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What Is Vibration?
What Is Vibration?

It is the response of a

system to an internal or

external force which causes the system to oscillate.

What Is Vibration? It is the response of a system to an internal or external force
What Is Vibration? It is the response of a system to an internal or external force
What Is Vibration? It is the response of a system to an internal or external force

What Is Vibration Analysis?

Vibration analysis

is a non-destructive technique which helps early detection of machine

problems by

measuring vibration.

What Is Vibration Analysis? Vibration analysis is a non-destructive technique which helps early detection of machine
What Is Vibration Analysis? Vibration analysis is a non-destructive technique which helps early detection of machine
What Is Vibration Analysis? Vibration analysis is a non-destructive technique which helps early detection of machine
VIBRATION ANALYSIS • Every machine fault will generate a unique vibration characteristic. • Analysis involves a
VIBRATION ANALYSIS
• Every machine fault will generate a
unique vibration characteristic.
• Analysis involves a logical, systematic
approach that can pinpoint the exact
machine fault.
• Analysis is a process of elimination.
•A step by step procedure can be used to
minimize wasted time.
Vibration Diagnosis For successful diagnostics and trouble shooting of rotating machinery, the Vibration Analyst must ensure
Vibration Diagnosis
For successful diagnostics and trouble
shooting of rotating machinery, the Vibration
Analyst must ensure accurate data collection,
and have an understanding of the machinery
design and its operating dynamics to
accurately interpret typical fault patterns.

Basic Theory Of Vibration

Simple Spring Mass System Max Acc Mim Vel Upper Limit Max Vel Neutral Mim Acc Position
Simple Spring Mass System
Max Acc
Mim Vel
Upper
Limit
Max Vel
Neutral
Mim Acc
Position
Lower
Position
Displacement

Max Acc

Mim Vel

It follows sine curve.

Frequency & Amplitude

Frequency:

How many times oscillation is occurring for a given time period?

Units: CPS(Hz), CPM

Amplitude:

It is the magnitude of vibration signal. Units: Micron, MM/Sec, M/Sec 2

Physical Significance Of Vibration Characteristics

Amplitude

- How much is it vibrating?

Size (severity) of the problem.

Frequency

- What is vibrating?

Source of the vibration.

Phase Angle - How

is it vibrating?

Cause of the vibration.

Amplitude Measurement

  • 1. Displacement :

Total distance traveled by the mass. Unit : Microns

  • 2. Velocity

:

Rate of change of displacement. It is the measure of the speed at which the mass is vibrating during its oscillation. Unit : MM/Sec, Inch/sec

  • 3. Acceleration :

It is the rate of change of velocity. The greater the rate of change of velocity the greater the forces (P=mf) on the machines. Unit : M/Sec 2 , Inch/sec 2

Frequency Measurement

Frequency Measurement 60 RPM = 1 Rev / s = 1 Hz

60 RPM = 1 Rev / s = 1 Hz

When To Use Disp., Vel. & Acc.? VIBRATION SENSITIVITY DISPLACEMENT 10 1 VELOCITY .1 .01 .001
When To Use Disp., Vel. & Acc.?
VIBRATION
SENSITIVITY
DISPLACEMENT
10
1
VELOCITY
.1
.01
.001
ACCELERATION
60
600
6000
60000
600 000
FREQUENCY
CPM

What Is The Advantage Of Using Velocity?

Fault frequency range compared to displacement & acceleration. Almost all machines generate fault frequency between 600CPM to 60KCPM Velocity indicates fatigue. Velocity is the best indicator of vibration severity.

Scales Of Amplitude

Av. RMS Peak Peak to Peak
Av.
RMS
Peak
Peak to Peak

Peak Peak to Peak RMS Average

- a - 2a - 0.707 a - 0.637 a

Measurement direction - Hori, Vert, Axial.

Measurement direction - Hori, Vert, Axial.

SELECTION OF MEASURING LOCATIONS

4 3 2 1
4
3
2
1

Different machinery problems cause vibration at different frequencies.

Overall vibration coming out from machine is combination of many vibration signals

form various machine parts and it’s

structure.

FFT is a method of viewing the signal with respect to frequency.

What Is FFT?

Known as Fast Fourier Transformation. Developed by J.B. Fourier in 1874.

The transition from time domain waveform to frequency domain

spectrum is accomplished by Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT).

The resulting frequency from the time waveform gets plotted in the frequency spectrum.

