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Dr. Yangas Colleges, Inc.

Wakas, Bocaue, Bulacan

Presented By: Marias, Ross Kent N.


Bravo 3a dyci
AUTOMATION 2
INSTRUCTOR: 3/E NEMESIO SORILLA
TOPICS

AUTOMATIC CONTROL ENGINEERING AND SAFETY


DEVICES
INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES

DEMONSTRATE KNOWLEDGE AND UNDERSTANDING


OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL ENGINEERING
AND SAFETY DEVICES
Operate electrical, electronic and
control systems

Basic configuration and operation principles of the following electrical,


electronic and control equipment:

1. Electrical equipment: generator and distribution systems preparing,


starting, paralleling and changing over generators electrical motors including
starting methodologies high-voltage installations sequential control circuits
and associated system devices.
Operate electrical, electronic and
control systems

2. Electronic equipment: characteristics of basic electronic circuit


elements flowchart for automatic and control systems functions,
characteristics and features of control systems for machinery items,
including main propulsion plant operation control and steam boiler
automatic controls.

3. Control systems: various automatic control methodologies and


characteristics ProportionalIntegral Derivative (PID) control
characteristics and associated system devices for process control
Maintenance and repair of electrical
and electronic equipment

Safety requirements for working on shipboard electrical systems,


including the safe isolation of electrical equipment required before
personnel are permitted to work on such equipment.

Maintenance and repair of electrical system equipment, switchboards,


electric motors, generator and DC electrical systems and equipment.

Detection of electric malfunction, location of faults and measures to


prevent damage.
Maintenance and repair of electrical
and electronic equipment
Construction and operation of electrical testing and measuring
equipment.

Function and performance tests of the following equipment and their


configuration:

1. Monitoring systems
2. Automatic control devices
3. Protective devices The interpretation of electrical and simple
electronic diagrams
Manage operation of electrical and
electronic control equipment

Theoretical knowledge: Marine electrotechnology, electronics, power


electronics, automatic control engineering and safety devices.

Design features and system configurations of automatic control equipment


and safety devices for the following: main engine generator and distribution
system steam boiler.

Design features and system configurations of operational control equipment


for electrical motors

Design features of high-voltage installations Features of hydraulic and


pneumatic control equipment
Manage troubleshooting restoration of
electrical and electronic control
equipment to operating condition

Practical knowledge: Troubleshooting of electrical and electronic control


equipment

Function test of electrical, electronic control equipment and safety


devices

Troubleshooting of monitoring systems Software version control


EXPLAIN THE BASIC CONCEPT OF:

Open and Closed Control Loops


Open-loop Control

Those systems in which the output has no effect on the control


action. In other words, in an open loop control system the output is neither
measured nor fed back for comparison with the input.
Operator intervention is generally required when a feedback
controller proves unable to maintain stable closed-loop control. For
example, a particularly aggressive pressure controller may overcompensate
for a drop in line pressure. If the controller then overcompensates for its
overcompensation, the pressure may end up lower than before, then higher,
then even lower, then even higher, etc. The simplest way to terminate such
unstable oscillations is to break the loop and regain control manually.
EXPLAIN THE BASIC CONCEPT OF:

Closed-loop Control

In a closed-loop control system, information flows around a


feedback loop from the process to the sensor to the transmitter to
the controller to the actuator and back to the process. This
measure-decide-actuate sequence-known as closed-loop control-
repeats as often as necessary until the desired process condition is
achieved. Familiar examples include using a thermostat controlling
a furnace to maintain the temperature in a room or cruise control
to maintain the speed of a car.
PROCESS CONTROL

Automatic Process Control in continuous production


processes is a combination of control engineering and chemical
engineering disciplines that uses industrial control systems to
achieve a production level of consistency, economy and safety
which could not be achieved purely by human manual control. It is
implemented widely in industries such as oil refining, pulp and
paper manufacturing, chemical processing and power generating
plants,
PROCESS CONTROL

There is a wide range of size, type and complexity, but it enables


a small number of operators to manage complex processes to a high
degree of consistency. The development of large automatic process
control systems was instrumental in enabling the design of large high
volume and complex processes, which could not be otherwise
economically or safely operated.
In process control, there is process gain. Process gain is the
relationship between the process control output and the process control
input, and is defined as the change in input divided by the change in
output. Positive gain is when both the input and the output are
increasing, while negative gain is when the input increases, while the
output decreases.
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS IN PROCESS CONTROL
LOOPS
Controlled Variable
A variable that is held constant in order to assessor clarify the
relationship between two other variables. Control variable should not be
confused with controlled variable, which is an alternative term for
independent variable.

