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The Characteristics,

Processes, and Ethics of


Research
Lesson Objectives
Defines a research.
Describes the characteristics of a good
research.
Identify
the processes of conducting a
research.
Enumerate the ethics of conducting a research.
Research
Definedas the scientific investigation of phenomena
which includes collection, presentation, analysis and
interpretation of facts that lines an individuals
speculation with reality. (Calmorin and Calmorin, 2007).
Aimsto give solution or improvement to an identified
problem in the context.
Characteristics of Research
1. Empirical. Research is based on direct experience or
observation by the researcher.
Characteristics of Research

2. Logical.
Research is based
on valid procedures
and principles.
Characteristics of Research
3. Cyclical. Research is a cyclical process because it
starts with a problem and ends with a problem.
Characteristics of Research
4. Analytical. Research utilizes proven analytical
procedures in gathering the data, whether historical,
descriptive, and experimental and case study.
Characteristics of Research
5. Critical. Research exhibits careful and precise
judgment.
Characteristics of Research

6. Methodical.
Research is conducted
in a methodical
manner without bias
using systematic
method and
procedures.
Characteristics of Research
7. Replicability.
The research
design and
procedures are
replicated or
repeated to enable
the researcher to
arrive at valid and
conclusive results.
Components of the Research
Process
The problem / objectives
The first chapter of the research is entitled the problem or the
problem and its background its purpose is to introduce the
problem clarify important variables and delimitation, and its
significance to the field study. It has the following essential
elements.
INTRODUCTION
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
NOTES IN CHAPTER I
THE RESEARCH TITLE
GENERALLY THE TITLE;
1. SHOULD SUMMARIZE THE MAIN IDEA OF THE
PAPER;
2. SHOULD BE A CONCISE STATEMENT OF THE MAIN
TOPIC;
3. MUST INCLUDE THE MAJOR VARIABLE/S.
4. SHOULD SHOW THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE MAIN
VARIABLES UNDER STUDY; AND
5. MUST BE SELF-EXPLANATORY.
REMINDERS:

1. IN FORMULATING THE TITLE THE RESEARCHER


SHOULD AVOID USING WORDS THAT SERVE NO
USEFUL PURPOSES AND CAN MISLEAD INDEXERS.
WORDS SUCH AS METHODS, RRESULTS, AND
INVESTIGATIONS APPEAR REDUNDANT WHEN USED
IN THESIS TITLES
2. IN MANY CASES, THE GENERAL PROBLEM OR
EVEN THE SPECIFIC QUESTION THAT THE
RESEARCHER INTENDS TO ANSWER, WHEN
REWRITTEN IN A STATEMENT FORMS CAN SERVE
AS THE TITLE.

3.THE TITLE MUST HAVE 10 TO 15 WORDS


SAMPLE TITLE RESEARCH/ THESIS

1. TESTING THE EFFICIENCT MARKET HYPOTHESIS ON THE PHILIPPINE PESO-


DOLLAR RATES
2. THE IMPACT OF THE EUCHARISTIC CELEBRATION ON THE YOUTH OF BARANGAY
AMSIC ANGELES CITY 2001-2002
3. FACTORS AFFECTING THE LEARNING STYLES OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENT
4. EVALUATION OF THE SERVICES OF BANKO SENTRAL NG PILIPINAS
5. MANAGERIAL SKILLS AND DIFFICULTIES OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL MANAGERS
6. PRINCIPALS LEADERSHIP CAPACITIES AS PERCEIVED BY TEACHERS
7. CORRELATES OF ENGLISH PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SELECTED SCHOOL
8. EFFECTIVENESS OF INFORMATION EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION IN THE
AWARENESS OF BREAST FEEDING AMONG NURSING MOTHERS
SOURCES OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS

