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EE6302-ELECTROMAGNETIC

THEORY

UNIT 1
ELECTROSTATICS-1
INTRODUCTION
Electromagnetic fields are present everywhere in
our environment but are invisible to human eye.
It is having both electric and magnetic fields.
Electric fields are produced by thunderstorms
Magnetic fields are produced by the earth.
Eg; X-ray,Radio,Tv,Mobile phone emits EM rays.
EM field depends upon magnitude,
position,velocity and acceleration of the charges.
VECTOR ANALYSIS
Vector analysis is a mathematical shorthand.
Physical quantity can be represented either
scalar or vector.
A quantity expressed only by magnitude is
called a scalar.eg: mass, time, temp, etc.,
A quantity expressed both magnitude and
direction is called a vector.eg:force, velocity,
etc.,
VECTOR ANALYSIS
MULTIPLICATION OF SCALAR AND
VECTOR
SCALAR MULTIPLICATION:
It is a scalar quantity whose magnitude is the product of
magnitude of the vectors multiplied by the cosine of the angle
between them.
VECTOR MULTIPLICATION:
It is defined as a vector whose magnitude is the product of the
magnitude of the 2 vectors and sine of the angle between
them.
SCALAR MULTIPLICATION

VECTOR MULTIPLICATION
DIFFERENTIATION
The differential vector operator del or nabla is
defined as

= + +

GRADIENT
If the scalar V represents electric potential and
the equation is given by

This operation is called as gradient


DIVERGENCE
The divergence of a vector A at any point is defined
as the limit of its surface integrated per unit volume
as the volume enclosed by the surface is zero.
CURL
The curl of a vector A at any point is defined as
the limit of its surface integral of its cross
product with normal over a closed surface per
unit volume as the volume shrinks to zero.
lim 1
curl =
x A.ds
0
SOLENOIDAL & IRROTATIONAL
VECTORS
A vector is said to be solenoidal if its
divergence is zero
i.e if . = 0 then A is said to be solenoidal
A vector is said to be irrotational if its curl is
zero.
i.e if = 0 then A is said to be
Irrotational.
CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM
It is a system which is used to represents a
point in space, there are 3 simple co-ordinate
systems to describe a vector accurately such
as length, direction, angle, projection.
Three co-ordinate systems
Rectangular or cartesian co-ordinatesystem. (x,y,z)
Cylindrical co-ordinate system.(, , )
Spherical co-ordinate system.(r, , )
CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM
Three co-ordinates axes x,y and z are
x,y and z are mutually components vectors.
right angles to each Component vectors
other. have magnitude and
Consider point p(x,y,z) direction along co-
in space at a distance r ordinate axes.
from the orgin.
= + +
, , are unit
vectors
UNIT VECTOR
A unit vector in a given Consider the points p(x,y,z)
direction is a vector in that and q ( x +dx , y +dy ,z+dz) in
direction divided by its rectangular co-ordinate
magnitude. system.
+ +
The differential length dl from

= = 2 2 2
p to q is the diagonal of the
+ + parallel piped is given by
dl = ()2 +()2 +()2
ds = dxdy = dydz = dzdx
dv = dxdydz
Cylindrical co-ordinate system

The cylindrical co-ordinate The co-ordinates (, , )


system is the three
dimensional version of the A differential volume
polar co-ordinate system . element , , increasing
Consider any point p as the by differential elements
intersection of three mutually d, ,
perpendicular surfaces.
Its shapes approaches
They are circular cylinder
rectangular parallelepiped.
( = constant) , a plane( =
constant) and another It has sides of length
plane(z=constant) d, ,
The differential length
dl = ()2 +( )2 +()2

The differential area, ds = d,


= d
=
The differential volume ,dv = d
Spherical co-ordinate system(r, , )

In this system , consider A differential volume


any point p as the point element in spherical co-
of intersection of the ordinate by increasing
spherical r, by dr , d
surfaces(radius r and d
=constant) conical The sides of the volume
surface(,angle element are
between r and z = dr , rd and rsind
constant) and plane
surface ( = constant)
The differential length,dl =
2 + ()2 +()2
The differential area , ds = dr.rd=r drd
= dr.
= dr
=rd.
= 2 d
The differential volume , dv = dr. rd.
= 2 d dr