Measured Variable
A factor affecting the outcome of a process that is measured as part
of a Six Sigma project or other process improvement initiative. Measured
variables may include process inputs such as raw materials, or the time
taken to complete a given step in a process, or other parameters of the
process to identify opportunities for defects or areas for improvement.
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS IN PROCESS CONTROL
LOOPS
Set Point
Is the desired or target value for an essential variable, or process
value of a system. Departure of such a variable from its setpoint is one basis
for error-controlled regulation using negative feedback for automatic
control. The set point is usually abbreviated to SP, and the process value is
usually abbreviated to PV.

Deviation
The difference between the set point and the actual value of the
controlled variable (which is the measured variable).
ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS IN PROCESS CONTROL
LOOPS
Manipulated Variable
The variable that is adjusted to close the gap (deviation, difference,
or error) between the set point and the controlled variable.

Disturbance
Anything that affects the process and could cause deviation from the
set point.
Explain THE operation and use of sensors and
transmitters in shipboard systems and
resistance temperature devices
Sensor
A sensor is a device that detects and responds to some type of input
from the physical environment. The specific input could be light, heat,
motion, moisture, pressure, or any one of a great number of other
environmental phenomena.

Transmitter
A transmitter (or radio transmitter) is an electronic device which
produces radio waves with the help of an antenna. A transmitter generates a
radio frequency current applied to the antenna, which in turn radiates radio
waves. A transmitter generates radio waves for communication, radar and
navigational purposes.
Explain THE operation and use of sensors and
transmitters in shipboard systems and
resistance temperature devices

Resistance Temperature Devices


Like thermocouples, RTD sensors are also widely used to sense
temperature specifically where linearity, accuracy and repeatability are
important factors. Resistance temperature detectors are powered devices
that sense changes in resistance and as a result display temperature in F or
C.
Thermocouples flow and pressure
measurement

A thermocouple is an electrical device consisting of two


dissimilar electrical conductors forming electrical junctions at
differing temperatures. A thermocouple produces a temperature-
dependent voltage as a result of the thermoelectric effect, and this
voltage can be interpreted to measure temperature. Thermocouples
are a widely used type of temperature sensor.
Level measurement

Integral to process control in many industries, level


measurement sensors fall into two main types. Point level
measurement sensors are used to mark a single discrete liquid
heighta preset level condition. Generally, this type of sensor
functions as a high alarm, signaling an overfill condition, or as a
marker for a low alarm condition. Continuous level sensors are more
sophisticated and can provide level monitoring of an entire system.
They measure fluid level within a range, rather than at a one point,
producing an analog output that directly correlates to the level in
the vessel. To create a level management system, the output signal
is linked to a process control loop and to a visual indicator.
ambient temperature compensation

Ambient temperature fluctuations are commonly


encountered in industrial process environments. Individually
characterized transmitters compensate for these fluctuations
resulting in improved measurement accuracy and stability. This
reduction in variability allows the process to be operated closer to
the set point, resulting in greater throughput.
Viscosity measurement

Viscosity is measured with various types of viscometers and rheometers. A


rheometer is used for those fluids that cannot be defined by a single value of
viscosity and therefore require more parameters to be set and measured than is the
case for a viscometer. Close temperature control of the fluid is essential to acquire
accurate measurements, particularly in materials like lubricants, whose viscosity
can double with a change of the only 5 C.
For some fluids, the viscosity is constant over a wide range of shear rates
(Newtonian fluids). The fluids without a constant viscosity (non-Newtonian fluids)
cannot be described by a single number. Non-Newtonian fluids exhibit a variety of
different correlations between shear stress and shear rate.
One of the most common instruments for measuring kinematic viscosity is
the glass capillary viscometer.
Torque measurement