RESEARCH PROBLEMS ARE COMMONLY FOUND IN PLACES WHERE THERE IS/ ARE
1. DISCOMFORT
2. PERCIEVED DIFFICULTIES IN THE MANAGEMENT AND LEADERSHIP SYTEM
3. GAP BETWEEN THE THEORY AND THE PRACTICE
4. DAILY EXPERIENCES OF A PERSON THAT REQUIRE FURTHER INQUIRY ESPECIALLY
IF IMPROVEMENTS ARE DESIRED; AND / OR
5. A PROCEDURE THAT REQUIRES TECHNOLOGICALLY ADVANCED EQUIPMENT
WHICH NEED TO FUNCTION PROPERLY.
CONSIDERATIONS IN FORMULATING A
RESEARCH PROBLEM
A. EXTERNALCRITERIA
1. NOVELTY- IS THE PRACTICAL VALUE OF THE PROBLEM DUE TO ITS NEWNESS
IN THE FIELD OF INQUIRY.
2.AVAILABILITY OF SUBJECT- REFERS TO PEOPLE WITH DESIRED CAPABILITY AND
WILLINGNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN THE STUDY:THE SAMPLE OF STUDY PARTICIPANTS
MUST BE REPRESENTATIVE ENOUGH TO ENSURE RELIABLITY AND VALIDITY OF
RESULT.
3. ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT- REFERS TO THE SPONSORSHIP BY A DEPARTMENT
OR THE INSTITUTION ITSELF IN THE GATHERING OF DATA AND DEFRAYING THE
COST OF THE STUDY.
AVAILABILITY AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS-
PROBLEM / OBJECTIVES

HYPOTHESES

THEORETICAL/ CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

ASSUMPTIONS

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

RESEARCH DESIGN

DATA
COLLECTION

DATA PROCESSING AND STATISTICAL


TREATMENT

ANALYSIS AND
INTERPRETATION

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMENDATIONS


Ethics in Research

Ethics generally is considered to deal


with beliefs about what is right or
wrong, proper or improper, good or
bad. According to a dictionary
definition (Websters 1968), to be
ethical is to conform to accepted
professional practice.
Ethical considerations in conducting research
Honesty
Strive for honesty in all scientific communications. Honestly
report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication
status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data. Do not
deceive colleagues, research sponsors, or the public.
Objectivity
Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data
interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing,
expert testimony, and other aspects of research where
objectivity is expected or required. Avoid or minimize bias or
self-deception. Disclose personal or financial interests that may
affect research.
Ethical considerations in conducting research
Integrity
Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for
consistency of thought and action.
Carefulness
Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically
examine your own work and the work of your peers. Keep good
records of research activities, such as data collection, research
design, and correspondence with agencies or journals.
Ethical considerations in conducting research
Openness
Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism
and new ideas.
Respect for Intellectual Property
Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual
property. Do not use unpublished data, methods, or results
without permission. Give proper acknowledgement or credit for
all contributions to research. Never plagiarize.
Confidentiality
Protect confidential communications, such as papers or grants
submitted for publication, personnel records, trade or military
secrets, and patient records.
Ethical considerations in conducting research
Responsible Publication
Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to advance
just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative publication.
Responsible Mentoring
Help to educate, mentor, and advise students. Promote their welfare
and allow them to make their own decisions.
Respect for colleagues
Respect your colleagues and treat them fairly.
Ethical considerations in conducting research
Social Responsibility
Strive to promote social good and prevent or mitigate social
harms through research, public education, and advocacy.
Non-Discrimination
Avoid discrimination against colleagues or students on the
basis of sex, race, ethnicity, or other factors not related to
scientific competence and integrity.
Ethical considerations in conducting research
Competence
Maintain and improve your own professional competence
and expertise through lifelong education and learning; take
steps to promote competence in science as a whole.
Legality
Know and obey relevant laws and institutional and
governmental policies.
Unethical practices in conducting research
1. Deceiving a respondent about the true purpose of a study
2. Asking a respondent questions that cause him or her
extreme embarrassment; guilt emotional turmoil by
remaining him or her of an unpleasant experience
3. Invading the privacy of a respondent
4. Studying the respondents or research subjects without
their knowledge
5. When analyzing the datarevealing only part of the
facts, presenting facts out of context, falsifying findings or
offering misleading presentation such as lying with statistics
Identify the term described in the following sentence.
1. Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism
and new ideas.
2. Publish in order to advance research and scholarship, not to
advance just your own career. Avoid wasteful and duplicative
publication.
3. Research follow a process.
4. Research is based on valid procedures and principles.
5. Research starts with a problem and ends with a problem.

Enumerate at least 5 Ethics in Conducting Research


1. openness 6-10
Honesty
2. Responsible publication
Objectivity
3. methodical
Integrity
4. logical Carefulness
5. Cyclical Openness
Respect for Intellectual Property
Confidentiality
Social Responsibility
Non-Discrimination
Competence
Legality