STOKES THEOREM
The line integral of vector around a closed path is
equal to the surface integral of the normal
component of its curve over any closed surface.
. =
Proof
Consider an arbitrary surface .
This is broken up into incremental surfaces of
area s
If H is any field vector , The close integral for
By definition of the curl to whole surface s is given
one of these incremental by the surface integral of
surfaces. the normal component of
.s
curl H
= ( )
. =
to the
surface This theorem is used to
convert the surface
dl closed path of an integral of curl of a vector
incremental area into a closed line integral.
DIVERGENCE THEOREM
The volume integral of Proof:
the divergence of a vector The divergence of any
field over a volume is vector A is given by
equal to the surface
integral of the normal . = + +

component of this vector Take the volume integral
over the surface on both sides,
bounding the volume

. = [ +
. = .
+ ]dxdydz

dv = dxdydz

dxdydz = . dydz . = [ +

+ ]dxdydz


But 2 . = 2 1
1
= ( + +
)
=
Then
= .
= =
. = .
Where dydz = = x component of
surface area ds. The divergence theorem
applies to time varying as
Simillaryly well as static fields.
The following integrands become This theorem is used to
convert the volume integral
= of a divergence of a vector

into closed surface integral.
=

ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO LINE CHARGE OR
ELECTRIC FIELD ON A UNIFORM CHARGE LINE
Consider a uniformly The electric field at a point
charged line or conductor p due to the charge element
of length L meter having dl is given by
linear charge density is dl


. dE = 2 -------------1
4

Consider a small element dl
at a distance l. From one The x, y component is given
end of the charged line by
Let p be any point at a d , d
distance r from the 0 d
element dl and given by sin = = =

1 2 with respect to
vary. d = sin --------2
d
cos = = = cot =

d = cos -------3 = h cot ------5
Sub 1 in 2 and 3 Differentiating on both sides
dl -dl = - h 2 -----6
d = 2 sin -------4
4
dl dl= h 2
d = cos -------5
4 2
0
Take the triangle OAP sin = =

0
tan = = r=

= hcosec--------7
sin
ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO A
CHARGED CIRCULAR DISC
Consider a circular disc
of radius R,with a
charge density of
s c/2
Let p be the axis of the
disc at a distance h meters
from the centre at which
the electric field intensity
to be determined
Consider an annular ring Area of disc (R) = 2r
of radius of r and radial Area of the annular ring
thickness dr =2r.dr
The area of the annular
ring is ds = 2r.dr s = c/2

The annular ring creates dq = sds
an angle with point p. sds
dE = =
Similarly the circular disc 4 2 4 2
creates an angle with r=d
point p. sds
dE = ----------1
d distance between 4 2
annular ring and point p. d- distance b/w annular
ring at point p.
Where dE is the electric =
sds
cos --------2
field intensity at a point 4 2
p due to charged ds = 2r.dr
annular ring. s2r.dr
d = 2 cos ----3
At p , the horizontal 4

component d = 0 , Triangle opq


the vertical component 0
tan = = =

y.
r = htan
d = dEcos
(tan = 2 )
Differenciate sec =
1
cos
dr = 2 --------4 d =
0 1
sin = = s2cos cos2

4 2
d= ---------5 s2
sin =
Sub 4 & 5 in 3 2
s2
d = =
2
note =

tan
S2 2 cos2 s
4 2 =
2
s s
= = 0
2 2
s s
= = [-COS] 0
2 2
The total electric field s
= [-COS + COS0]
due to charge d 2
s
circular disc = [ 1- COS ]
2
E = +
COS = = 2 2
=0 +
s
s E = [ 1- 2 2 ]
E= = =0 2 +
2
POTENTIAL: s
= [ 1 COS ] [- -d]
2
The electric potential at a s
point p due to a charged V = [ 1 COS ] [d]
2
circular disc. Triangle pos
0
V= - . cos = =
2 + 2
s s
[ 1 COS ] v= [ 1- 2

