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Modeling

Lecturer- FME

Things before we start

Homework:

Discussions are encouraged but your work has to be finished by you own.

Due on Wednesday before the class.

Be on time!!!

Textbook

A first course in finite element method (3rd Edition). Daryl L. Logan.

Brooks/Cole, 2002.

ANSYS Tutorial, K.L. Lawrence. SDC Publications, 2003.

References

The finite element methods: Linear static and dynamic finite element

analysis. T.J.R. Hughes. Dover Publications, 1987.

Finite element procedures. K.J. Bathe. Prentice Hall, 1996.

Definition and Basic Concepts

suited to digital computers, in which a continuous elastic

structure (continuum) is divided (discretized) into small but

finite well-defined substructures (elements).

element is categorized in terms of the;

Elements material and geometric properties

Distribution of loading (static, dynamic, thermal) with in the

element

Loads and displacements

at the nodes of the element

Definition and Basic Concepts

engineers, scientists, and mathematicians to obtain solutions to the

differential equations that describe, or approximately describe a wide

variety of physical problems. Physical problems range in diversity from

solid, fluid and soil mechanics, to electromagnetism or dynamics.

can be sub-divided into a series of smaller regions in which the

differential equations are approximately solved. By assembling the set of

equations for each region, the behavior over the entire problem domain is

determined.

domain into a finite number of elements is referred to as discretization.

Elements are connected at specific points, called nodes, and the

assembly process requires that the solution be continuous along common

boundaries of adjacent elements.

Definition and Basic Concepts

The elements nodes are the fundamental governing entities of the element, as it is

the node where;

The element connects to other elements

Elastic properties of the elements established

Boundary conditions are assigned

Forces (contact or body) are ultimately applied

Degrees of freedom are the translational and rotational motion that can exist at a

node. At most a node can posses three translational and three rotational degrees of

freedom.

Once each element within a structure is defined locally in matrix form, the

elements are than globally assembled (attached) through their common nodes into

an overall system matrix.

Applied loads and boundary conditions are then specified, and through matrix

operations the values of all unknown displacement dofs are determined.

From the known displacements, strain and stresses are then determined through the

constitutive equations of elasticity.

Nodes

Nodal coordinates

A finite element mesh is defined by a set of nodes together with a set of

finite elements.

The nodes are a set of discrete points within the solid body. Nodes have the

following properties:

A node number. Every node is assigned an integer number, which is used

to identify the node. Any convenient numbering scheme may be selected

the nodes do not need to be numbered in order, and numbers may be

omitted. For example, one could number a set of n nodes as 100, 200,

300 100n, instead of 1,2,3n.

For a three dimensional finite element analysis, each node is assigned a set

of (x1,x2,x3 ) coordinates, which specifies the position of the node in the

undeformed solid. For a two dimensional analysis, each node is assigned a

pair of (x1,x2 ) coordinates. For an axisymmetric analysis, the x2 axis must

coincide with the axis of rotational symmetry.

Nodal displacements. When the solid deforms, each node moves to a new

position. For a three dimensional finite element analysis, the nodal

displacements specify the three components of the displacement field u(x) at

each node: (u1,u2 ,u3) . For a two dimensional analysis, each node has two

displacement components (u1,u2 ) . The nodal displacements are unknown at

the start of the analysis, and are computed by the finite element program.

Other nodal degrees of freedom. For many problems, we are interested only

in the change in shape of the solid. For more complex analyses, we may also

wish to calculate a temperature distribution in the solid, or a voltage

distribution, for example. In this case, each node is also assigned a

temperature, voltage, or similar quantity of interest. There are also some

finite element procedures which use more than just displacements to

describe shape changes in a solid. For example, when analyzing two

dimensional beams, we use the displacements and rotations of the beam at

each nodal point to describe the deformation. In this case, each node has a

rotation, as well as two displacement components. The collection of all

unknown quantities (including displacements) at each node are known as

degrees of freedom. A finite element program will compute values for these

unknown degrees of freedom.

Elements

Elements are used to partition the

solid into discrete regions. Elements

have the following properties.

Linear Quadratic Bilinear Biquadratic

An element number. Every element

is assigned an integer number,

which is used to identify the

element. Just as when numbering

nodes, any convenient scheme may

be selected to number elements.

A geometry. There are many

possible shapes for an element. A

few of the more common element

types are shown in the picture side.

Nodes attached to the element are

shown in red.

