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HIGHWAY

ENGINEERING
ECT 4313
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
(ATJ 5/85 [PINDAAN 2013])
Structural Design Using ATJ 5/85
(Pindaan 2013)
This design approach combines improved design development data and
mechanistic methods of analysis into single tool that is presented in the form
of catalogue of pre-designed pavement structures.
Design procedure are based on the assumption of two strains that are
critical to pavement performance:
1. Vertical strain on top of the sub-grade
-this strain is adopted in design criteria to control accumulation of
permanent deformation of the sub-grade.
2. Horizontal strain at the bottom of the lowest bound pavement course
-this strain is used to control the fatigue damage due to repeated traffic
load.
Both strains are expressed as a function of traffic volume. The allowable
design strain is that which occurs under single pass of an Equivalent
Standard Axle Load (ESAL)
Structural Design Using ATJ 5/85
(Pindaan 2013)
Typical Flexible Pavement Structure
Typical Flexible Pavement Structure
Typical Flexible Pavement Structure
Design Procedure

1. Determine ADT in one direction, percentage of CV and traffic growth


factor, r
2. Determine the number of lanes and terrain conditions (flat, rolling and
mountainous)
3. Select the design period
4. Calculate the design traffic (ESAL) for the design lane and base year,
Y1
5. Calculate the design traffic for the design period and determine the
traffic category
6. Determine sub-grade properties and category
Design Procedure
1. ADT, % of CV and r
The average ADT value should be based on a minimum of 3 days, 24
hours per day. If the traffic count covers a time period of 0600 to 2200
hours, multiply the traffic count reported by HPU with a factor of 1.2
Determine the percentage of CV and break-down into vehicle
categories
Determine annual traffic growth factor, r for CV
Design Procedure
1. ADT, % of CV and r
Design Procedure
2. Number of Lane and Terrain
Design Procedure
2. Number of Lane and Terrain
Design Procedure
3. Design Period
Selection of design period is based on the economic and social
considerations.
Design period of 10 years is recommended for low volume roads and
other rural roads
For medium to high volume of roads, minimum design periods of 20
years is recommended
Design Procedure
4. Calculations of ESALs
ESAL at base Year Y1
ESALY1 = ADT x 365 x PCV x LEF x L x T
ADT Average daily traffic
PCV % of commercial vehicle
LEF Load Equivalent Factor (should use 3.7 for mixed commercial
vehicle)
L Lane Distribution Factor
T Terrain Factor
Design Procedure
4. Calculations of ESALs
However, if site specific traffic distribution by vehicle type is available:
ESALY1 = [ADTCV1 x LEFCV1 + ADTCV2 x LEFCV2 ++ ADTCV4 x LEFCV4] x 365 x L x T
ADTCV1 etc ADT of vehicles in each vehicle class
LEFCV1 etc LEF of applicable vehicle class
Design Procedure
4. Calculations of ESALs
Calculation of design traffic for the design period and determination of
traffic category
ESALDES = ESALY1 x [(1+r)n 1] / r
ESALDES Design traffic for the design lane in one direction
(determines the Traffic Category used as basis for selecting
pavement structure from the catalogue)
r annual traffic growth factor for design period
n number of years in design period
Design Procedure
4. Calculations of ESALs
Alternatives method to calculate ESALDES based on the Total Growth
Factor (TGF):
ESALDES = ESALY1 x TGF
Design Procedure
5. Traffic Category
Design Procedure
Sub-grade Properties & Category
Sub-grade strength is one of the most important factors in determining
pavement structural layer thickness, composition of layers and overall
pavement performance.
Traditionally, CBR value has been used widely for pavement design
purpose. For this amendment method, CBR has retained as a design
tool, however, direct measurement of elastic stiffness values of the sub-
grade is recommended whenever feasible.
A minimum CBR of 5% is recommended for pavement that have to
support traffic volumes corresponding to traffic category T1 though T5.
Design Procedure
Sub-grade Properties & Category
Design Procedure
Properties of Paving Materials
The choice of paving material used depends on the regional
experience, availability of materials and costs. It can be classified into:
1. Bituminous wearing and binder courses
2. Bituminous road base
3. Unbound granular road base
4. Cemented or otherwise stabilized road base
5. Unbound granular sub-base
Design Procedure
1.Bituminous WC and BC
In pavement design, elastic modulus and Poissons ratio of bituminous
mixtures are important.
Elastic modulus of bituminous mixtures is primarily a function of its
composition, density, temperature and loading time which the mixture
exposed in a pavement.
In Malaysia, averages temperature used to determine elastic properties
are 35 C for wearing coarse and 25 C for bituminous road base.
Design Procedure
1.Bituminous WC and BC
Design Procedure
2.Bituminous Road Base
For the purpose of flexible pavement design, bituminous road base
should be treated similarly to bituminous binder and wearing course
except that a lower temperature used for this layer.
Design Procedure
3.Creushed Aggregate and Wet
Mix Road base
JKR specified two types of granular road base material
1. Crushed aggregate road base
2. Wet-mix road base
Minimum CBR value should be 80% that correspond to elastic modulus
of 350 + 100 MPa
Design Procedure
4.Stabilized Road Base
Road paving material was stabilized to improve its overall performance
and enhance its ability to perform its function in the pavement.
JKR specified two types of stabilized road base:
1. Aggregate stabilized primarily with cement or lime (STB 1)
2. Aggregate stabilized with combination of bituminous emulsion/foamed
bitumen and cementitious material (STB 2)
Summary of Material Used in
Pavement Structures
Summary of Material Used in
Pavement Structures
Design of Standardized Pavement
Structures
Catalogue of Pavement Structures
Catalogue of Pavement Structures
Catalogue of Pavement Structures
Catalogue of Pavement Structures
Catalogue of Pavement Structures
Catalogue of Pavement Structures
Example 1 (Traditional Pavement
with Granular Base
Design a road pavement for a 2 lane highway with the following data:
ADT of 1350 vehicles
16% commercial vehicles (no break-down by vehicle type)
Rolling terrain
Design life is 20 years
Annual traffic growth is 4 %
CBR value for design purpose is 12.9%
Example 2
Design a road pavement for a 4-lane highway (concession toll-road) with
the following data:
Average daily traffic of 7286 vehicles
38% commercial vehicles (ADT based on HPU survey from 0600 to 2200)
CV 1= 624
CV 2 = 456
CV 3 = 316
CV 4 = 102
Terrain condition: Flat
Design Life: 20 years
Annual traffic growth rate, r = 4.5%
Sub-grade strength = 24.9%
Pavement for Low Volume Road
Low volume road pavements can be designed using catalogue under
Traffic Category T1 or using Table 4.1
Example 3 (Low Volume Road)
Design a pavement for 2 lane rural road in a hilly area. Assume a design
period of 10 years. The volume of commercial vehicle is less than 100 CV.
Traffic volume over the design period is between 100 to 500 thousands CV.
Design CBR value is between 5 to 12 %.

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