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Prepared and Presented by:

Dr. Fakhralddin Abbas Elfakki
MBBS, MHPE, MD Community Medicine
Assistant Professor
Learning outcomes

by the end of this lecture, the student should be able to :

1- Define environment and its main components.
2- Determine the objectives and elements of environmental
3- Describe the diseases and health hazards caused by
insanitary environment.
4- Identify the main causes, types and preventives measures
of air pollution.
5- Categorize the main strategies of environmental risk
6- Illustrate role of physician in environmental sanitation.
What is Environment?

Environment can be defined as the natural

surroundings of that organism which directly

or indirectly influences the growth and

development of the organism.

What is Environment?
Environment is defined as the surroundings in
which an organization operates including air,
water, land and natural resources, flora, fauna,
humans and their inter relations ISO Definition
Environment is the sum total of all living and
non living factors that compose the surroundings
of man.
Components of Environment
As per american literature
the components of environment are listed as
1. Hydrosphere (Water)
2. Atmosphere (Air)
3. Lithosphere (Land)
4. Biosphere (Flora/Fauna/Microbes)
5. Astrosphere (man made things)





Environmental Health?

Air Sunlight

Food Noise

Water Soil

The study of how the environment

affects your health.

What is Sanitation?

The process of keeping places free from dirt,

infection, disease, etc., by removing waste,

trash and garbage, by cleaning streets,

Washing yours self, safe drinking water, etc

Sanitation refers to:

The principles and practices relating to

the collection, removal, or disposal of

human excreta, refuse and waste water.


The provision of facilities and services for the

safe disposal of human excreta, maintenance
of hygienic conditions, through services such
as garbage collection and wastewater disposal .
It includes hardware (facilities) and software
(rules, regulations, hygiene).
Why is Sanitation Important
When you keep yourself & your surroundings
clean, you fall sick less often & are more
likely to attend school/work regularly.
If you are Healthy you can help build a strong
society. When you get rid of waste properly,
you can help to protect water sources.
It also means that you dont have to smell the
disgusting mess all around you. important For
Social Development Helps the Environment
Poor Sanitation
Human excreta, are the most dangerous to
One gram of fresh faeces from an infected
person can contain around 106 viral pathogens,
106108 bacterial pathogens, 104protozoan
cysts or oocysts, and 10104 helminth eggs
Figure 1
Sanitation facility

Refers to infrastructure dedicated for the

disposal, conveyance or treatment of human

excreta, greywater or solid waste.

Sanitation system

Refers to the combination of technologies for

safe collection, transport, treatment or
disposal of human waste.

It represents a configuration of different

Sanitation Technology

refers to specific infrastructural

configurations, methods or services designed
specifically to contain, transform or
transport waste to another process, point of
use or disposal .
What is Air Pollution?

Air pollution is a chemical, physical or

biological agent that alters the natural

characteristics regarding the atmosphere

Causes of Air Pollution

Either anthropogenic (human actions) or

Human factors

Include the smoke stacks of power plants; cars

and other modes of transportation; oil refineries;

farming chemicals; and military actions, including

nuclear weapons, toxic gases, rockets, and germ

Human factors continue

The burning of wood, whether it comes out of a

fireplace, stove, furnace, or incinerator, also

contributes to the air pollution problem.

The use of products, such as hair spray, paint,

and aerosol sprays are harmful to the atmosphere.

Human factors continue

The accumulation of waste in landfills adds to

the generation of methane gas.

Methane is also emitted by the digestion of food

associated with some animals, such as cattle.

Natural sources of air pollution

Include the dust where little or no vegetation thrives..

The outbreak of wildfires creates smoke and carbon

monoxide, which affects air quality. Volcanoes also

threaten the air supply, as active examples produce

harmful sulfur, chlorine, and ash particulates.

Natural sources of air pollution
A lack of ventilation within an enclosed space
contributes to the development of indoor air
In certain locations, gases like radon become
trapped inside houses. Building materials and
common household products also promote this
type of environment through carpeting, plywood,
paint, solvents, lead paint, air fresheners,
incenses, and controlled wood fires.
Natural sources of air pollution
Asbestos-containing home materials linger
in the air and after long-term, heavy exposure,
can cause several different types of lung
Carbon monoxide poisoning also takes place
inside of the home, which has earned the
nickname of the silent killer over the years.
The main types of air pollution
a) Gas Pollutants.
b) Greenhouse Effect.
c) Acid Rain.
d) Ozone Layer Damage.
e) Climate Changes.
Gas Pollutants

Indoor and outdoor vapors and gas. Some of the

most common offenders of the air include carbon

dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides,

hydrocarbons, sulfur oxides and ozone .

Greenhouse Effect.
Greenhouse Effect, which is responsible for preventing the

suns heat from rising out of the atmosphere and

returning back to space.

However , burning of fossil fuels, is affecting the gaseous

layer, making it too dense to permit the escaping of heat

Acid Rain

The nitrogen oxide and sulfur dioxide linked

to the burning of coal oil in factories, power

plants, and motor vehicles is responsible for

the tainted moisture in the air

Ozone Layer Damage

The use of chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) aids in

the depletion of the ozone layer, which causes

increased levels of UV radiation that greatly

affects plants, animals, and humans.

Climate Changes

Under normal conditions, air pollutants either

rise or flow away from sources without creating

an unsafe environment. Wind patterns, clouds,

temperature, and rainfall often affect this process

How to Prevent Air Pollution

1. Drive Less.
2. Smart Driving Practices.
3. New Car Purchases.
4. Select Air-Friendly Products.
5. Save Energy.
6. Reduce Waste.
7. Prevent Indoor Pollution.
8. Support Clean Air Programs.
Diseases and health hazards caused Poor
Sanitary Environment

Human excreta have been implicated in the

transmission of many infectious diseases

including cholera, typhoid, infectious

hepatitis, polio, Brucellosis.

Bacteria &


Loud noises

A hazard is anything in the environment that

can hurt you or make you sick.

Risks are usually expressed as probabilities

A risk is the probability of suffering harm

from a hazard that can cause injury, disease,

death, economic loss, or damage.

Probabilitya mathematical statement about the
likelihood that harm will be suffered from a
The lifetime probability of developing lung cancer
from smoking one pack of cigarettes per day is 1 in
250. This means that 1 of every 250 people who
smoke a pack of cigarettes every day will likely
develop lung cancer over a typical lifetime.
Risk assessment and risk management
Role of Physician in Environmental

Health Promotion and education.


Training of workers and communities at risk

Food inspection and surveillance.

Any question?