Torque is an important factor in much of the equipment on a


factory floor. Measuring torque is often something that's misunderstood,
which can lead to over- under-designing of measurement systems. This
article addresses the many techniques and tradeoff of torque
measurement techniques.
Torque can be divided into two major categories, either static or
dynamic. The methods used to measure torque can be further divided into
two more categories, either reaction or in-line. Understanding the type of
torque to be measured, as well as the different types of torque sensors
that are available, will have a profound impact on the accuracy of the
resulting data, as well as the cost of the measurement.
Force balance transmitter

An important legacy technology for all kinds of continuous


measurement is the self-balancing system. A self-balance system
continuously balances an adjustable quantity against a sensed
quantity, the adjustable quantity becoming an indication of the
sensed quantity once balance is achieved. A common manual-balance
system is the type of scale used in laboratories to measure mass.
Force balance transmitter

Here, the unknown mass is the sensed quantity, and the known
masses are the adjustable quantity. A human lab technician applies
as many masses to the left-hand side of the scale as needed to
achieve balance, then counts up the sum total of those masses to
determine the quantity of the unknown mass.
Oil/water interface and oil in water
monitoring

Many processes involving the storage, movement or processing of


liquids require careful control of liquid level to ensure correct operation of
the plant or equipment involved. Liquid level sensors are used to detect
liquid levels, or interfaces between liquids such as oil and water or between
liquid and solid. In petroleum and chemical industry, measurement and
control of oil-water interface level are very important process parameter.
There are many process device related such as oil-water separators, pressure
sedimentation tanks, wastewater sedimentation tanks, sumps and so on.
The PNEUMATIC FLAPPER/NOZZLE SYSTEM

Most properties (e.g. flow, pressure, level, error, desired valve


position) can be converted to a small movement. The heart of all
pneumatic process control de- vices is a device to convert a small
displacement into a pressure change, which represents the property
causing the displacement. This is invariably based on the flapper-nozzle,
whose arrangement, characteristic and application.
An air supply (typically, 24 bar) is applied to a very fine nozzle via
a restriction, as shown in Figure 7.3a. The signal output side of the nozzle
feeds to a closed (non-venting) load, such as an indicator. Air escapes as a
fine jet from the nozzle, so the pressure at A is lower than the supply
pressure because of the pressure drop across the restriction.
The flapper-nozzle, the basis of
pneumatic process control
PNEUMATIC 20 100 kpa

The valves input is the "control signal." This can come from a
variety of measuring devices, and each different pressure is a different set
point for a valve. A typical standard signal is 20100 kPa. For example, a
valve could be controlling the pressure in a vessel which has a constant
out-flow, and a varied in-flow (varied by the actuator and valve). A
pressure transmitter will monitor the pressure in the vessel and transmit a
signal from 20100 kPa. 20 kPa means there is no pressure, 100 kPa means
there is full range pressure (can be varied by the transmitters calibration
points). As the pressure rises in the vessel, the output of the transmitter
rises, this increase in pressure is sent to the valve, which causes the valve
to stroke downward, and start closing the valve, decreasing flow into the
vessel, reducing the pressure in the vessel as excess pressure is evacuated
through the out flow. This is called a direct acting process.
ANALOGUE 4 TO 20mA Signals

4-20 mA. (4 to 20 MilliAmp) A point-to-point or multi-drop


circuit mainly used in the process automation field to transmit
signals from instruments and sensors in the field to a controller. It
sends an analog signal from 4to 20 mA that represents 0 to 100% of
some process variable.
Pneumatic pilot relays

A pneumatically operated pilot relay having an outlet for sending a


pneumatic pilot output when the pilot relay receives a pneumatic signal of a certain
magnitude, the pilot relay having a selector for selecting within limits the
magnitude of the pneumatic signal that is required for the pilot relay to produce
the pneumatic pilot output. The pilot relay terminates the pneumatic pilot output
when the pneumatic signal falls to another certain magnitude, the other certain
magnitude being a fixed differential from the selected magnitude thereof. When
utilized in a pneumatic control system along with a diverting valve, the pneumatic
output from the pilot relay will switch the diverting valve from one operating
condition thereof to another operating condition thereof with a snap action and
when the pilot output is terminated, the diverting valve switches back from the
other operating condition thereof to the one operating condition thereof with a
snap action, such snap action being without regard to the rate of change of the
input signal.
Control air supply

