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# UNIT III

WAVESHAPING CIRCUITS

WAVESHAPING CIRCUITS
(i)linear wave shaping
The process by which
the shape of a non sinusoidal
signal is changed by passing the
signal through the network
consisting of linear elements is
called linear wave shaping.
NON SINUSOIDAL SIGNALS

Step
Pulse
These signals are
Square wave common in pulse
Ramp circuits
NON SINUSOIDAL WAVEFORMS

## The commonly occurring non sinusoidal

waveforms are

Step waveform
Pulse waveform
Square waveform
Ramp waveform
Triangular waveform
Sawtooth waveform
STEP WAVE FROM
PULSE WAVEFORM
FORMATION OF PULSE WAVEFORM
SQUARE WAVEFORM
RAMP WAVE FORM
Input Vi(t) A waveform which
is zero for all t<0
and
Slope =
Then increase
linearly with time
t for t>0 is called a
t=0 T
ramp waveform or
sweep waveform
The slope of the ramp is shown as
Vi(t) = 0, for t < 0
= t, for t 0
TRIANGULAR WAVEFORM
SAW TOOTH WAVEFORM
RC LINEAR CIRCUIT
High pass RC circuit
Low pass RC circuit Vi input voltage
High pass RC circuit
Vo output voltage
q q charge on the capacitor C

## Allow only high frequencies.

Sinusoidal Input:
When a sinusoidal input Vi, is applied to it, then
the output Vo is given by:
Vo = (R/(R-JXc))Vi

Where

## J is the imaginary axis of the complex plane

Output is a frequency dependent quantity. At low
frequency, JXc >>R. Under this condition,
expression becomes almost zero i.e.
Vo = 0

## At high frequency, JXc << R. Under this

condition, the ratio (R/(R JXc) becomes unity
and Vo = Vi
Thus high-pass circuit attenuates signals of low
frequencies and does not affect the high
frequency signals
A frequency response curve of a high-pass circuit
is shown in Fig. 1(b). The frequency at which the
output becomes 70.7 percent of the input is called
the lower cutoff frequency and is given by the
expression.
fc = 1/2fc
STEP - VOLTAGE INPUT
STEP INPUT VOLTAGE
EFFECTS OF THE CIRCUITS TIME
CONSTANT ON RC HIGH PASS
HIGH-PASS RC CIRCUIT AS
DIFFERENTIATOR
The High-pass RC circuit is also known as a
differentiator.
The name high pass is so called because the
circuit blocks the low frequencies and allows high
frequencies to pass through it.
It is due to reason that reactance of the capacitor
decreases with the increasing frequency.
As a result of this, at very high frequencies, the
capacitor acts as a short circuit
A circuit in which the output voltage is directly
proportional to the derivative of the input voltage
is called a differentiating circuit.
Mathematically, the output voltage is given by:

## Output d/dt (input)

Vo dvi/dt
or Vo= RC d/dt V2
Where RC is a constant of
proportionality
A differentiating circuit is a simple RC series
circuit with output taken across the resistor R.
The circuit is designed in such a way that output
is proportional to the derivative of the input.
Thus if a d.c. or constant input is applied to such
a circuit, the output will be zero.
It is because the derivative of the constant is
zero.
The above fig. shows the differentiating circuit,
the output across R will be derivative of the
input.
In order to achieve a good differentiation,

## (1)the time constant RC of the circuit should be

smaller than the time period of the input signal.
(2)the value of a capacitive reactance Xc should
be 10 or
more time larger then R at the operating
frequency.
Let Vi, be the input alternating voltage and let i
be The resulting alternating current. The charge
q on the capacitor at any instant is:
q = CVc
i = dq/dt
i = d/dt (CVc)
i = C d/dt (Vc)
Since the capacitive reactance is very larger than
R, the input voltage can be consider equal to the
capacitor voltage without any error,, i.e Vc = Vi,
i = (C d/dt (Vi))R
output voltage is given by:

Vo = iR

Vo =RC d/dt Vi

Hence

## The output waveform from a differentiating

circuit depends upon the time constant and the
shape of the input signal.
APPLICATIONS:

## Some important applications of a differentiating

circuit are given as under:
1. To generate a square wave from a triangular
wave input.
2. To generate a step from a ramp input.
3. To generate a series of narrow pulses called
spikes from the rectangular or square waveform.
o The pips are used as trigger pulses or
synchronization pulses in circuits used in
television and cathode ray oscilloscopes.
INPUT AS A SAW-TOOTH WAVE
INPUT AS A TRIANGULAR WAVE
INTEGRATOR
Sinusoidal Input
When a sinusoidal input Vi is applied to it, then
the output Vo is given by:
Where

## V0 is the output voltage

Vi is the input voltage
Xc is the capacitive reactance
R is the ohmic value of resistance
J is the imaginary axis of the complex plane.
Output is a frequency dependent quantity. At
frequencies, JXc << R. Under this condition,
expression becomes almost zero i.e.
Vo = 0

