lat/long system on the globe
60 minutes in one degree of longitude or latitude
60 seconds in one minute

Conversion Formula
Minutes Seconds
DD = Degrees + +
60 3600
Georeferencing: What to do?

Click the mouse pointer

over a known point on
the raster layer for which
you have the x and y
coordinates click
Using control points

Control points are used to register

dataset to known location
Street intersections, corners
Other landmarks that do not move

Aerial Photo Parcel Map (Unknown)
Georeferencing: What to do?

After adding at least four points, one can evaluate

the transformation
In most GIS software, we can examine the
residual error for each point and the RMS (Root
Mean Square) error
In the ideal situation, the RMS error should not be
greater than one pixel
Root Mean Square (RMS) Error

Deviation between the actual location and the estimated location of

the control points.

Error for a control point is

Average RMS is
Georeferencing: What to do?

Table shows residual errors of control points resulting

in an RMS error greater than one pixel

If RMS is greater than one pixel, delete the control points with the
greatest residual errors and create new points.
Georeferencing Process
Lat/Long Lat/Long

Need to know Lat/Long

locations of at least 4
recognizable features
Use more than 4
Locations used to
create control points
should spread out
throughout the map
Link real-world
coordinates to the
control points
Links used to
transform the map
image to real-world
But First You Have to Get Scanned Map Set Up in

How to do this:
Open scanned image in ArcMap, click yes to build
Set coordinate system
Determine x,y coordinates for control points
- Zoom in enough so that you can read the coordinates
- Coordinates along the top and y-coordinates down the left side
Adding Coordinates:

Zoom in
Display the Georeferencing toolbar
Click the View Link Table button
Click the Add Control Points button
Position the crosshair so that it lines up precisely
with the intersection of the blue tic mark and the
black line of the map border.
Right-click and choose input X and Y.
Enter x and y coordinates
Once all four coordinates added, to permanently
apply the transformation to the data, you must use
the Rectify command from the Georeferencing
Open Links table

Create control point links

(displacement links)

Use to Use to help Fit image to display

start all
Only Decimal Degree
Control Point Added

Here fix permanently the changes

The process by which the geometry of an

image is made planimetric (flattened)
Questions, Comments?