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• 4 th

3

4

log
log2
Y
Kx
x

# If the goal is to have the employee be able to perform the task in 6 minutes by the end of the first day, do you have the right person for the job?

Takes 21 days (1000 attempts)
Vastly over qualified

#  Takes 750 hours to build first aircraft  Assume 10% reduction of time when building 2d aircraft

 1 750 2 675 3 634.6545 4 607.5 5 587.24 6 571.189 7 557.9609 8 546.75 9 537.0484 10 528.516 11 520.9144 12 514.0701 13 507.8535 14 502.1648 15 496.926 16 492.075 17 487.5613 18 483.3436 19 479.3876

# ……..

 87 380.407 88 379.747 89 379.095 90 378.452 91 377.817 92 377.189 93 376.57 94 375.958 95 375.354 96 374.757 97 374.167 98 373.584 99 373.008 100 372.439 436.058

Average

9

#  Solution

log(9.9/11)
log2
7
(11)K
Art 
 Learning Curve Number of Repetitions 0.9 6.97641169 20 0.847619048 7.152806966 5 0.8 7.147648123 5

11

15

18

# DFMA on the Tomahawk Cruise Missile

1980
2000
Parts
11500 7500
 Through applying
DFMA techniques
the part count, and
assembly hours of
the Tomahawk
Land Attack Missile
has been reduced
Fasteners
2500 800
Circuit Boards
45
22
Connectors
160
45
 As a result the unit
cost has been
halved
Assembly/Test
Hours
Unit Cost
610
195
\$1,000,000
\$500,000

x3

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# Spatial Complexity of Parts

From Schey, Introduction to Manufacturing Processes

26

27

# Design for Assembly

##  Design for Assembly is the art of designing such that the assembly process is minimized or made more cost effective

DESIGN CONCEPT
SUGGESTIONS FOR
DESIGN FOR ASSEMBLY
( DFA )
SIMPLIFICATION FOR
PRODUCT STRUCTURE
SELECTION OF
MATERIALS AND
PROCESSES AND EARLY
COST ESTIMATES
SUGGESTIONS FOR
MORE ECONOMIC
MATERIALS AND
PROCESSES
 BEST DESIGN CONCEPT

DETAIL DESIGN FOR

MINIMUM MANUFACTURING COST

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE
( DFM )
PROTOTYPE

PRODUCTION

# Design for Assembly – Provide Reference Points and Fixture Points

##  Also important to provide fixture points to attach to assembly line hardware and or robots

- Common datum’s for all fixtures
- bottom rails for conveyor
-One common plane for assembly
- Tabs for robotic lift

β
α
x

A
is better
than
B
A
B
is better
than

#  Loosely tolerancing non-functional dimensions can cause problems if the feeding and orienting method is not considered -

 jamming may occur if components are at extremes
of limit:
Feeder / Hopper
Delivery
Tube
 In other words the assembly process may drive the
dimensions of parts over and above the part’s
function in the system
Parts

out

#  Analysis estimates assembly time by estimating handling time for each part and process associated with each part

Insertion Time (s)

Handling Time (s)

Number of Items

Required Part

Total Time (s)

# DFA - Example

##  Add the insertion and handling times and multiply by the number of items to get the total time

Pressure Regulator
Y
Y
Y
Screw

Y

Y

# November 4 2010 QE32 Engine ‘Explosion’

 Probably a 9
 Safety risk, complete shut down,
but obviously not catastrophic
to aircraft

#  So where does this incident rank on the severity scale?

The ongoing investigation by the Australian Transport Safety Bureau indicated that "fatigue cracking" in a stub

pipe within the engine resulted in oil leakage followed by an oil fire in the engine. The fire led to the release of the

Intermediate Pressure Turbine (IPT) disc. It also said the issue is specific to the Trent 900.

Airbus determined that the IPT disc released three different high energy fragments, resulting in structural and

systems damage. It also concluded that segregated wiring routes were cut by two out of the three individual

pieces of disc debris and as a result, engine one could not be shut down after landing