The air supply for a pneumatic control system must be


carefully designed. It is of the utmost importance that the air be
clean and dry, free from oil, dirt, and moisture. Thus it is essential
to use air dryers, oil separators, and high-efficiency filters. Even
small amounts of dirt, oil, or water can plug the very small air
passages in modern commercial pneumatic devices, rendering them
useless.
Operational amplifiers

An operational amplifier (often op-amp or opamp) is a DC-


coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential
input and, usually, a single-ended output. In this configuration, an
op-amp produces an output potential (relative to circuit ground)
that is typically hundreds of thousands of times larger than the
potential difference between its input terminals. Operational
amplifiers had their origins in analog computers, where they were
used to perform mathematical operations in many linear, non-linear,
and frequency-dependent circuits.
Discusses controllers and basic control
theory

In control theory, a controller is a device, historically using


mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic or electronic techniques often in
combination, but more recently in the form of a microprocessor or
computer, which monitors and physically alters the operating
conditions of a given dynamical system. Typical applications of
controllers are to hold settings for temperature, pressure, flow or
speed.
Disturbance and time delays and means to
reduce them

Disturbance
The effect of disturbance is changing the purpose or reduce the
efficiency of the output, Using closed loop transfer function reduce this
effect to minimize the disturbance as possible. The disturbance reduction
using PID controller participates to eliminate the disturbance effect.
Disturbances affect the closed-loop control systems and this is
what became clear out by using a transfer function, any system that
contains disturbances may be calculated or uncalculated but must
disturbances account for processing system. Reduce disturbances values
lead to the stability of the system and whenever a disturbances value
close to zero this leads stability of system be high.
Disturbance and time delays and means to
reduce them

Time Delays
One way to control time delay is with a regulator. Regulators
control pressure, and pressure in an analytical system is closely
related to time. In the case of gas systems with a controlled flow
rate, the lower the pressure, the shorter the time delay. Delay may
occur in any of the major parts of an analytical instrumentation (AI)
system, including the process line, tap and probe, field station,
transport line, sample conditioning system, stream switching
system, and analyzer.
Two step, proportional, integral, and
derivative control actions

On-Off or Two Step Action


This is the simplest form of control. Here only two control positions are
allowed; on or off. In the case of a valve, it opens or closes by the signal from the
controller. Examples for such control system are; water level control for boiler
cascade tank, air compressor cut in cut off control, temperature control for fuel oil
storage tanks, etc. Let us consider the case of a fuel oil tank heating steam two
step controller. It consists of a controller that continuously senses the system
parameter (fuel oil temperature). This is called measured value. The desired value
or set point (temperature of fuel oil to be maintained) is fixed by the operator.
When the temperature of the fuel oil drops below set point, controller sent signal to
the steam valve thereby passing steam through coils provided inside the fuel oil
tank. Now temperature of fuel oil starts increasing. When the temperature rises to
the set point, controller shuts the steam valve. The system response is illustrated
down below.
Two step, proportional, integral, and
derivative control actions
Two step, proportional, integral, and
derivative control actions

Proportional Action

This is a continuous control action in which the controller output is


proportional to the deviation between measured value and desired value.
Let us take an example of a simple water lever control as shown in the figure
below.
Two step, proportional, integral, and
derivative control actions
Two step, proportional, integral, and
derivative control actions

Integral or Reset Action

Integral action or reset action is used in conjunction with proportional


action, to remove offset from the system. Here controller output varies at a
rate proportional to the deviation between measured and desired value.
Refer to the figure below.
Two step, proportional, integral, and
derivative control actions
Two step, proportional, integral, and
derivative control actions

Derivative or Rate Action

Derivative action is utilized along with proportional and


integral actions. This is applied in systems where time delay
between changes in measured value and their correction is long.
Example is temperature control for jacket water system. Here
controller output is proportional to the rate of change of deviation.
Refer to the figure below.
Two step, proportional, integral, and
derivative control actions
Identifies the operation and use of final
control elements

