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CRANE SAFETY

SAFETY DEVICES IN CRANE


Over Hoist Limit switch

Boom Limit Switch Hook Latch

Angle Plate
Pointer
LIFTING DATAS REQD.
Dim. of the equipment - Height /
length, dia
Wt. of the equipment - Erection
wt.
Wt. of the equip.+lifting tackles
+hook block + wire rope under the
boom tip + fly jib and the hook
block attached to it.
Radius at which the equipment is
to be lifted.
Elevation to which the equipment
should be lifted.
Whether the crane is to be moved
with the load.
Counter wt. required.
Centrifugal & wind force
Specific requirements if any.
LIFTING DATAS REQD.

Head room
Clearance between the
boom & equip.
Soil Bearing Strength
Lifting tackles SWL
Equip. base matches with
foundation
Approach for the crane
Lifting Operations
Possible causes for failure while lifting

Poor machine condition


Machine configuration not to specification
Eccentric reeving
Improper use of outriggers
Soft footing
Crane not in level
Side loading
Increase of load radius
Rapid swing rate
Impact loading - rapid acceleration/deceleration
Duty cycle operations
High wind speeds
Tippin
g Axis STABILITY OF CRANE

R
Mobile Cranes a) Tipping load when outriggers
are to their full extension
Importance of Weight of crane =35MT. Weight of boom
Outriggers =2MT.
B = Boom CG - 7.5mts.
C = 2mts. - crane CG to tipping fulcrum
L = 4mts. distance from load to tipping
fulcrum
Stability relationship of above:
a)Load x L + Boom weight x B = Crane
weight x C
Tipping load= (35 x2-2 x 7.5) / 4 = 13.75
MT
b)Tipping load when outriggers are
0.5mts. short of their full extension
C = 1.5 = 2.0 - 1.5;B = 8.0 = 7.5 + 0.5
L = 4.5 = 4.0 + 0.5
Tip. load = (35 x 1.5 - 2 x 8) / 4.5 = 8.1
MT

41% reduction of
tipping load
Unsafe Practices Remedial Measures

Use Hook latch to avoid


slings from getting
Non-Use of Hook Latch removed from hook
ABSENSE OF BOOM LIMIT SWITCH
No Boom Limit Switch
Over Hoist
Limit
switch

Boom Limit Switch Hook Latch

Angle Plate
Pointer
Rapid
swinging
causes load to
drift out -
increasing
radius and
load on the
crane
Failure to support the
boom/jib during erection or
dismantling can cause collapse
with inevitable human injury.
Working Near Overhead Lines

Rated Voltage Minimum safe clearance


kV Ph To Ph rms
METRE FEET
>6.6 kV 2.57 8.50
>6.6 KV <=11KV 2.59 8.50
>11 KV <=22 KV 2.64 8.75
>22 KV <=33 KV 2.75 9.00
>33 KV <=66 KV 3.00 9.75
>66 KV <=132 KV 3.43 11.25
>132 KV <=245 KV 4.57 15.00
>245 KV <=400 KV 5.48 18.00
Working Near Overhead Lines
A 600 mm wide
clearance must be
provided whenever
practicable between
travelling and slewing
cranes and any fixture
(e.g. adjacent buildings,
guardrails, access, etc.).
If the clearance is not
practicable, then access
should be barred off
Procedures to Follow If Contact
Occurs
The crane operator should remain inside the cab.
All other personnel should keep away from the crane,
ropes, and load, since the ground around the machine
might be energized.
The crane operator should try to remove the crane from
contact by moving it in the reverse direction from that
which caused the contact.
If the crane cannot be moved away from contact, the
operator should remain inside cab until the lines have
been de-energized.
Procedures to Follow If Contact
Occurs

If the crane operator must leave the


equipment because of a more immediate
hazard, then this person must jump clear
from the equipment and shuffle their feet in
small steps.
Secure the area and do not let anyone
except emergency rescue personnel go near
the energized equipment.
1

The operator was asked by the rigger


foreman to lower the cradle to enable
them to take tea as the person above The Longitudinal Beam
wanted to come down during tea time.
3

The crane boom was hoisted beyond safe


operating limit causing the boom to fray
and collapse backwards along with the two
persons in the cradle and caused severe
injuries.
ABSENCE OF OVER HOIST LIMIT SWITCH
No Limit Switch Limit Switch
TYRE PRESSURE OF TRUCK MOUNTED CRANE

Inadequate Tyre
pressure causes
crane unstable