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THEORY

UNIT 1

ELECTROSTATICS-1

INTRODUCTION

Electromagnetic fields are present everywhere in

our environment but are invisible to human eye.

It is having both electric and magnetic fields.

Electric fields are produced by thunderstorms

Magnetic fields are produced by the earth.

Eg; X-ray,Radio,Tv,Mobile phone emits EM rays.

EM field depends upon magnitude,

position,velocity and acceleration of the charges.

VECTOR ANALYSIS

Vector analysis is a mathematical shorthand.

Physical quantity can be represented either

scalar or vector.

A quantity expressed only by magnitude is

called a scalar.eg: mass, time, temp, etc.,

A quantity expressed both magnitude and

direction is called a vector.eg:force, velocity,

etc.,

VECTOR ANALYSIS

MULTIPLICATION OF SCALAR AND

VECTOR

SCALAR MULTIPLICATION:

It is a scalar quantity whose magnitude is the product of

magnitude of the vectors multiplied by the cosine of the angle

between them.

VECTOR MULTIPLICATION:

It is defined as a vector whose magnitude is the product of the

magnitude of the 2 vectors and sine of the angle between

them.

SCALAR MULTIPLICATION

VECTOR MULTIPLICATION

DIFFERENTIATION

The differential vector operator del or nabla is

defined as

= + +

GRADIENT

If the scalar V represents electric potential and

the equation is given by

DIVERGENCE

The divergence of a vector A at any point is defined

as the limit of its surface integrated per unit volume

as the volume enclosed by the surface is zero.

CURL

The curl of a vector A at any point is defined as

the limit of its surface integral of its cross

product with normal over a closed surface per

unit volume as the volume shrinks to zero.

lim 1

curl =

x A.ds

0

SOLENOIDAL & IRROTATIONAL

VECTORS

A vector is said to be solenoidal if its

divergence is zero

i.e if . = 0 then A is said to be solenoidal

A vector is said to be irrotational if its curl is

zero.

i.e if = 0 then A is said to be

Irrotational.

CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM

It is a system which is used to represents a

point in space, there are 3 simple co-ordinate

systems to describe a vector accurately such

as length, direction, angle, projection.

Three co-ordinate systems

Rectangular or cartesian co-ordinatesystem. (x,y,z)

Cylindrical co-ordinate system.(, , )

Spherical co-ordinate system.(r, , )

CARTESIAN CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM

Three co-ordinates axes x,y and z are

x,y and z are mutually components vectors.

right angles to each Component vectors

other. have magnitude and

Consider point p(x,y,z) direction along co-

in space at a distance r ordinate axes.

from the orgin.

= + +

, , are unit

vectors

UNIT VECTOR

A unit vector in a given Consider the points p(x,y,z)

direction is a vector in that and q ( x +dx , y +dy ,z+dz) in

direction divided by its rectangular co-ordinate

magnitude. system.

+ +

The differential length dl from

= = 2 2 2

p to q is the diagonal of the

+ + parallel piped is given by

dl = ()2 +()2 +()2

ds = dxdy = dydz = dzdx

dv = dxdydz

Cylindrical co-ordinate system

system is the three

dimensional version of the A differential volume

polar co-ordinate system . element , , increasing

Consider any point p as the by differential elements

intersection of three mutually d, ,

perpendicular surfaces.

Its shapes approaches

They are circular cylinder

rectangular parallelepiped.

( = constant) , a plane( =

constant) and another It has sides of length

plane(z=constant) d, ,

The differential length

dl = ()2 +( )2 +()2

= d

=

The differential volume ,dv = d

Spherical co-ordinate system(r, , )

any point p as the point element in spherical co-

of intersection of the ordinate by increasing

spherical r, by dr , d

surfaces(radius r and d

=constant) conical The sides of the volume

surface(,angle element are

between r and z = dr , rd and rsind

constant) and plane

surface ( = constant)

The differential length,dl =

2 + ()2 +()2

The differential area , ds = dr.rd=r drd

= dr.

