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TOPIC 1 - COMPUTER PROCESSING

CONCEPT
1.1 History of Computer
1.2 Basic Process Of Computer
1.3 Components of a Computer
1.4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers
1.5 Type Of Computer
1.6 Categories of Computers
Computer History
The computer that we use now is a fairly recent
invention

The history of computers is often referred to in terms


of generations, from pre-computers and early
computers (before 1945) to fifth generation
computers (now and the future)

Each new generation is characterized by a major


technological development
Computer History (contd)

The first calculating device, which was used 2000


years ago was called abacus
In 1833, Prof. Charles Babbage, the father of
computer, developed a machine called analytical
engine which was the base for the modern digital
computer
Other early computing devices include the slide
rule, the mechanical calculator, and Dr. Herman
Holleriths Punch Card Tabulating Machine and
Sorter
Abacus
Punch Card Tabulating Machine
Computer History (contd)

First - Generation Computers (approximately


1946 - 1957)
The electronic digital computers, which were
introduced in 1950's, were using vacuum tubes
ENIAC
Was developed during World War II
UNIVAC
Released in 1951
Vacuum Tube
ENIAC , UNIVAC
Computer History (contd)
Second - Generation Computers (approximately
1958 - 1963)
used transistors
A small device made of semiconductor material
Programming languages (FORTRAN and COBOL)
were developed and implemented
Computers used by military, government and big
business
Computer History (contd)
Third - Generation Computers (approximately
1964 - 1970)
Introduction of integrated circuits (ICs)
Also know as chips
Keyboards and monitors were introduced for
input and output
Magnetic disks were typically used for storage

Cheap, fast and reliable

Used by small business


Computer History (contd)
Fourth - Generation Computers (approximately
1971 - present)
The invention of the microprocessor in 1971
Contains the core processing capabilities of an entire computer
on one single chip
Example: IBM PC and Apple Macintosh
Input - keyboard and mouse
Output monitor and printer
Storage magnetic disks and optical disks
The development of computer network, wireless
technologies, and the internet
Computer History (contd)
Fifth - Generation Computers (now and the
future)
Will be based on artificial intelligence
Computers can learn, think and reasoning
Voice recognition
Become primary means of input
Optical computers
Process data using light instead of electrons
Computer History (contd)
Categories/Types of Computer
Supercomputer considered
fastest type of computer

Very expensive due to


amount of information
processed
Generally specialized
software programs installed
and used for scientific and
engineering tasks
Power goes into running and
performing calculations
Categories/Types of Computer (contd)

Mainframe computers fill an entire room


Can simultaneously handle hundreds of programs
and users without sacrificing performance
Processes large volumes of data at incredible
speeds
Commonly found in government agencies or large
organizations
Sometimes called centralized systems

Cray X1 Supercomputer
Categories/Types of Computer (contd)

Minicomputers fill part of a


room
Process data at slower rate and
in smaller volumes
Noticeable reduction in speed
with more users
Commonly found in medium-
sized manufacturing companies
and legal or accounting firms
Personal Computer
Microcomputers sit on, beside or under a desk, process data
quickly, and are designed for one user
Generally two types of microcomputers: PC or Apple
Which computer to use depends on whats required, or
personal preference
Majority of companies use PCs due to the wide variety of
software programs available
Apple machines traditionally used in specialized industries
such as graphics design or publishing
Newer software programs have few differences between
computers

PC Apple
Notebooks or Laptop Computers

Notebook/Laptop computers are portable microcomputers


Similar to desktop models in speed, performance and usage
Laptops got name from the fact that you could rest the computer on top of
your lap and work
Not always popular due to weight and design elements
Newer models are smaller and lighter and are now the size of a paper
notebook
Accessories, purchased separately, can enhance enjoyment and experience
of using notebook
Cost of notebooks now relatively low in comparison to when first introduced

LAPTOP/NOTEBOOKS Apple
Tablets
Appear similar to a notebook but usually screen can be swiveled or folded
over
User can write or select items using special pen designed for tablet
Have touch screen capability installed for easy data entry with pen or stylo
device, or built-in keyboard
Can be seen being used in hospitals or by home inspectors, engineers and
salespeople
Can also be used for electronic/interactive books

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Personal Digital Assistants
Small palm-sized computers
Have software installed with features for organizing information, similar to a
calendar or organizer book
Pocket PC has microprocessor chip and software to create documents in
addition to the organizer program that comes with all PDAs
Some PDAs also have digital cameras, video/audio, or Internet capabilities

Monochrome PDA Color PDAs Pocket PC with


Digital Camera
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Personal Digital Assistants
Newer cellular phones can include access to the Internet or software to
create documents, listen to music, take pictures or video, send text messages,
and send e-mail
Cost varies with the number of features and capabilities for each cellular
phone, Pocket PC, or PDA and extras such as connection to the Internet, e-
mail capability and extra software are separate expenses

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Workstations
Essentially any computer that does not have a local disk drive
for storage; all information comes from a central network
Usually a system that requires a lot of power for processing
files, such as drafting, desktop publishing, graphics design,
video editing and programming
Generally operating system used for these computers will
either be Unix or Windows NT
Can either be connected to network where multiple users share
the same software or data files, or used solely by one person
Other Types of Computers
Computers can be found in variety of areas not often considered:
Automobiles have computers built into the engine to help diagnose
problems
Automated Teller Machines use specialized software to interact with
banks database network
Manufacturing uses computerized robotic technology and systems to
control or run production equipment
Health industry have computerized equipment or customized software to
help analyze information received
Computer is really a very large and advanced calculator that performs
tasks
Based on the hexadecimal computations of 1 or 0
Computers need network to communicate with others to share information
Main components of a Computer

Hardware Software

Hardware
The physical parts of a computer

Can be internal (located inside the system unit) or external (located


outside of the system unit)
Software
Programs or instructions used to tell the computer hardware what to do
Computer Hardware

Input device:
Hardware used
to enter data
and instructions

Refer to your textbook for more


pictures and explanations for
better understanding.
Computer hardware (contd)
Output device:
Hardware that
conveys
information
to one or more
people

Refer to your textbook for more


pictures and explanations for
better understanding
Computer components (hardware)
System unit
Case
containing
electronic
components
used to process
data

Refer to your textbook for more


pictures and explanations for
better understanding
Computer hardware (contd)
Two main components on the motherboard:

Processor
Also called a Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The electronic component that interprets and carries
out the basic instructions that operate the computer

Memory
Consists of electronic components that store
instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by
those instructions
What Is a Computer and What Does It Do?

Computer: A programmable, electronic device that accepts data,


performs operations, presents the results, and can store the
data or results

Processes data into


Accepts data
information
Raw facts, figures,
and symbols Data that is organized,
meaningful, and useful

Produces and stores results


Computer operations:

Inputentering data into the computer

Processingperforming operations on the data

Outputpresenting the results

Storagesaving data, programs, or output for


future use
Computer operations (contd)
Advantages of Using Computers

Speed Reliability Consistency

Storage Communication
s
Disadvantages of Using Computers

Violation of Impact on
Privacy Labor Force

Impact on
Health Risks
Environment
END OF TOPIC 1

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