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Planning and scheduling for high rise building:

Scheduling- Simulation
Typical Floor Construction Cycle
Appropriate working schedule.


Overview of construction management topics

Estimating cost control, quality control, safety, productivity.
Value engineering, claims, and legal issues
Overview of construction management topics
What is a Project?

A Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique

product, service or result.
Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end.
Projects are not ongoing efforts.
Unique Product, services or result
A Product or artifact that is produced, is quantifiable, and can be either an end
item in itself Or a component item.

A capability to perform a service, such as business functions supporting

production or distribution.

A result, such as outcomes or documents. For example, a research project

develops knowledge that can be used to determine whether or not a trend is present or a
new process will benefit society.

Uniqueness is an important characteristic of project deliverables. For example, many

thousands of office buildings have been developed, but each individual facility is unique
different owner, design,location,contractors and so on. The presence of repetitive elements
does not change the fundamental uniqueness of the project work.
Overview of construction management topics
What is Project Management?

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and

techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.

Managing a project includes:

Identifying requirements
Establishing clear and identifiable objectives
Balancing the competing demands for quality, scope time and cost.
Adapting the specifications, plans, approach to the different
concerns and expectations of the various stakeholders.

Project management is accomplished through the application and

integration of the project management processes of initiating,
planning, executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing.

The project manager is the person responsible for accomplishing the

project objectives.
Overview of construction management topics
Overview of construction management topics
Overview of construction management topics
Estimate cost control
Estimate cost control
Estimate cost control
Estimate at completion =
Actual cost + Estimate to

Typical cost/time S curve

Value Engineering
Value engineering (VE) is a systematic method to improve the "value" of goods or
products and services by using an examination of function.

Value, as defined, is the ratio of function to cost.

Value can therefore be increased by either improving the function or reducing the cost.
It is a primary tenet of value engineering that basic functions be preserved and not be
reduced as a consequence of pursuing value improvements.
Value Engineering
Value Engineering

Hidden Cost
Workers Compensation Cost
Replacement and training cost for
new or substitute employee
Poor Quality
Penalties for non-compliance
Typical Programs
Recordkeeping Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
OSHA 300 log and supplementary forms Proper use
OSHA 301, accident investigations Employee training
Workers compensation cases Enforcement
Employee's medical history Dusty Operations
Hazard communication program Unknown hazards
Written program development and Hazardous waste operations and
implementation Emergency response
Machine guarding
Chemical Inventory
Make sure that machine guarding is:
Communicate safe work methods for:
In place and working properly
Jobs-Specific activities
Replaced and tested for proper function
Non-routine tasks
when removed for maintenance
Labeling requirements
Review electrical and mechanical interlocks
to see if they work properly
Employee training (contractors)
Equipment Repair
Lockout/Tagout Inspect and repair and/or replaced defective
Make sure that lockout/tagout procedures parts
are established Others
Employees trained Confined-space entry
Follow project owners program Excavation
Heavy equipments
Air Monitoring

Productivity: Definition
Productivity is the relationship between the outputs generated from a system
and the inputs that are used to create those outputs. Mathematically
P =
Why is Productivity Important?
Productivity improvement in construction industry may have a significant impact on improving
Productivity growth is the key determinant of international competitiveness in the long term
Improving relative productivity growth improves a countrys competitive position
The construction industry most challenging and demanding still many opportunities for
productivity improvement Factors having adverse effect on productivity
Overtime and or Fatigue
Factors Affecting Construction Labour Errors and omissions in plans and
Productivity specifications
Project uniqueness Multitude of change orders
Technology Design complexity and Design completeness
Management Stacking of trades
Labour organization Dilution of supervision
Real wage trends High accident rate
Construction training Jurisdictional disputes
Work rules and restrictive work practices
Availability of skilled labour
Reassignment of manpower from task to task
Material location above ground
level/above floor level
Adverse temperature or weather
Inadequate lighting