FFT mathematically converts overall complex signal into

individual amplitudes at component frequencies

FFT mathematically converts overall complex signal into individual amplitudes at component frequencies
FFT mathematically converts overall complex signal into individual amplitudes at component frequencies
FFT mathematically converts overall complex signal into individual amplitudes at component frequencies

What is an FFT?

Also known as a Spectrum or as the Frequency domain

Graph of Vibration Amplitude vs. Frequency

All frequencies in a chosen range are separated and displayed as individual peaks each having its own amplitude

Most useful tool for analysis

Two ways of describing vibration
Two ways of describing vibration
H z
H
z
Frequency domain Time domain
Frequency
domain
Time
domain
Two ways of describing vibration H z Frequency domain Time domain seconds

seconds

Time vs. Frequency

Time vs. Frequency  The vibration signal obtained from the transducer is a complex ‘Time Signal’
  • The vibration signal obtained from the transducer is a complex ‘Time Signal’

  • The complex time signal can actually be split up into a number of sinusoidal time signals, which each oscillate at a different frequency

Time vs. Frequency  The vibration signal obtained from the transducer is a complex ‘Time Signal’
COMPARISON OF FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAINS
COMPARISON OF FREQUENCY AND TIME DOMAINS
1X 3X 5X Complex Waveform (CPM or Hertz) Amplitude Frequency Domain F MAX T MAX 9X
1X
3X
5X
Complex Waveform
(CPM or Hertz)
Amplitude
Frequency Domain
F MAX
T MAX
9X
Time Domain
(Sec or Min)
Simple Wave forms
Frequency
Spectrum
Plot

Detection By Vibration Analysis

  • 1. Unbalance(Static, Couple, Quasi-Static),

  • 2. Misalignment(Angular, Parallel, Combination)

  • 3. Eccentric Rotor, Bent Shaft

  • 4. Mechanical Looseness, Structural Weakness, Soft Foot

  • 5. Resonance, Beat Vibration

  • 6. Mechanical Rubbing

  • 7. Problems Of Belt Driven Machines

  • 8. Journal Bearing Defects

  • 9. Antifriction Bearing Defects

(Inner race, Outer race, Cage, Rolling Elements) 10.Problems of Hydrodynamic & Aerodynamic Machines (Blade Or Vane, Flow turbulence, Cavitation) 11.Gear Problems (Tooth wear, Tooth load, Gear eccentricity, Backlash, Gear misalignment, Cracked Or Broken Tooth)

12.Electrical Problems of AC & DC Motor ( Variable Air Gap,

Rotor Bar Defect, Problems of SCRs)

DIAGNOSING MACHINE FAULTS

Play the Odds

TO BEGIN WITH ,FOCUS ON THE “BIG THREE”’

AND MAKE SURE THAT YOU UNDERSTAND RESONANCE.

IMBALANCE

MISALIGNMENT

ROLLING ELEMENT BEARING FAULTS

DIAGNOSING MACHINE FAULTS

Play the Odds

AND YET ANOTHER COMMENT;

REMEMBER THAT MACHINES WILL OFTEN HAVE MORE THAN ONE FAULT CONDITION.

FOR EXAMPLE, IF A MACHINE HAS BEEN OUT OF

BALANCE FOR SOME TIME, THE BEARING MAY

BEGIN TO FAIL.

AN OUT OF BALANCE CONDITION MAY ALSO

ACCENTUATE A FOUNDATION FLEXIBILITY

PROBLEM.

DIAGNOSING MACHINE FAULTS

Play the Odds

SO MAKE SURE THAT YOU ANALYZE THE ENTIRE MACHINE, LOOK FOR ALL OF THE FAULTS AND USE THIS INFORMATION TO HELP YOU DETERMINE WHAT ACTION SHOULD BE TAKEN

NOT ONLY TO REPAIR THE MACHINE, BUT ALSO TO ENSURE THAT, THE FAULTS

DO NOT OCCUR IN THE FUTURE.

Displacement transducer
Displacement transducer
d mm thou mils
d
mm
thou
mils
Displacement transducer d mm thou mils
Velocity transducer
Velocity transducer
Velocity transducer v mm/s thou/s mils/s
v mm/s thou/s mils/s
v
mm/s
thou/s
mils/s
Accelerometer
Accelerometer
a mm/s 2 g
a
mm/s 2
g
Accelerometer a mm/s 2 g