] .d
2 2 + 2
If r varies d also varies
Hence r can vary a max of 0
to d
s 0
V= [ 1 COS ]
2
ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A INFINITE
UNIFORMLY CHARGED SHEETS
Consider an infinite
plane sheet which is
uniformly chaged with a
charge density of s
c/2
The field intensity at
any point p due to
infinite plane sheet of
charge can be evaluated
by applying expression
of charged circular disc
s
E= [ 1- COS ]
2
s
= [ 1- COS90] =900
2
s
= [ 1- 0]
2
s
E=
2
ELECTRIC FIELD BETWEEN TWO
INFINITELY UNIFORMLY CHARGED
SHEETS
Consider two infinite
plane sheets are
separated by a distance of
d
The upper sheet is
uniformly distributed with
charge density of s c/2
and the lower sheet is
uniformly distributed with
charged density of- s
c/2
Consider any point p It is given by
between the planes s s
E= +
The electric field 2 2
2s
intensity at any point p =
2
due to the two s
oppositely charged =

infinite plane is
additive.
COULOMBS LAW
The force between two A small charged particle
very small charged with negligible
objects separated by a dimension is called a
distance which is large point charge.
compared to their size The force is repulsive
is proportional to the when both the charges
charge on each and are like and attractive
inversely proportional when the charges are
to the square of the unlike
distance between them.
Coulumbs law stated Consider two point
The force of attraction charges Q1 and Q2
between any two point separated by a distance
charges is directly r ..
proportional to the The force of interaction
product of two charges between two point
and inversely charges is given as
proportional to the Q1Q2
square of the distance F 2

between them Q1Q2
F= 2 newtons
4
Where is permittivity
of the medium or r=
dielectric constant which
is written as

= 0 rfarads/metre
Relative permittivity of Permittivity of the free space or
vaccum
the medium , r = 1
0
0 = 9 = 8.854 X 10-12 F/m
36 10
Coulombs law in
vector form
Consider two charges
Q1 and Q2 at distant
vectors r1 and r2 from
the origin respectively
R12 represents the
dinstant vector from
Q1 and Q2
.

The vector F is the force a1 2 = r2 r1


between Q1 and Q2 Ir2 r1 I
The vector form of
Q1Q2 r2 r1
coulombs law is F=
40 r2 r1 r2 r1 2
Q1Q2
F= x a12
40r12 2