Final Control Element

A final control element is defined as a mechanical device that


physically changes a process in response to a change in control
system setpoint. Final control elements relevant to actuators
include valves, dampers, fluid couplings, gates, and burner tilts to
name a few. Final control elements are an essential part of process
control systems, allowing an operator to achieve a desired process
variable output by manipulating a process variable setpoint.
Diaphragm operated control valves
Diaphragm Operated Control Valve Actuator
SA-1 pneumatic multi-spring diaphragm actuator comprises the main parts
including a diaphragm, compression springs, a salver, a push rod, a bracket, a shaft
sleeve, a diaphragm cover, etc. It had the advantages of short height, light weight and
simple installation, The diaphragm is of a deeper basin shape with small effective area
change, adopts excellent rubber, and can be freely operated and use under -5 C~+85
C. The form of combining a plurality of pieces of compression springs is adopted
actuator is as follows: An electric control signal is provided by a regulator or a
computer, converted into the diaphragm chamber of the diaphragm actuator; This
pressure is acted on the diaphragm to generate a thrust to compress the springs and
drives a valve stem through the moving of the push rod so as to open and close the
valve plug; When the reacting forces generated by the compressed thrust and the
springs set are balanced, the valve stem is just stabilized on the corresponding stroke.
Bases on the equilibrium principle, a certain proportional relationship forms between the
stroke size of the valve plug and the size of the input pressure signal so as to accurately
locate the valve plug.
Flow lift characteristics of control valves

Flow Lift Characteristics Of Control Valves


The relationship between control valve capacity and valve stem travel
is known as the Flow Characteristic of the Control Valve.
Linear - Flow is directly proportional to lift at constant pressure drop.
Equal Percentage - Flow changes by a constant percentage of its
instantaneous value for each unit change lift.
Modified Flow - Combination of linear and equal percentage.
Quick Opening - Flow increases rapidly in a linear relationship with plug lift
reaching a maximum value at a low lift On-Off service.
Control valve actuators and positioners.
fail-safe, fail-set strategies
Fail-safe, Fail-set
On failure of control air supply, the pneumatic actuator may
be arranged to move to a position that allows the plant to continue
to operate safely, in other words, fully opened or fully closed. This is
known as fail safe. For example, in the case of a jacket cooling water
system, on failure of control air, the actuator opens fully to allow
jacket water to the cooler without bypass. On the other hand a fuel
oil control valve for boiler closes completely on such a failure. This
ensures safety of the plant.
In some other systems, control air supply failure locks the
position of valve at that time of failure. This is called fail set. The
advantage of this system is that the plant gets stable and have time
for normal shutdown or can wait for reestablishment of control air
supply for some time. Example for such a system is boiler water level
control.
Wax element valves

Wax Element Valves

Its principal application is in automotive thermostats used in


the engine cooling system.
It transform heat energy into mechanical energy using
the thermal expansion of waxes when they melt. This wax
motor principle also finds applications besides engine cooling
systems, including heating system thermostatic radiator valves,
plumbing, industrial, and agriculture.
Electrically operated valves

Electrically Operated Valves


An electrically operated valve having a rotary flow control ball
continuously connected through a torque multiplying transmission with a
valve opening electric motor that need produce valve actuating torque in
only one direction. A valve closing spring, energized upon opening of the
valve, operates without the aid of torque multiplying means to quickly turn
the ball to its closed valve position without rotating the electric motor or
the torque multiplying transmission even though the latter is continuously
connected to the ball. The valve closes in response to operation of control
circuitry or loss of electric power. Construction of the valve permits usage of
many standard components with consequent minimization of manufacturing
cost.
The present invention relates to valves, particularly ball valves, which
are opened by electric power and closed by spring power.
Control loop analysis

Control Loop Analysis

The control loop analysis can be used to verify the soft-start


performance. In the example below, the oscilloscope acquires a
10ms record of every gate drive pulse from the time the power
supply is turned on until it reaches steady state. Figure 3 shows the
Vds (Channel 1), the Current Id (Channel 2), the Gate Drive Signal
(Channel 3) and the change in pulse width (lower trace) during the
start-up of power supply.
Control loop analysis
Temperature control system