A set of nodes attached to the element. The picture below shows a

typical finite element mesh. Element numbers are shown in blue, while

node numbers are shown in red (some element and node numbers have

been omitted for clarity).

quadrilaterals. Note that each element is

connected to a set of nodes: element 1

has nodes (41, 45, 5, 1, 43, 25, 3, 21),

element 2 has nodes (45, 49, 9, 5, 47,

29, 7, 25), and so on. It is conventional

to list the nodes the nodes in the order

given, with corner nodes first in order

going counterclockwise around the

element, followed by the mid side

nodes. The set of nodes attached to the

element is known as the element

connectivity.

Elements types and their properties

ET Shape No. of Application

Nodes

Line Truss 2 Pin-ended bar in tension

or compression

Beam 2 Bending

2 bending with or without

lead stiffening

Surface 4-noded 4 Plane stress or strain, axi-

quadrilateral symmetry, shear panel, thin

flat plate in bending

Plane stress or strain, thin

8-noded 8 flat plate in bending

quadrilateral

Plane stress or strain, axi-

symmetry, shear panel, thin

3-noded 3 flat plate in bending, prefer

triangular quad where possible. Used

for transition of quads.

Elements types and their properties

ET Shape No. of Application

Nodes

Surface 6-noded 6 Plane stress or strain, axi-

triangular symmetry, shear panel, thin

plate or shell in bending,

prefer quad where possible.

Used for transition of

quads.

Solid 8-noded 8 Solid, thick plate (using mid

Hexagonal side nodes)

(brick)

6-noded

pentagonal Solid, thick plate (using mid

6 side nodes. Used for

(wedge)

transition

tetrahedron

(tet.) side nodes. Used for

transition

Elements types and their properties

ET Shape No. of Application

Nodes

Special Gap 2 Free displacement for

purpose prescribed compressive

gap

2 prescribed extension gap

variab nodes

le

In two dimensions, elements are generally either triangular or rectangular.

In three dimensions, the elements are generally tetrahedra, hexahedra or

bricks.

There are other types of element that are used for special purposes:

examples include truss elements (which are simply one dimensional axial

members), beam elements, and shell elements.

There are also special elements that enforce conditions between

contacting surfaces.

A set of faces. These are simply the sides of the element.

Errors inevitable in FEM

Computational Errors

Due to round-off errors from the computer floating point calculations and the

formulation of the numerical integration schemes that are employed.

Discretization Errors

Due to the continuous variation of the structural geometry and its displacement.

Therefore using finite number of elements introduces errors in matching geometry

and the displacement distribution due to inherent limitations of the elements.

Two Problems with plane stress triangular element as this element has straight

edges which remain straight after deformation

1) Geometric problem modeling of the curved edges. For large curve is

reasonable but for hole very poorly modeled

2) Strain in various regions of structure changes rapidly and this constant strain

element will only provide an approximation of the average strain at the center

of the element. So results will be very poor

alternatively a better element such as an eight-noded quadrilateral, as this

element can model curved edges and provides for higher order strain

distribution

Introduction to

Finite Element Modeling

Why?: When we have to find an effect (stress, strain, flux, etc)

which is distributed throughout a volume, and is too difficult to

calculate by hand.

functions, constraints, etc., then solve for physical effects.

Elements

different types of elements may be used in a FEM mesh

elements that are too deformed will yield poorer results

if a field variable will be subject to a large change over an area,

then smaller elements should be used to improve the

approximation.

CAD systems will often allow a user to manually, and

automatically mesh a part.

Generative meshing algorithms will

mesh a part roughly,

solve the problem using the rough mesh,

identify elements with large errors,

reduce the element sizes in the critical areas,

resolve the problem to obtain a more accurate result.

Errors of 10% or more are easy to get using FEA systems. Care

must be taken when examining results.

x, y, and/or z positions fixed

x, y, and/or z axis rotations fixed.

applied force

applied moment

Automeshing

Still a research topic, and many various methods are available

Generally the computer breaks geometry into subsections

TOPIC INCLUDED IN THIS COURSE

To provide a basic understanding of element

matrices, and assembly and their solution

process

The simplest elastic element is the Truss Element

Equations are developed in one-dimensional space first and

then through coordinate transformation the element is cast

into 2-D and 3-D space

1. Direct stiffness method (becomes inadequate as more

abstract condition develop)

2. Energy method (Rayleigh-Ritz)

Spring/Truss Elements

Do Examples 2.1 and 2.2

One can readily verify that the displacements have the correct values at

the corners of the element, and the displacements evidently vary linearly

with position within the element.

described above is known as a linear element. Six noded triangles and 8

noded triangles are examples of quadratic elements: the displacement

field varies quadratically with position within the element. In three

dimensions, the 4 noded tetrahedron and the 8 noded brick are linear

elements, while the 10 noded tet and 20 noded brick are quadratic. Other

special elements, such as beam elements or shell elements, use a more

complex procedure to interpolate the displacement field.