= dr

=rd.

= 2 d

The differential volume , dv = dr. rd.

= 2 d dr

STOKES THEOREM

The line integral of vector around a closed path is

equal to the surface integral of the normal

component of its curve over any closed surface.

. =

Proof

Consider an arbitrary surface .

This is broken up into incremental surfaces of

area s

If H is any field vector , The close integral for

By definition of the curl to whole surface s is given

one of these incremental by the surface integral of

surfaces. the normal component of

.s

curl H

= ( )

. =

to the

surface This theorem is used to

convert the surface

dl closed path of an integral of curl of a vector

incremental area into a closed line integral.

DIVERGENCE THEOREM

The volume integral of Proof:

the divergence of a vector The divergence of any

field over a volume is vector A is given by

equal to the surface

integral of the normal . = + +

component of this vector Take the volume integral

over the surface on both sides,

bounding the volume

. = [ +

. = .

+ ]dxdydz

dv = dxdydz

dxdydz = . dydz . = [ +

+ ]dxdydz

But 2 . = 2 1

1

= ( + +

)

=

Then

= .

= =

. = .

Where dydz = = x component of

surface area ds. The divergence theorem

applies to time varying as

Simillaryly well as static fields.

The following integrands become This theorem is used to

convert the volume integral

= of a divergence of a vector

into closed surface integral.

=

ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO LINE CHARGE OR

ELECTRIC FIELD ON A UNIFORM CHARGE LINE

Consider a uniformly The electric field at a point

charged line or conductor p due to the charge element

of length L meter having dl is given by

linear charge density is dl

. dE = 2 -------------1

4

Consider a small element dl

at a distance l. From one The x, y component is given

end of the charged line by

Let p be any point at a d , d

distance r from the 0 d

element dl and given by sin = = =

1 2 with respect to

vary. d = sin --------2

d

cos = = = cot =

d = cos -------3 = h cot ------5

Sub 1 in 2 and 3 Differentiating on both sides

dl -dl = - h 2 -----6

d = 2 sin -------4

4

dl dl= h 2

d = cos -------5

4 2

0

Take the triangle OAP sin = =

0

tan = = r=

= hcosec--------7

sin

ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO A

CHARGED CIRCULAR DISC

Consider a circular disc

of radius R,with a

charge density of

s c/2

Let p be the axis of the

disc at a distance h meters

from the centre at which

the electric field intensity

to be determined

Consider an annular ring Area of disc (R) = 2r

of radius of r and radial Area of the annular ring

thickness dr =2r.dr

The area of the annular

ring is ds = 2r.dr s = c/2

The annular ring creates dq = sds

an angle with point p. sds

dE = =

Similarly the circular disc 4 2 4 2

creates an angle with r=d

point p. sds

dE = ----------1

d distance between 4 2

annular ring and point p. d- distance b/w annular

ring at point p.

Where dE is the electric =

sds

cos --------2

field intensity at a point 4 2

p due to charged ds = 2r.dr

annular ring. s2r.dr

d = 2 cos ----3

At p , the horizontal 4

the vertical component 0

tan = = =

y.

r = htan

d = dEcos

(tan = 2 )

Differenciate sec =

1

cos

dr = 2 --------4 d =

0 1

sin = = s2cos cos2

4 2

d= ---------5 s2

sin =

Sub 4 & 5 in 3 2

s2

d = =

2

note =

tan

S2 2 cos2 s

4 2 =

2

s s

= = 0

2 2

s s

= = [-COS] 0

2 2

The total electric field s

= [-COS + COS0]

due to charge d 2

s

circular disc = [ 1- COS ]

2

E = +

COS = = 2 2

=0 +

s

s E = [ 1- 2 2 ]

E= = =0 2 +

2

POTENTIAL: s

= [ 1 COS ] [- -d]

2

The electric potential at a s

point p due to a charged V = [ 1 COS ] [d]