Methods of Improving Productivity

The following factors can lead to the Time and motion studies to improve
improvement in productivity: efficiency, reduce
Training programs for labour fatigue and work smarter
Incentives in contract for good performance Safety programs
Enough tools in working place and proper Use of precast and prestressing concrete
planning elements
Optimizing site facilities Critical path method of planning, scheduling
Availability of resources and control
Competition between crews, areas or shifts Value engineering
Good supervision and optimum manpower Worker motivation programs
Short interval scheduling Constructability review of design
Innovative materials and equipment Standardization
Time lapse film analysis for critical activities Preplanning activities
Cost reporting and work sampling of critical Effective utilization of sub-contractors
Productivity Benchmarking
Benchmarking is a systematic process of searching for the best practices, innovative ideas and
highly effective operating procedures that lead to superior performance
Purpose of Benchmarking
a) Analyze the operations to
- Identify the critical cost components and areas for improvement
- Reduction in the cycle time of activities
b) To get knowledge of the competition & industry leaders
c) To incorporate the best of the best learn & emulate the best
d) To gain superiority over competitors
Types of Benchmarking
- Comparison among similar operations within ones own organization
- This is comparison to the best of the direct competitors
- Comparison of the methods with the companies with similar processes in the same function
outside ones country
- Comparison of work processes to others who have innovative, exemplar work processes
- Contacting the best in class firms and asking them for knowledge sharing
- A group of firms sharing knowledge about a particular activity

Common failures within the construction industry are often manifest in:
cost and time overruns;
poor quality workmanship;
repetitive work;
wastage on site and at the head
idleness within the workforce;
incorrect estimating;
poor planning;
lack of good quality product;
safety management-site safety
and the level of accidents;
poor quality machinery on site.
Claim Management
Construction Claim can be defined as a request by either party to the contract, usually the
Contractor, for compensation for damages caused by failure of the other party to fulfil his part
of obligations as specified in the contract. The compensation is usually in the form of the
additional payment or an extension of time (EOT).
Delay in Supply of Drawings,
Delay in Handing over the Site,
Delay in Supply of materials,
Delay in Payments, Delay in Starting work,
Delay in Completing the work,
Work actually done but not measured and paid,
Refund of maintenance deposit,
Loss due to extra overheads on account of extension of
time limit,
Loss due to idle machinery and idle labour,
Due to Design errors,
Due to inadequate or incomplete specifications,
Due to inadequate information related to design.
Due to Inadequate bid information,
Due to Inadequate time for bid preparation,
Due to Change in work scope,
Due to Changes in plans and specifications during
Due to Insufficient plans and specifications,
Due to Extra items and Variations, etc..
Claim Management


Payment related Claims

Change Claims
Delay Claims
Extra work Claims
Contractual Claims
Difference in pricing and measuring
Different site condition Claims
Acceleration Claims
Damage Claims
Contract termination Claims
Legal Issues
Planning and scheduling for high
rise building
Legal Issues
Simulation techniques have been used to predict activity duration and improve planning (Halpin
and Riggs 1992, Shi 1999 and Zhang, Shi and Tam 2002). However, the building up of simulation
models requires planners to have a good knowledge of simulation. A network based simulation
has been used in this study. This simplifies the skills and knowledge required for modelling a
simulation network as general simulation programme can be difficult for general users (Shi and
AbouRiz 1997). Planners who have the knowledge in constructing critical path network and bar
charts could be able to use the simulation model. The constructing of simulation network for
modelling is similar to the critical path network using the activity on node format except that
loops are allowed to show the re-cycling of resources. During the simulation process, the
activities may either in an active if the constraints are met or otherwise in an idle mode.
Normally, a tower crane can only be installed for a building block owing to both economic
reasons and space availability. Therefore, the crane can only serve one activity at one time and it
is important to optimise the usage of a tower crane which is one of the critical resources in high-
rise construction (Leung and Tam 2001). A Start and Stop node is assigned in the network for
controlling the numbers of simulation. During the simulation process, activity boxes are
attached with a coloured spinning icons showing their status. Resources shared by activities can
be represented by graphics moving between the activities boxes
Legal Issues
In order to optimize the duration of a floor cycle or to determine the daily schedule, modellers
can modify the duration of the activities to suit the site conditions. It has to point out that the
duration of the activities can be shortened or extended by increasing or decreasing the input
resources, mainly the human resources in concrete frame construction generally. Table 1 shows
the duration for the activities of a typical floor construction cycle.
SELECTION OF APPROPRIATE WORKING SCHEDULE The simulations described above provide
alternatives for planners to make decisions on initial scheduling and subsequent updating. The
simulation results enable planners to locate the upper limit of the floor cycle, ie approaching to
the crash time solution.
However, it is a general rule in planning that the normal time should be used in the planning
stage unless the project duration would have already been overrun. An aggressive project
manager may consider applying the second scenario in order to shorten the frame construction
by 62 days (ie. 40 x [ 6.0 4.45]) without spending overtime payments.

If the project is undergone delay, a more drastic decision will be to extend the working period by
two hours as if in the fourth scenario. Therefore, when deciding the appropriate floor cycle
duration, planners have to review the factors and the merits prior to determine the strategies.