Some special types of element interpolate both the displacement field and

some or all components of the stress field within an element separately.

(Usually, the displacement interpolation is sufficient to determine the

stress, since one can compute the strains at any point in the element from

the displacement, and then use the stressstrain relation for the material

to find the stress). This type of element is known as a hybrid element.

Integration points. One objective of a finite element analysis is to determine the

distribution of stress within a solid. This is done as follows. First, the

displacements at each node are computed (the technique used to do this will be

discussed later in the course.) Then, the element interpolation functions are used

to determine the displacement at arbitrary points within each element. The

displacement field can be differentiated to determine the strains. Once the strains

are known, the stressstrain relations for the element are used to compute the

stresses.

In principle, this procedure could be used to determine the stress at any point

within an element. However, it turns out to work better at some points than

others. The special points within an element where stresses are computed most

accurately are known as integration points. (Stresses are sampled at these points

in the finite element program to evaluate certain volume and area integrals, hence

they are known as integration points).

For a detailed description of the locations of integration points within an

element, you should consult an appropriate user manual. The approximate

locations of integration points for a few two dimensional elements are shown

below.

Linear Elasticity. You should alreadly be familiar with the idea of a

linear elastic material. It has a uniaxial stressstrain response (valid

only for small strains) as shown in the picture below

The stress--strain law for the material

may be expressed in matrix form as

Elasticplastic material

behavior. You should be familiar

with some of the ideas used to

model plastic deformation in a

solid. Uniaxial stressstrain

curve for an elasticplastic solid

looks something like the one

below:

Boundary conditions

Boundary conditions are used to specify the loading applied to a

solid. There are four ways to apply loads to a finite element mesh:

Displacement boundary conditions. The displacements at any node

on the boundary or within the solid can be specified.

applied to a finite element mesh. The symbols look much like those you

used to denote boundary conditions for beams in EN31.

For example, to stretch a 2D block of

material vertically, while allowing it to

expand or contract freely horizontally,

we would apply boundary constraints

to the top and bottom surface as shown

below.

Observe that one of the nodes on the

bottom of the block has been prevented

from moving horizontally, as well as

vertically.

It is important to do this: the finite

element program will be unable to find

a unique solution for the displacement

fields if the solid is free to slide

horizontally.

Prescribed forces. Any node in a finite element mesh may be subjected to a

prescribed force. The nodal force is a vector, and is specified by its three (or

two for 2D) components, (F1 ,F2 ,F3).

Distributed loads. A solid may be subjected to distributed pressure or traction

acting on ints boundary. Examples include aerodynamic loading, or hydrostatic

fluid pressure. Distributed traction is a vector quantity, with physical

dimensions of force per unit area in 3D, and force per unit length in 2D. To

model this type of loading in a finite element program, distributed loads may

be applied to the the face of any element.

Default boundary condition at boundary nodes. If no displacements or forces

are prescribed at a boundary node, and no distributed loads act on any element

faces connected to that node, then the node is assumed to be free of external

force.

Body forces. External body forces may act on the interior of a solid. Examples

of body forces include gravitational loading, or electromagnetic forces. Body

force is a vector quantity, with physical dimensions of force per unit volume.

To model this type of loading in a finite element program, body forces may be

applied to the interior of any element.

Load history. In some cases, one may wish to apply a cycle of load to a solid. In this

case, the prescribed loads and displacements must be specified as a function of time.

it is very important to make sure that boundary conditions are applied properly. A finite

element program can only solve a problem if a unique static equilibrium solution to the

problem exists.

Difficulties arise if the user does not specify sufficient boundary constraints to prevent

rigid body motion of a solid. This is best illustrated by example. Suppose we wish to

model stretching a 2D solid, as described earlier. The examples below show two correct

ways to do this.

The following examples show various incorrect ways to apply boundary

conditions. In each case, one or more rigid body mode is unconstrained.