2

circular disc. Triangle pos

0

V= - . cos = =

2 + 2

s s

[ 1 COS ] v= [ 1- 2

] .d

2 2 + 2

If r varies d also varies

Hence r can vary a max of 0

to d

s 0

V= [ 1 COS ]

2

ELECTRIC FIELD DUE TO A INFINITE

UNIFORMLY CHARGED SHEETS

Consider an infinite

plane sheet which is

uniformly chaged with a

charge density of s

c/2

The field intensity at

any point p due to

infinite plane sheet of

charge can be evaluated

by applying expression

of charged circular disc

s

E= [ 1- COS ]

2

s

= [ 1- COS90] =900

2

s

= [ 1- 0]

2

s

E=

2

ELECTRIC FIELD BETWEEN TWO

INFINITELY UNIFORMLY CHARGED

SHEETS

Consider two infinite

plane sheets are

separated by a distance of

d

The upper sheet is

uniformly distributed with

charge density of s c/2

and the lower sheet is

uniformly distributed with

charged density of- s

c/2

Consider any point p It is given by

between the planes s s

E= +

The electric field 2 2

2s

intensity at any point p =

2

due to the two s

oppositely charged =

infinite plane is

additive.

COULOMBS LAW

The force between two A small charged particle

very small charged with negligible

objects separated by a dimension is called a

distance which is large point charge.

compared to their size The force is repulsive

is proportional to the when both the charges

charge on each and are like and attractive

inversely proportional when the charges are

to the square of the unlike

distance between them.

Coulumbs law stated Consider two point

The force of attraction charges Q1 and Q2

between any two point separated by a distance

charges is directly r ..

proportional to the The force of interaction

product of two charges between two point

and inversely charges is given as

proportional to the Q1Q2

square of the distance F 2

between them Q1Q2

F= 2 newtons

4

Where is permittivity

of the medium or r=

dielectric constant which

is written as

= 0 rfarads/metre

Relative permittivity of Permittivity of the free space or

vaccum

the medium , r = 1

0

0 = 9 = 8.854 X 10-12 F/m

36 10

Coulombs law in

vector form

Consider two charges

Q1 and Q2 at distant

vectors r1 and r2 from

the origin respectively

R12 represents the

dinstant vector from

Q1 and Q2

.

between Q1 and Q2 Ir2 r1 I

The vector form of

Q1Q2 r2 r1

coulombs law is F=

40 r2 r1 r2 r1 2

Q1Q2

F= x a12

40r12 2

vector in the direction

of r12

Applications of coulombs law

1.used to find the force

between a pair of charges

2.to find the potential at a

point due to a fixed

charge.

3.To find electric field at a

point due to a fixed

charge.

To find the displacement

flux density indirectly

PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION

Consider a system The force Fi on the ith

consists of n point charge can be written

charges Q1,Q2, .. Qn at by coulombs law,

distances r1,r2, . rn Qi Qj

respectively . F==1 r 2 x aij

4 0 j

The force on nth charge Where Qi is the ith charge

is given by vector sum

Qj is any of the charges

of the individual

other than Qi

forces.this principle is

called principle of Rji is the distance between

superposition. the jth and ith charges.

COULOUMBS LAW OF FORCE

The unit vector is directed from Q2 to

towards Q1 and R is directed from Q2

towards Q1.

EQUATIONS

CONTINUE

ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO

LINE CHARGE

Consider a uniform charge length of line L meter

whose charge density.Consider small element dl at

any point P.The electric field at point P due to

charge element is

CONTINUE

ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO

CHARGED CIRCULAR DISC

Consider Circular disc of radius R is uniformly charged

density is ps.Let p be any point on the axis of disc at a

distance from center.

The annular ring of radius r radial thickness dr.

EQUATIONS

ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY DUE TO

INFINITE PLANE IS UNIFORMLY CHARGED

Consider infinite plane sheet is uniformly

charged with charge density is ps.The Electric

field intensity at any point P due to infinite

plane is charge is evaluated by applying charged

circular disc is given,

ELECTRIC FIELD INTENSITY BETWEEN TWO

INFINITE PLANE IS UNIFORMLY CHARGED

Consider two infinite plane is separated by

distance d.The upper sheet is uniformly

charged with charge density ps.