Where a12 is the unit


vector in the direction
of r12
Applications of coulombs law
1.used to find the force
between a pair of charges
2.to find the potential at a
point due to a fixed
charge.
3.To find electric field at a
point due to a fixed
charge.
To find the displacement
flux density indirectly
PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION
Consider a system The force Fi on the ith
consists of n point charge can be written
charges Q1,Q2, .. Qn at by coulombs law,
distances r1,r2, . rn Qi Qj
respectively . F==1 r 2 x aij
4 0 j
The force on nth charge Where Qi is the ith charge
is given by vector sum
Qj is any of the charges
of the individual
other than Qi
forces.this principle is
called principle of Rji is the distance between
superposition. the jth and ith charges.
COULOUMBS LAW OF FORCE
The unit vector is directed from Q2 to
towards Q1 and R is directed from Q2
towards Q1.
EQUATIONS
CONTINUE
ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO
LINE CHARGE
Consider a uniform charge length of line L meter
whose charge density.Consider small element dl at
any point P.The electric field at point P due to
charge element is
CONTINUE
ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO
CHARGED CIRCULAR DISC
Consider Circular disc of radius R is uniformly charged
density is ps.Let p be any point on the axis of disc at a
distance from center.
The annular ring of radius r radial thickness dr.
EQUATIONS
ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO
INFINITE PLANE IS UNIFORMLY CHARGED
Consider infinite plane sheet is uniformly
charged with charge density is ps.The Electric
field intensity at any point P due to infinite
plane is charge is evaluated by applying charged
circular disc is given,
ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY BETWEEN TWO
INFINITE PLANE IS UNIFORMLY CHARGED
Consider two infinite plane is separated by
distance d.The upper sheet is uniformly
charged with charge density ps.
The electric field intensity at any point p due to
two infinite plane is oppositively charged is
additive
GAUSSS LAW
The electric flux passing through any closed
surface is equal to the total charge enclosed
by the surface is known as Gausss law.
CONTINUE
EQUATION
APPLICATION OF GAUSS LAW
1.INFINITE LINE CHARGE:
Consider a infinite line charge in on z-axis
cylindrical co-ordinates. The electric flux
density at everywhere on cylinder, By applying
Gauss law to the closed surface,
EQUATION
2.SINGLE SHELL OF CHARGE
By applying gauss inside the shell.The integral of
electric flux density is zero,no charge.
3.TWO CONCENTRIC SHELLS OF
CHARGE
By applying Gauss law, the line integral of flux
density is zero
CO-AXIAL CYCLINDER
Consider two co-axial cyclinder of radius a & b.
GAUSSIAN SURFACE
Following condition should be satisfied.
1. The surface is closed
2. Electric flux density(D) is normal or tangent.
3. Electric field intensity is a part of surface is
known as Gaussian surface.
PROBLEMS
CONTINUE
CONTINUE
CONTINUE
What is Flux?
Flux means an imaginary line through which a
physical quantity can travel. The word Flux is
originated from Latin Word Fluxus that
means flow. Isaac Newton first used this term
as fluxion into differential calculus. In
mathematics and physics flux is used as the
basic and global word.
Magnetic Flux
It means the number magnetic field lines passing
through a closed surface.
Its SI unit is Weber and in CGS is Maxwell. It is
denoted as m.

Electric Flux
It means the number of electric field lines passing
through a closed surface.
Its SI unit is voltmeter. It is denoted as E.
Two marks
1.Define vector and scalar field.give an
example?
A scalar is specified by a single number at
each point.
E.g Temperature and pressure of a gas.
A vector field is specified by both magnitude
and direction at each point in space.
E.g. Velocity and acceleration of a field.
2.Define vector product of two vectors?
The vector product(cross product) of two
vectors A and B is a vectors.which is equal to
the product of the magnitudes of A,B and sine
of the angle between a and b
A X B =
3.Find the dot product of the vectors A and B
if A = 2ax 3ay+4az , B = -ax + 2ay+2az
A.B = AxBx+AyBy+AzBz
= 2(-1)-3(2)+4(2) = 0
Given A = 4ay+8az and B = -2ay+6az find A.B
A.B = AxBx+AyBy+AzBz
= 4(-2)+8(6) = 40
5.Given two vectors: p=3i+5j+2k and q=2i-4j+3k.
Determine the angular separation between them.
P=3i+5j+2k
q=2i-4j+3k
. (3i+5j+2k).(2i4j+3k )
cos = =
9+25+4. 4+16+9
620+6 8
= = ,
9+25+4. 4+16+9 1102
1
= cos .241 = 103.940
6.What are the conditions of two vectors A
and B to be
A.parallel
B.perpendicular
For parallel A X B =0 (CROSS PRODUCT)
FOR PERPENDICULAR A.B = 0 (DOT PRODUCT)
7.Show that the two vectors A= 6ax + ay - 5az
and B=3(ax - ay + az ) are perpendicular to each
other.
A.B = 6 x 3 +1 x (-3) + (-5) x (3)
= 18-3-15
=0
Vectors A and B are perpendicular.
8. How can a vector field be expressed as the
gradient of scalar field?
The gradient of any scalar field v is expressed
as

= + +

Where v represents electric potential (scalar)
9.state the coditions for the vector F to irrotational
The vector F is said to be irrotational
if = 0
10.show that the vectors H = 3Y4Z2ax+ 4x3z2ay +3x2y2az
is solenoidal

.H = ( + + )(3Y4Z2ax+ 4x3z2ay +3x2y2az)