Initial Conditions

For a dynamic analysis, it is necessary to specify the initial velocity

and displacement of each node in the solid. The default value is zero

velocity and displacement.

An assemblage of three-dimensional

brick elements models a representative

slice of a concrete reactor vessel.

on the left; the corresponding finite

element assembly on the right. Supports

are not shown.

Determining the

stress intensity at a

corner crack is

aided by

preferential mesh

refinement.

The sketch shows

the mesh both

before and after

deformation.

Engineering Design

In engineering design, it is desired to determine the performance of a

component prior to the manufacturing stage or even the prototype

construction. If potential improvements or flaws are realized at an early stage

within the product's development, then modifications can be introduced at a

relatively lower cost than later in the design process. Consequently, significant

savings of time are obtained. Analysis tools such as the finite element method

provide an accurate prediction of a product's performance which enables

further design options to be investigated.

Consider, for example, one link of a tractor tread. Each link must be designed

to withstand severe stresses that are encountered during operation of the

tractor. If critical stress areas can be identified and reduced prior to the actual

forging of the link, then significant time savings are achieved, directly

impacting the competitiveness of the product.

An example of output from a finite element analysis of a track link is

shown below. In this plot, referred to as a stress contour plot, critical

areas (shaded in red) can readily be determined by the relative

magnitudes of the principal stress components. Furthermore, one is able

to determine the "flow" of stresses through the component.

A Track Link

Definition of a Field

Finite elements are not restricted to stress analysis only, but are applicable to

any physical problem characterized by a field. Any quantity which varies

with position across the geometric region of the problem space is a field, and

the geometric region is referred to as the spatial domain. In general, the field

variable may be a scalar, a vector, or a higher-order tensor.

Definition and Basic Concepts

Transient Problems

If the field also varies with time, the type of problem is referred to as a

propagation or transient problem. Applications include diffusion problems

such as fluid flow, heat conduction, contaminant transport, and wave

propagation, including electromagnetic waves, acoustic waves, and surface

waves.

eigenvalue problems. The former type includes most common applications

in finite element analysis, while the latter involves the calculation of natural

frequencies in a normal modes analysis, or the determination of buckling

modes in a stability analysis.

Potentials

Associated with a field is a potential, or field variable, which is related to

the field through differential equations containing spatial derivatives of the

potential.

The table below summarizes the main types of engineering analyses:

Stress Stress Displacement

Thermal Heat Flux Temperature

Fluid Fluid Velocity Pressure

Electrical Electric Field Voltage

Magnetic Magnetic Field Magnetic Vector Potential

Solid Mechanics in Engineering Design

Strength?

Life?

Deformation?

Stability?

Vibrations?

Material Selection

Shape Optimization

Cost

Manufacturability

Sample Application: Hip Implant

Application: Crash Simulation

Frontal Crash: Belted and Unbelted Driver

Knee Protection

Buckling and Penetration

Underwater Explosion

Missile Detonation (!)

Milling

Bicycle frame design

More Crashing

Earthquake Response

Gear Design

Stress in solder joints

Tools of the Trade

Physical Intuition

e2

e1 Solutions to boundary value

problems

e2

a

Thickness b

e1 a

P

Two general types of finite element analysis are conducted. In most

cases, we are interested in determining the behavior of a solid body that

is in static equilibrium. This means that both external and internal forces

acting on the solid sum to zero. In some cases, we may be interested in

the dynamic behavior of a solid body. Examples include modeling

vibrations in structures, problems involving wave propagation, explosive

loading and crash analysis.

To set up a problem properly, we need to specify

The geometry of the solid. This is done by generating a finite element

mesh for the solid.

The properties of the material. This is done by specifying a constitutive

law for the solid.

The nature of the loading applied to the solid. This is done by specifying

the boundary conditions for the problem.

For a dynamic analysis, it is necessary to specify initial conditions for

the problem. This is not necessary for a static analysis.

The Finite Element Mesh

The finite element mesh is used to

specify the geometry of the solid,

and is also used to describe the

displacement field within the solid

in a convenient form.

A finite element mesh may be three

dimensional, like the example

shown side. Two dimensional finite

element meshes are also used to

model simpler modes of

deformation. There are three main

types of two dimensional finite

element mesh:

Plane stress

Plane strain

Axisymmetric

Plane Stress FEM

A plane stress finite element mesh is

used to model a platelike solid

which is loaded in its own plane.