The electric field intensity at any point p due to

two infinite plane is oppositively charged is

additive

GAUSSS LAW

The electric flux passing through any closed

surface is equal to the total charge enclosed

by the surface is known as Gausss law.

CONTINUE

EQUATION

APPLICATION OF GAUSS LAW

1.INFINITE LINE CHARGE:

Consider a infinite line charge in on z-axis

cylindrical co-ordinates. The electric flux

density at everywhere on cylinder, By applying

Gauss law to the closed surface,

EQUATION

2.SINGLE SHELL OF CHARGE

By applying gauss inside the shell.The integral of

electric flux density is zero,no charge.

3.TWO CONCENTRIC SHELLS OF

CHARGE

By applying Gauss law, the line integral of flux

density is zero

CO-AXIAL CYCLINDER

Consider two co-axial cyclinder of radius a & b.

GAUSSIAN SURFACE

Following condition should be satisfied.

1. The surface is closed

2. Electric flux density(D) is normal or tangent.

3. Electric field intensity is a part of surface is

known as Gaussian surface.

PROBLEMS

CONTINUE

CONTINUE

CONTINUE

What is Flux?

Flux means an imaginary line through which a

physical quantity can travel. The word Flux is

originated from Latin Word Fluxus that

means flow. Isaac Newton first used this term

as fluxion into differential calculus. In

mathematics and physics flux is used as the

basic and global word.

Magnetic Flux

It means the number magnetic field lines passing

through a closed surface.

Its SI unit is Weber and in CGS is Maxwell. It is

denoted as m.

Electric Flux

It means the number of electric field lines passing

through a closed surface.

Its SI unit is voltmeter. It is denoted as E.

Two marks

1.Define vector and scalar field.give an

example?

A scalar is specified by a single number at

each point.

E.g Temperature and pressure of a gas.

A vector field is specified by both magnitude

and direction at each point in space.

E.g. Velocity and acceleration of a field.

2.Define vector product of two vectors?

The vector product(cross product) of two

vectors A and B is a vectors.which is equal to

the product of the magnitudes of A,B and sine

of the angle between a and b

A X B =

3.Find the dot product of the vectors A and B

if A = 2ax 3ay+4az , B = -ax + 2ay+2az

A.B = AxBx+AyBy+AzBz

= 2(-1)-3(2)+4(2) = 0

Given A = 4ay+8az and B = -2ay+6az find A.B

A.B = AxBx+AyBy+AzBz

= 4(-2)+8(6) = 40

5.Given two vectors: p=3i+5j+2k and q=2i-4j+3k.

Determine the angular separation between them.

P=3i+5j+2k

q=2i-4j+3k

. (3i+5j+2k).(2i4j+3k )

cos = =

9+25+4. 4+16+9

620+6 8

= = ,

9+25+4. 4+16+9 1102

1

= cos .241 = 103.940

6.What are the conditions of two vectors A

and B to be

A.parallel

B.perpendicular

For parallel A X B =0 (CROSS PRODUCT)

FOR PERPENDICULAR A.B = 0 (DOT PRODUCT)

7.Show that the two vectors A= 6ax + ay - 5az

and B=3(ax - ay + az ) are perpendicular to each

other.

A.B = 6 x 3 +1 x (-3) + (-5) x (3)

= 18-3-15

=0

Vectors A and B are perpendicular.

8. How can a vector field be expressed as the

gradient of scalar field?

The gradient of any scalar field v is expressed

as

= + +

Where v represents electric potential (scalar)

9.state the coditions for the vector F to irrotational

The vector F is said to be irrotational

if = 0

10.show that the vectors H = 3Y4Z2ax+ 4x3z2ay +3x2y2az

is solenoidal

.H = ( + + )(3Y4Z2ax+ 4x3z2ay +3x2y2az)

= 3Y Z ax+ 4x z ay + 3x2y2az

4 2 3 2

=0+0+0

.H =0

Hence H is solenoidal.

