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Batching is the process of measuring concrete mix ingredients

by either mass or volume and introducing them into the
To produce concrete of uniform quality, the ingredients must
be measured accurately for each batch.
Most specifications require that batching be done by mass
rather than by volume (ASTM C 94 or AASHTO M 157).
Water and liquid admixtures can be measured accurately by
either volume or mass.
Volumetric batching (ASTM C 685 or AASHTO M 241) is used
for concrete mixed in continuous mixers.
Specifications generally require that materials be measured for
individual batches within the following percentages of accuracy:
cementitious material 1%,
aggregates 2%,
water 1%, and
admixtures 3%.

Equipment should be capable of measuring quantities within these

tolerances for the smallest batch regularly used as well as for larger
batches. The accuracy of scales and batching equipment should be
checked periodically and adjusted when necessary.
Liquid chemical admixtures should be charged into the mixture as
aqueous solutions.
The volume of liquid, if significant, should be subtracted from the
batched quantity of mixing water. Admixtures that cannot be added
in solution can be either batched by mass or volume as directed by
the manufacturer. A
Separation of Course aggregate and mortar in freshly mixed
concrete is known as Segregation.
Segregation result honey combed concrete.
Excessive water content
Less water content than demand.
Placement/dropping height more than the standard height.
( H > 6)
Difference in specific gravity of course and fine aggregates.
Improper discharge from mixer
Coming out of water at the surface of freshly mixed concrete
is known as bleeding.
Excessive water content
high Relative density of aggregates.
Loading, Mixing, and Discharging
The loading method includes the order of loading the
constituents into the mixer and also the duration of the
loading period. The duration of this period depends on
how long the constituents are mixed dry before the
addition of water and how fast the constituents are
The loading period is extended from the time when the
first constituent is introduced in the mixer to when all
the constituents are in the mixer.
The loading period is divided into two parts: dry
mixing and wet mixing.
Dry mixing is the mixing that occurs during loading but
before water is introduced. Wet mixing is the mixing after
or while water is being introduced, but still during loading.
This means that materials are introduced any time during
the loading period: all before the water, all after the water,
partially before and partially after.

The loading period is important because some of the

concrete properties will depend on the order in which the
constituents are introduced in the mixer. It is well known
that the delayed addition of high range water reducer
admixture (HRWRA) leads to a better dispersion of the
cement. The same workability can be thus be achieved with
a lower dosage of HRWRA .
mixing time as the time between the loading
of all constituents and the beginning of
concrete discharge.
It should be noted that solid constituents can
be added at various stages of the loading
period: during dry mixing or after water is
Loading, Mixing, and Discharging
Methods and Equipment for Transporting and
handling concrete