= 3Y Z ax+ 4x z ay + 3x2y2az
4 2 3 2

=0+0+0
.H =0
Hence H is solenoidal.
11. What is the physical significance of
divergence of D?
The divergence of the vector flux density d is
the outflow from a small closed surface per
unit volume as the volume shrinks to zero.
lim .
.D= =
0
This is equal to the volume charge density.
12.What is the physical significance of curl of a
vector field?
Curl indicates a measure of the tendency of a
vector to rotate or twist.
Curl may be described as circulation per unit
area.
The curl of electric field E must be zero, for the
circulation is zero
The curl of magnetic of magnetic field is zero.
13.Give practical examples for diverging and curling fields?
Divergence indicates the spreading or diverging of quantity
from a point
Examples:
1.leaking air from a ballon yields positive divergence.
2.rushing of air into drum under the carriage of a train
yields negative divergence.
Curll indicates a measure of the tendency of a vector to
rotate or twist.
Example - when a leaf floats is sea water and its rotation is
about z-axis the curl of velocity is in z-direction.
14.What is del operator ? How is it is used in
curl, gradient and divergence?
Del () is a vector differential operator

= + +



Curl H =


.Gradient = v = + +


Div B = .B = + +

15.Express the divergence of a vector in the
three system of orthogonal co-ordination.
For rectangular co-ordinate system

.B = + +

For cylindrical co-ordinate system
1 1
.B = + +

For spherical co-ordinate system
1 2
.B = [ (r sin ) + (rsin )+
r2sin

(r )]

16.find the divergence of F = xyax + yzay + zxaz

.F = (xy)+ (yz) + (zx)

.F = y + z + x
17. Find the divergence of A Where
A = e-y(cosx ax sinx ay)

.F = -y
(e cosx)+ (-e-y sinx )

= (-e-y sinx + e-y sinx )
=0
19.what is the divergence of curl of a vector?
. x H = 0
20. what is the value of x x F ?
x x F = .F - 2F

21.Represent a unit vector along a vector R=


6ax + 8ay
6ax + 8ay
unit vector = ar = = = 6 ax + 8ay
36+64
22.convert the rectangular co-ordinate (x,y,z) into
spherical co-ordinate (r, , )
r = X2 + y2 + z2
= cos-1 (z/r)
= tan-1 (y/x)
23.Represent point p(0,1,1)m given in Cartesian
co-ordinates , in spherical co-ordinates.
Cartesian co-ordinates x=0 , y =1m , z =1m
R2 = X2 + y2 + z2 0 + 1+1
R= 2 m
1
cos = =
2
= 450

1
tan = = =
0
= 900
Spherical co-ordinates r = 2 m , = 450 , =
900
24.write the expression for differential volume
element in terms of spherical co-ordinates
dv = r2sindr dd
25. Express the value of differential volume in
rectangular and cylindrical co-ordinate
systems.
For rectangular co-ordiantes: dv = dx dy dz
For cylindrical co-ordinates dv = d d dz
26.Write expression for differential length in
cylindrical and spherical co-ordinates
For cylindrical co-ordinates
dl = (d)2 +(d )2 + (dz )2
For spherical co-ordinates
dl = (dr)2 +()2 + (rsind )2
27.Define a unit vector and its value in
Cartesian co-ordinate axis?
Unit vector is having unit magnitude and
directed along the co-ordinates axes
For Cartesian co-ordinates
xAX +ay Ay +azAz
=a
Whereax, ay and az are unit vectors in the direction of x,y,z
respectvively .
a
28.Find the distance from A(1,2,3) to B(2,0-1)
in rectangular co-ordinates?
d = (x2x1)2 +(y2y1)2 + (Z2 Z1)2
= (21)2 +(02)2 + (13)2
= 1+4+16
= 21
29.Write the dot products of unit vectors in
cylindrical and Cartesian co-ordinate system?
For Cartesian co-ordinate system ax, ay and az

ax. ay
ax .ay = ay . az =az. Ax = 0
For cylindrical co-ordinate system
az.ap = az. =0
30.ax.ar = ? ay.ar = ?
ax .ar = sin cos
ay .ar = sin sin
31.Find the distance from A(r=5, = 200 , =1200)
and B(r=2, = 800 , =300 in spherical co-
ordinates.
X1 = rsin cos
=5sin200cos1200
=-0.855
Y1 = rsin sin