11. What is the physical significance of

divergence of D?

The divergence of the vector flux density d is

the outflow from a small closed surface per

unit volume as the volume shrinks to zero.

lim .

.D= =

0

This is equal to the volume charge density.

12.What is the physical significance of curl of a

vector field?

Curl indicates a measure of the tendency of a

vector to rotate or twist.

Curl may be described as circulation per unit

area.

The curl of electric field E must be zero, for the

circulation is zero

The curl of magnetic of magnetic field is zero.

13.Give practical examples for diverging and curling fields?

Divergence indicates the spreading or diverging of quantity

from a point

Examples:

1.leaking air from a ballon yields positive divergence.

2.rushing of air into drum under the carriage of a train

yields negative divergence.

Curll indicates a measure of the tendency of a vector to

rotate or twist.

Example - when a leaf floats is sea water and its rotation is

about z-axis the curl of velocity is in z-direction.

14.What is del operator ? How is it is used in

curl, gradient and divergence?

Del () is a vector differential operator

= + +

Curl H =

.Gradient = v = + +

Div B = .B = + +

15.Express the divergence of a vector in the

three system of orthogonal co-ordination.

For rectangular co-ordinate system

.B = + +

For cylindrical co-ordinate system

1 1

.B = + +

For spherical co-ordinate system

1 2

.B = [ (r sin ) + (rsin )+

r2sin

(r )]

16.find the divergence of F = xyax + yzay + zxaz

.F = (xy)+ (yz) + (zx)

.F = y + z + x

17. Find the divergence of A Where

A = e-y(cosx ax sinx ay)

.F = -y

(e cosx)+ (-e-y sinx )

= (-e-y sinx + e-y sinx )

=0

19.what is the divergence of curl of a vector?

. x H = 0

20. what is the value of x x F ?

x x F = .F - 2F

6ax + 8ay

6ax + 8ay

unit vector = ar = = = 6 ax + 8ay

36+64

22.convert the rectangular co-ordinate (x,y,z) into

spherical co-ordinate (r, , )

r = X2 + y2 + z2

= cos-1 (z/r)

= tan-1 (y/x)

23.Represent point p(0,1,1)m given in Cartesian

co-ordinates , in spherical co-ordinates.

Cartesian co-ordinates x=0 , y =1m , z =1m

R2 = X2 + y2 + z2 0 + 1+1

R= 2 m

1

cos = =

2

= 450

1

tan = = =

0

= 900

Spherical co-ordinates r = 2 m , = 450 , =

900

24.write the expression for differential volume

element in terms of spherical co-ordinates

dv = r2sindr dd

25. Express the value of differential volume in

rectangular and cylindrical co-ordinate

systems.

For rectangular co-ordiantes: dv = dx dy dz

For cylindrical co-ordinates dv = d d dz

26.Write expression for differential length in

cylindrical and spherical co-ordinates

For cylindrical co-ordinates

dl = (d)2 +(d )2 + (dz )2

For spherical co-ordinates

dl = (dr)2 +()2 + (rsind )2

27.Define a unit vector and its value in

Cartesian co-ordinate axis?

Unit vector is having unit magnitude and

directed along the co-ordinates axes

For Cartesian co-ordinates

xAX +ay Ay +azAz

=a

Whereax, ay and az are unit vectors in the direction of x,y,z

respectvively .

a

28.Find the distance from A(1,2,3) to B(2,0-1)

in rectangular co-ordinates?

d = (x2x1)2 +(y2y1)2 + (Z2 Z1)2

= (21)2 +(02)2 + (13)2

= 1+4+16

= 21

29.Write the dot products of unit vectors in

cylindrical and Cartesian co-ordinate system?

