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Looking Back at the Human Biocultural and Social


The origins of modern human can be explained by studying

Biological and Cultural Evolution

Cultural & Biological Evolution:

Cultural and biological evolution have
influenced each other. Selection for a bipedal
lifestyle (biological evolution) freed up the
hands making later cultural developments
Likewise, the development of early tools (cultural evolution)
resulted in an improved diet, which in turn allowed for the
selection (biological evolution) of a larger brain. This in turn
aided the further development of tools and so on and so
forth. Cultural and biological evolution have fuelled each-
other resulting in the fairly rapid evolution of Humans with
large brains and sophisticated technologies.
Cultural Evolution or sociocultural evolution, on
the other hand, refers, to the changes or
development in cultures from a simple form to a
more complex form of human culture.

Sociocultural; evolution happens as a result of

human adaptation to different factors like climatic
changes and population increase.
Biological evolution is
based on the theory of
evolution that was
introduced by the famous
English naturalist and
geologist CHARLES
DARWIN (1809- 1882)
In his study, Darwin hypothesized that the evolution of
species happens through the process of natural selection.
Natural Selection, according to Darwin, was the reason for
the occurrence of evolution.
According to Darwin, the environment favors certain
organisms and hose organisms that survive can pass on their

Natural selection has three important principles. These are

variation, heritability and differential reproductive success.
Darwins natural selection hypothesized that:
1.Every species is made up of a variety of
individuals wherein some are better adapted to
their environments compared to others.
2.Organisms produce progeny with different sets
of traits that can be inherited.
3.Organisms that have traits most suitable to their
environment will survive and transfer these
variations to their offspring in subsequent