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Chapter 4

Consumer Motivation

Consumer Behavior,
Ninth Edition

Schiffman & Kanuk

Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall


Chapter Outline
• Model of the Motivation Process
• Goals
• Motives
• Needs
• Motivational Research

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Needs and Motivation
• Needs are the essence of the marketing
concept. Marketers do not create
needs but can make consumers aware
of needs.
• Motivation is the driving force within
individuals that impels them to action.

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Figure 4.1 Model of the
Motivation Process

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Types of Needs
• Innate Needs
– Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are
considered primary needs or motives

• Acquired Needs
– Learned in response to our culture or
environment. Are generally psychological
and considered secondary needs

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Is a body spray
an innate or
acquired
need?

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Goals
• The sought-after results of motivated
behavior
• Generic goals are general categories of
goals that consumers see as a way to
fulfill their needs
• Product-specific goals are specifically
branded products or services that
consumers select as their goals

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Figure 4-2a
Goals Structure for Weight Control

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Figure 4-2b
Goals Structure for Weight Control

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Figure 4-2c
Goals Structure for Weight Control

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Weight Control Giants

weblink weblink

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The Selection of Goals
• The goals selected by an individual
depend on their:
– Personal experiences
– Physical capacity
– Prevailing cultural norms and values
– Goal’s accessibility in the physical and
social environment

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Discussion Question
• What are three generic goals you have set for
yourself in the past year?
• What are three product-specific goals you
have set in the past year?
• In what situations are these two related?
• How were these goals selected? Was it
personal experiences, physical capacity, or
prevailing cultural norms and values?

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Motivations and Goals

Positive Negative
• Motivation • Motivation
– A driving force A driving force away
toward some object from some object or
or condition condition
• Approach Goal • Avoidance Goal
– A positive goal – A negative goal from
toward which which behavior is
behavior is directed directed away

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Rational versus Emotional
Motives
• Rationality implies that consumers
select goals based on totally objective
criteria such as size, weight, price, or
miles per gallon
• Emotional motives imply the selection
of goals according to personal or
subjective criteria

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Discussion Question
• What products might be purchased
using rational and emotional motives?
• What marketing strategies are effective
when there are combined motives?

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The Dynamic Nature of
Motivation
• Needs are never fully satisfied
• New needs emerge as old needs are
satisfied
• People who achieve their goals set new
and higher goals for themselves

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Substitute Goals
• Are used when a consumer cannot
attain a specific goal he/she anticipates
will satisfy a need
• The substitute goal will dispel tension
• Substitute goals may actually replace
the primary goal over time

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Frustration
• Failure to achieve a goal may result in
frustration.
• Some adapt; others adopt defense
mechanisms to protect their ego.

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Defense Mechanism
• Methods by which people mentally
redefine frustrating situations to
protect their self-images and their self-
esteem

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What type of
defense
mechanism is
this
spokesperson
using in this
ad?

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Table 4.2
Defense Mechanisms

• Aggression • Projection
• Rationalization • Autism
• Regression • Identification
• Withdrawal • Repression

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Arousal of Motives
• Physiological arousal
• Emotional arousal
• Cognitive arousal
• Environmental arousal

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Philosophies Concerned with
Arousal of Motives
• Behaviorist School
– Behavior is response to stimulus
– Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored
– Consumer does not act, but reacts
• Cognitive School
– Behavior is directed at goal achievement
– Needs and past experiences are reasoned,
categorized, and transformed into attitudes and
beliefs

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Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Figure 4.10

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Discussion Question
• What are three types of products
related to more then one level of
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs.
• For each type of product – consider
two brands. How do marketers attempt
to differentiate their product from the
competition?

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Table 4.3
Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs

Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects:


Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction

Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power,


Accomplishment, and Prestige:
Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance

Needs Connected with Human Power:


Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance

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Table 4.3 (con’t)
Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs

Sado-Masochistic Needs :
Aggression, Abasement

Needs Concerned with Affection between People:


Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play

Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse:


Cognizance, Exposition

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This ad reflects
a need for
accomplishment
with a
toothpaste.

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A Trio of Needs
• Power
– individual’s desire to control environment
• Affiliation
– need for friendship, acceptance, and
belonging
• Achievement
– need for personal accomplishment
– closely related to egoistic and self-
actualization needs

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Measurement of Motives
• Researchers rely on a combination of
techniques
• Combination of behavioral, subjective,
and qualitative data
• Construction of a measurement scale
can be complex

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Motivational Research
• Qualitative research designed to
uncover consumers’ subconscious or
hidden motivations
• Attempts to discover underlying
feelings, attitudes, and emotions

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Qualitative Motivational
Research
• Metaphor analysis
• Storytelling
• Word association and sentence
completion
• Thematic apperception test
• Drawing pictures and photo-sorts

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Many Companies Specialize in
Motivational Research

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