The solid must have uniform

thickness, and the thickness must be

much less than any representative

cross sectional dimension.

A plane stress finite element mesh for

a thin plate containing a hole is

shown below.

Only on quadrant of the specimen is

modeled, since symmetry boundary

conditions will be enforced during

the analysis.

Plane Strain FEM

A plane strain finite element mesh is

used to model a thick solid that is

constrained against out of plane

deformation.

A plane strain finite element mesh for

a cylinder which is in contact with a

rigid floor is shown side. Away from

the ends of the cylinder, we expect it

to deform so that the out of plane

component of displacement

u3(x1,x2)=0.

There is no need to solve for ,

therefore, so a two dimensional mesh

is sufficient to calculate u1(x1,x2 ) and

u2(x1,x2 ) .

As before, only one quadrant of the

specimen is meshed: symmetry

boundary conditions will be enforced

during the analysis.

Axisymmetric finite element mesh

model a solids that has rotational

symmetry, which is subjected to

axisymmetric loading. An example

is shown below.

bushing to an axisymmetric mesh. Note that the half the bushing has

been cut away in the 3D view, to show the geometry more clearly. In an

axisymmetric analysis, the origin for the (x,y) coordinate system is

always on the axis of rotational symmetry. Note also that to run an

axisymmetric finite element analysis, both the geometry of the solid, and

also the loading applied to the solid, must have rotational symmetry

about the y axis.

FEM Reference Texts

Bathe, Finite Element Procedures, Prentice Hall

Burnett, Finite Element Analysis, Addison Wesley

Chandrupatla & Belegundu, Introduction to Finite Elements in

Engineering, Prentice Hall

Huebner & Thorton, The Finite Element Method for Engineers, Wiley-

Interscience

Logan, A First Course in the Finite Element Method, PWS Kent

Zienkiewicz & Taylor, The Finite Element Method, Volumes 1 & 2,

McGraw Hill

PARAMETRIC FEA

Parametric features are becoming more common in FEA packages. The key

benefit of parametric features is that they let users see the effects of design

changes quickly.

With adequate planning, users can define an FE model entirely in terms of

variables or parameters. Even mesh characteristics can be defined as

parameters.

Loads are also parameterized. For the example, the model is subjected to a unit

distributed load. One parameter denotes the load. Another (beam length

width) defines the load area on the upper section. Two other parameters

calculate the pressure required for the upper surface. In this way, changing the

model size does not affect the total load on the beam.

PARAMETRIC FEA

use parameters to select nodes at the ends of the upper layer. Thus, we are

assured that the simply supported boundary conditions are correctly applied for

each run of the study, regardless of the changes that might be made to either

geometry or mesh.

Assigning parameters that describe linked nodes lets the model simulate any

number of spot welds. Model dimensions and mesh density are changed with

equal ease. Parametric models also help with convergence or mesh-refinement

studies which estimate the discretization error, an accuracy indicator.

A convergence study lets us select the FE mesh that provides the quickest

acceptable solution. This is important when the model is used many times in

parametric studies. In such case, it's advantageous to generate several solutions

with a finite, but acceptable error in each.

FEA and ANSYS

What is FEA?

design and determine the designs response to those conditions.

The design is modeled using discrete building blocks called

elements.

Historical Note

Each element has exact

equations that describe how it The finite element method of

responds to a certain load. structural analysis was created by

academic and industrial researchers

The sum of the response of all during the 1950s and 1960s.

elements in the model gives the The underlying theory is over 100

total response of the design. years old, and was the basis for

pen-and-paper calculations in the

The elements have a finite number evaluation of suspension bridges

of unknowns, hence the name and steam boilers.

finite elements.

FEA and ANSYS

...What is FEA?

The finite element model, which has a finite number of unknowns,

can only approximate the response of the physical system, which has

infinite unknowns.

So the question arises: How good is the approximation?

answer to this question. It

depends entirely on what you are

simulating and the tools you use

for the simulation. We will,

however, attempt to give you

guidelines throughout this training

course.

FEA and ANSYS

...What is FEA?

Why is FEA needed?

To reduce the amount of prototype testing

Computer simulation allows multiple what-if scenarios to be

tested quickly and effectively.

To simulate designs that are not suitable for prototype testing

Example: Surgical implants, such as an artificial knee

The bottom line:

Cost savings

Time savings reduce time to market!

Create more reliable, better-quality designs