= 5sin200 sin1200 = 1.48


Z1 = rcos = 5cos200
=4.7
X2 = 2sin800cos300 = 1.7
Y2 =2sin800sin300
=0.985
Z2 = 2cos800
=0.347

d = (x2x1)2 +(y2y1)2 + (Z2 Z1)2

D= 5.07
31.State divergence theorem?
The integrall of the normal component of any
vector field over a closed surface is equal to the
integral of the divergence of this vector field
over a volume enclosed by the closed surface.

. = .


32.State stokes theorem?
The line integral of a vector around a closed
path is equal to the surface integral of the
normal component of its curl over any surface
bounded by the path
. =
33.electric flux and flux density?
The lines of electric force is electric flux. It is
denoted by
=Q (charge)coulomb
Electric flux density is defined as electric flux
per unit area. It is denoted by D

D= C/m2

34.What is point charge?
Point charge is one whose maximum dimension is
very small in comparison with any other length.
35.Define electric field intensity or electric field?
Electric field intensity is defined as the electric
force per unit positive charge. It is denoted by E

E= N/C or V/m

36.Name a few applications of Gausss law in
electrostatics?
Gausss law is applied to determine the
electric field intensity from a closed surface.
E.g Electric field can be determined for
charged shell , two concentric shell or
cylinders .
37.Why Gausss law cannot be applied to
determine the electric field due to finite line
charge?
Gausss law cannot be applied on non-
Gaussian surface.it can be applied if the
surface encloses the volume
completely.Therefore Gauss,s law cannot be
applied to determine to electric field due to
finite line charge.
38.What are the sources of electromagnetic
fields?
Sources of electromagnetic fields are
1.Stationary closed path in a time varying field
2.Time varying closed path in a static field.
3.Time varying closed path in a time varying
field.
39State coulombs law?
Coulomb stated that the force between two
very small charged objects separated by a
large distance compared to their size is
proportional to the charge on each object and
inversely proportional to the square of the
distance between them.
40.State Gausss law?
The electric flux passing through any closed
surface is equal to the total charge enclosed y
the surface.
=Q
41.what are the sources of electric field and
magnetic fields?
Electric field is produced by electric charge..
Source: presence of electric charge
Magnetic field is produced by moving electric
charge.
Source: Conduction current in a conductor
41.what is the applications of divergence
theorem
The divergence theorem applies to time varying
as well as static fields. This theorem is used to
convert the volume integral of divergence of a
vector into a closed surface integral.
42.What is the application of stokes theorem?
The stokes theorem applies to time varying as
well as static fields.
This theorem is used to convert the surface
integral of curl of a vector into a closed line
integral..
UNIT-I PART A 1. How are unit vector defined in cylindrical coordinate systems?
2. State Stokes theorem.
3. Mention the sources of electromagnetic fields.
4. State the physical significance of curl of a vector field.
Two vectorial quantities are known to be oriented in two unique directions.
Determine the angular separation between them.
6. State the conditions for a vector A to be (a) solenoidal (b) irrotational 7. State
divergence theorem. 8. State the vector form of electric flux density. 9. Define
divergence and its physical meaning. 10. What are the different coordinate
systems. 11. Mention the criteria for choosing an appropriate coordinate system
for solving a field problem easily. Explain with an example. 12. When a vector field
is solenoidal and irrotational. 13. Give the practical examples of diverging and curl
field. 14. Obtain the unit vector in the direction from the origin towards the point
P(3,-3,-2). 15. Verify that the vectors and are parallel to each other. 16. Given that
and ; find t such that angle between and is 45o. 17. Prove that curl grad =0.
Check validity of divergence theorem
considering the field D=2xyax +x2ay c/m2 and
the rectangular parallelepiped formed by the
planes x=0 ,x=1 , y=o,y=2, and z=0,z=3