## At low frequencies, when JXc >> R

Vo = Vi
Thus, low-pass circuit attenuates signals of high
frequencies and do not affect signals of low
frequencies. A frequency response curve of a low-
pass circuit is shown in Fig. 1(b). The frequency
at which the output becomes 70.7 percent of the
input is called the cut-off frequency and is given
by the expression.
fc = 1/2RC
STEP VOLTAGE INPUT
EFFECTS OF THE CIRCUIT TIME
CONSTANT ON RC LOW-PASS:
The shape of the output waveform of an RC low-
pass circuit depends upon the value of the circuit
time constant T (as compared to pulse duration
tp). For a pulse waveform of the low-pass circuit
may be short, long or medium as compared to tp,
the pulse duration of the input pulse wave.
Now let us considered, time period of the circuit T
may be long when tp < 0.1T or short when tp> 10T
or medium when T lies between the extremes,
i.e., 10 T > tp > 0.1 T. The output waveforms are
shown in Fig
Observed that when circuit time constant T is
very long; As compared to the pulse width tp the
step input is converted to a ramp output. The
low-pass circuit under such conditions behaves
like and is sometimes called an integrator. It
means, the output is the integral of the input
waveform.
LOW-PASS CIRCUIT AS INTEGRATOR

## A circuit in which the output voltage is directly

proportional to the integral of the input voltage is
called an integrating circuit. Mathematically, the
output voltage is given by:
output (input)
Vi Vi dt
or V =(1/ RC) Vi dt
Where RC is a constant of proportionality

## An integrating circuit is a simple RC series

circuit with output taken across the capacitor C
as shown in Fig
In order to achieve a good integration, the
following conditions must be satisfied.
The time constant RC of the circuit should be
very large as compared to the time period of the
input signal.
The value of R should be 10 or more times larger
than X,.
Let Vi be the input alternating voltage and let i
be the resulting alternating current. Since R is
very large as compared to capacitive reactance
Xc of the capacitor. It may be assume that voltage
across R (i.e. VR) is equal to the input voltage, i.e.
Vi = VR

Now

I = VR/R = Vi/R

## The charge q on the capacitor at any instant is:

Q =i dt
Output voltage is given by:

## The output waveform from an integrating circuit

depends upon the time constant and the shape of
the input signal.
Applications:

## Some important applications of an integrating

circuit are given as under:
To perform mathematical integration in analogue
computers.
To generate a triangular wave from a square
wave.
To generate a sawtooth wave from a rectangular
wave.
To trigger the electronics devices.
INPUT AS A SQUARE WAVE:

## When input signal is a square wave and applied

to an integrating circuit, the output will be a
triangular wave as shown in Fig. 4. We know
that integration means summation, therefore,
output from an integrating circuit will be the sum
of all the input signals at any instant. This sum
is zero at point A and goes on increasing till it
becomes maximum at point C. After this, the
summation goes on decreasing to the on set of
negative movements CD of the input signal.
INPUT AS A RECTANGULAR- WAVE:

## When input signalis a rectangular wave and

applied to an integrating circuit, the output will
be a saw-tooth wave as shown in Fig. 5. From
point A signal goes on increasing till it becomes
maximum at point C. After this, the summation
goes on decreasing to the on set of negative
movement CD of the input wave.
It means that the response of an integrating
circuit to a rectangular wave is similar to that
discussed for a square wave as discuss for square
waver, except the output waveform, which is a
sawtooth wave (instead of a triangular wave).
INPUT AS A RECTANGULAR- WAVE:
PULSE INPUT VOLTAGE
SQUARE WAVE INPUT VOLTAGE
RAMP INPUT
CLIPPER CIRCUITS
Clipping circuits
A clipper is a device which limits,
remove or prevents some portion of the
wave form (input signal voltage) above
or below a certain level.
In other words
the circuit which limits positive or
negative amplitude ,or both is called
chipping circuit.
TYPES OF CLIPPERS
The clipper circuits are of the
following types.
Series positive clipper
Series negative clipper
Shunt or parallel clipper
Shunt or parallel positive negative
Clipper Dual (combination)Diode
clipper
SERIES POSITIVE CLIPPER

Positive clipper
Output voltage
SERIES-POSITIVE CLIPPER WITH
BIAS
SERIES NEGATIVE CLIPPER
SERIES-NEGATIVE CLIPPER WITH
BIAS
SHUNT OR PARALLEL POSITIVE
CLIPPER
SHUNT OR PARALLEL POSITIVE
CLIPPER WITH BIAS
SHUNT OR PARALLEL NEGATIVE
CLIPPER
SHUNT OR PARALLEL NEGATIVE
CLIPPER WITH BIAS
DUAL (COMBINATION) DIODE
CLIPPER
CLAMBER CIRCUITS
A circuit that places either the positive or
negative peak of a signal at a desired D.C
level is known as a clamping circuit.
A clamping circuit introduces (or restores)
a D.C level to an A.C signal.
Thus a clamping circuit is also known as
D.C restorer.
the original signal will not get changed,
only there is vertical shift in the signal.
TYPES OF CLAMBERS
Positive clamber - Positive clamping
occurs when negative peaks raised or clamped to
ground or on the zero level
In other words, it pushes the signal upwards so
that negative peaks fall on the zero level.
Negative clamper - Negative clamping

## occurs when positive peaks raised or clamped to

ground or on the zero level
In other words, it pushes the signal downwards
so that the positive peaks fall on the zero level.
CLAMPING WAVE FORM
DIODE CLAMBER

(1)POSITIVE CLAMBER
POSITIVE CLAMBER WITH POSITIVE BIASED
POSITIVE CLAMBER WITH NEGATIVE
BIASED
NEGATIVE CLAMBER
NEGATIVE CLAMBER WITH POSITIVE
BIASED
NEGATIVE CLAMBER WITH NEGATIVE
BIASED
ASTABLE
BISTABLE MULTIVIBRATOR