Temperature Control System

A Temperature Controlled System is a type of control system


that automatically controls the temperature of an object or an
area.
Commonly use temperature control systems in Air
Conditioners, Refrigerators, geysers, etc. where the temperature is
automatically adjusted as per the input settings. In order to
implement a temperature control system, we need a temperature
sensor, a controller, and a cooling system.
Level control systems

Level Control Systems

Based on PLC a control system is established by PID algorithm


and this control system can adjust liquid level automatically. PLC
obtains liquid height through sensing circuit and determines the PID
parameters through automatic adjustment mode. Then PLC controls
liquid level by controlling working hours of DC pump. This system
meets perfectly the demand of liquid level control system in
industry, and it brings convenient and accurate f
Pressure control system

Pressure Control System

Pressure control (PC) is a mode of mechanical


ventilation alone and a variable within other modes of mechanical
ventilation. Pressure control is used to regulate pressures applied
during mechanical ventilation. Air delivered into the patients lungs
(breaths) are currently regulated by Volume Control or Pressure
Control. In pressure controlled breaths a tidal volume achieved is
based on how much volume can be delivered before the pressure
control limit is reached.
Split range and cascade control

Split Range Control

In a split range control loop, output of the controller is split and


sent to two or more control valves. The splitter defines how each
valve is sequenced as the controller output changes from 0 to 100%.
In most split range applications, the controller adjusts the opening of
one of the valves when its output is in the range of 0 to 50% and the
other valve when its output is in the range of 50% to 100%.
Split range and cascade control

The principle of a split range control is illustrated in the following example:


Split range and cascade control

Cascade Control

In a cascade control arrangement, there are two (or more)


controllers of which one controllers output drives the set point of
another controller. For example: a level controller driving the set
point of a flow controller to keep the level at its set point. The flow
controller, in turn, drives a control valve to match the flow with the
set point the level controller is requesting.
Split range and cascade control

Cascade Control
Single, two and three element control

Single Element (1E) Control

This is a very simple kind of drum level control design. It needs


single analog input for its operation and in return provides single
analog output. Hence, it is named single element control. Because
there's no relationship between drum level and steam or feedwater
flow, it can be applied only to a single feed pump on a single boiler
supplying a relatively stable load. Its performance is not as effective
as compared to other two level control designs.
Single, two and three element control

Single Element Control


Single, two and three element control

Two Element (2E) Control

This drum level control design is particularly suitable in case of


single drum boilers where the feedwater is available at a constant
pressure. Two-element control includes the same level element used
for the single-element configuration but has an added steam-flow
element that provides a density-corrected mass flow-rate signal to
control the feedwater flow. In this design, presence of double
control elements tends to provide rigid drum level control.
Single, two and three element control

Two Element Control


Single, two and three element control

Three Element (3E) Control

Three-element drum-level control is suited for handling


variable feedwater pressure or multiple boilers with multiple
feedwater pumps. In this design, three elements are used, each for
controlling level, steam and feedwater flow respectively. This system
offers far better and advanced drum level control as compared to all
other systems. For best control, correct flow values of both steam as
well as feedwater must be maintained with regard to density.
Single, two and three element control

Three Element Control


Explain the operation and use of
governors
Operation of Governor

The governor system is like a cruise control system in an


automobile. It maintains the speed of your lawn mower or outdoor
power products. When Briggs & Stratton governors are adjusted
properly, they keep your speed steady regardless of engine load - the
amount of work the engine must perform.
When powering a lawn mower, engine load can be affected
by hills or height of grass. For a tiller engine, load may depend on
depth of the tines while a chippers load may be affected by the
thickness of branches.
Without a governor, you would need to adjust the throttle
manually each time your lawn mower ran across a dense patch of
grass or the engine will stall. A governor does the job for you by
detecting changes in the load and adjusting the throttle to
compensate.
Explain the operation and use of
governors
Use of Governor