For Cartesian co-ordinate system ax, ay and az

ax. ay

ax .ay = ay . az =az. Ax = 0

For cylindrical co-ordinate system

az.ap = az. =0

30.ax.ar = ? ay.ar = ?

ax .ar = sin cos

ay .ar = sin sin

31.Find the distance from A(r=5, = 200 , =1200)

and B(r=2, = 800 , =300 in spherical co-

ordinates.

X1 = rsin cos

=5sin200cos1200

=-0.855

Y1 = rsin sin

Z1 = rcos = 5cos200

=4.7

X2 = 2sin800cos300 = 1.7

Y2 =2sin800sin300

=0.985

Z2 = 2cos800

=0.347

D= 5.07

31.State divergence theorem?

The integrall of the normal component of any

vector field over a closed surface is equal to the

integral of the divergence of this vector field

over a volume enclosed by the closed surface.

. = .

32.State stokes theorem?

The line integral of a vector around a closed

path is equal to the surface integral of the

normal component of its curl over any surface

bounded by the path

. =

33.electric flux and flux density?

The lines of electric force is electric flux. It is

denoted by

=Q (charge)coulomb

Electric flux density is defined as electric flux

per unit area. It is denoted by D

D= C/m2

34.What is point charge?

Point charge is one whose maximum dimension is

very small in comparison with any other length.

35.Define electric field intensity or electric field?

Electric field intensity is defined as the electric

force per unit positive charge. It is denoted by E

E= N/C or V/m

36.Name a few applications of Gausss law in

electrostatics?

Gausss law is applied to determine the

electric field intensity from a closed surface.

E.g Electric field can be determined for

charged shell , two concentric shell or

cylinders .

37.Why Gausss law cannot be applied to

determine the electric field due to finite line

charge?

Gausss law cannot be applied on non-

Gaussian surface.it can be applied if the

surface encloses the volume

completely.Therefore Gauss,s law cannot be

applied to determine to electric field due to

finite line charge.

38.What are the sources of electromagnetic

fields?

Sources of electromagnetic fields are

1.Stationary closed path in a time varying field

2.Time varying closed path in a static field.

3.Time varying closed path in a time varying

field.

39State coulombs law?

Coulomb stated that the force between two

very small charged objects separated by a

large distance compared to their size is

proportional to the charge on each object and

inversely proportional to the square of the

distance between them.

40.State Gausss law?

The electric flux passing through any closed

surface is equal to the total charge enclosed y

the surface.

=Q

41.what are the sources of electric field and

magnetic fields?

Electric field is produced by electric charge..

Source: presence of electric charge

Magnetic field is produced by moving electric

charge.

Source: Conduction current in a conductor

41.what is the applications of divergence

theorem

The divergence theorem applies to time varying

as well as static fields. This theorem is used to

convert the volume integral of divergence of a

vector into a closed surface integral.

42.What is the application of stokes theorem?

The stokes theorem applies to time varying as

well as static fields.

This theorem is used to convert the surface

integral of curl of a vector into a closed line

integral..

UNIT-I PART A 1. How are unit vector defined in cylindrical coordinate systems?

2. State Stokes theorem.

3. Mention the sources of electromagnetic fields.

4. State the physical significance of curl of a vector field.

Two vectorial quantities are known to be oriented in two unique directions.

Determine the angular separation between them.

6. State the conditions for a vector A to be (a) solenoidal (b) irrotational 7. State

divergence theorem. 8. State the vector form of electric flux density. 9. Define

divergence and its physical meaning. 10. What are the different coordinate

systems. 11. Mention the criteria for choosing an appropriate coordinate system

for solving a field problem easily. Explain with an example. 12. When a vector field

is solenoidal and irrotational. 13. Give the practical examples of diverging and curl

field. 14. Obtain the unit vector in the direction from the origin towards the point

P(3,-3,-2). 15. Verify that the vectors and are parallel to each other. 16. Given that

and ; find t such that angle between and is 45o. 17. Prove that curl grad =0.

Check validity of divergence theorem

considering the field D=2xyax +x2ay c/m2 and

the rectangular parallelepiped formed by the

planes x=0 ,x=1 , y=o,y=2, and z=0,z=3

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