A governor, or speed limiter, is a device used to measure and


regulate the speed of a machine such as an engine.
To maintain the engine speed at the desire value by controlling the
fuel injection.
To automatically maintain the uniform speed of the engine within
the specified limits, whenever there is a variation of the load.
To regulate the fuel supply to the engine as per load requirements.
To regulate the mean speed of the engines.
It works intermittently i.e., only theres modification within the
load
Need for governors, governor terms,
concept and operation
Need for Governors

Power is supplied to the governor from the engine's output


shaft by a belt or chain connected to the lower belt wheel. The
governor is connected to a throttle valve that regulates the flow of
working fluid supplying the prime mover. As the speed of the prime
mover increases, the central spindle of the governor rotates at a
faster rate and the kinetic energy of the balls increases. This allows
the two masses on lever arms to move outwards and upwards
against gravity. If the motion goes far enough, this motion causes the
lever arms to pull down on a thrust bearing, which moves a beam
linkage, which reduces the aperture of a throttle valve. The rate of
workingfluid entering the cylinder is thus reduced and the speed of
the prime mover is controlled, preventing over-speeding.
Need for governors, governor terms,
concept and operation
Governor Terms

Used to power lawn mowers, portable generators,


and lawn and garden tractors, are equipped with a governor to limit
fuel to the engine to a maximum safe speed when unloaded and to
maintain a relatively constant speed despite changes in loading. In
the case of generator applications, the engine speed must be closely
controlled so the output frequency of the generator will remain
reasonably constant.
Need for governors, governor terms,
concept and operation
Governor Concept

The principal control device on any engine is the governor. It


governs or controls the engine speed at some fixed value while
power output changes to meet demand. This is achieved by the
governor automatically adjusting the engine fuel pump settings to
meet the desired load at the set speed.

Governors for diesel engines are usually made up of two


systems: a speed sensing arrangement and a hydraulic unit which
operates on the fuel pumps to change the engine power output.
Need for governors, governor terms,
concept and operation
Operation of Governor

The governor system is like a cruise control system in an


automobile. It maintains the speed of your lawn mower or outdoor
power products. When Briggs & Stratton governors are adjusted
properly, they keep your speed steady regardless of engine load -
the amount of work the engine must perform.
When powering a lawn mower, engine load can be affected
by hills or height of grass. For a tiller engine, load may depend on
depth of the tines while a chippers load may be affected by the
thickness of branches.
Without a governor, you would need to adjust the throttle
manually each time your lawn mower ran across a dense patch of
grass or the engine will stall. A governor does the job for you by
detecting changes in the load and adjusting the throttle to
compensate.
Hydraulic governors, digital
governors, power sharing

Hydraulic Governors

Hydraulic governor that relies on the movement of a pilot


valve plunger to control pressurized oil flow to a power piston, which,
in turn, moves the fuel control mechanism.
Hydraulic governors, digital
governors, power sharing
Digital Governors

Digital governors are based on a single hardware platform,


which makes them far more convenient. Basically, these are speed
control units that provide accurate and efficient speed control, with
very fast response to load changes. These governors have several
advantages over the traditional mechanical governors:
They are especially created to withstand severe environments
They are very durable in the long run, they are designed to
regulate motor speed and arent subject to drift.
The Hydro digital governor also comes with a back-up speed and creep
detection system that makes the device even more reliable.
Hydraulic governors, digital
governors, power sharing

Power Sharing

Marine vessels the Power Management System PMS is in


charge of controlling the electrical system. Its task is to make sure that
the electrical system is safe and efficient. If the power consumption is
larger than the power production capacity, load shedding is used to
avoid blackout. Other features could be to automatic start and stop
consumers (e.g., diesel generators) as the load varies.
Governing system
The main function of governor is to maintain constant speed of
turbine during fluctuations of load by varying steam input to the turbine.
It has following function:

A. The run up of the turbine from rest t rated speed and synchronizing
with the grid.
B. Meeting the system load variations in a predetermined manner, when
running in parallel with other machines.
C. Protecting the machine by reducing the load or shutting off completely
in abnormal and emergency situations. The governing system also
includes other devices to protect the turbine from abnormal conditions
that may arise during operation.
D. To assist in matching the power generated to that demanded by
responding to the network frequency changes.