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Lecture I (sup)

Brijesh Adhikary
Growth of Electric power system
Two inventors and industrial giants grappled in
commercial combat over primacy in the emerging
electric power industry in the late 19th and early
20th century. They were Thomas Edison and
George Westinghouse. The strategic hill of the
battle was whether direct current (Edison) or
alternating current (Westinghouse) would prevail.
Edison made the safer system, but Westinghouse
made the more economical system, because
alternating current could be transmitted over
longer distances with fewer generating stations.
Growth of Electric power system
William Kemmler, became a pawn in a battle
between electrical titans.
Westinghouse spent a small fortune defending the
indigent prisoners saying electrocution was
inhumane. The inhumanity of it was of no
concern (though it was), it was that death using
his current would be bad for business.
Meanwhile, Edison hired people to show how
wonderfully instant death by alternate current
would be.
Growth of Electric power system
• 1885 AC System
• In winter 1885-1886 ,Stanley installed the first experimental
ac distribution system supplying 150 lamps
• In 1890 hydro power – 13 mile from Willamette Falls to
Portland Oregon
• First transmission lines were single phase only for lighting
• Motor – single phase
• Nikola Tesla- two phase induction and synchronous
motor (1888)
• Introduction of transformer
• Voltage level of 765-1500 kV
• Isolated system – interconnected system
Energy Production
• Mostly Coal based thermal power plant
• Hydro less than 17% in the world
• Nuclear growing but safety is main challenge
• Renewable energy: Solar, wind, geothermal,
biomass, biogas
Transmission and distribution
• Large generator produces voltage ranges of
13.8 to 24 kV
• Step up to 1000- 1500kV
• Advantages : losses will be less and conductor
size is reduced – I2R
• Step down 400/230 V
Load Studies
• To determine the voltage, current, power and
power factor or reactive power at various
points in an electric network under existing on
normal operating condition
• It is essential in planning the future
development(new loads, new generation,
transmission lines etc) of the system for
satisfactory operation
• Handle more than 1500 buses
Economic load dispatch
• Power balance is required
• How to dispatch

Economic dispatch is the name given to the

process of apportioning the total load on a
system between the various generating plants
to achieve the greatest economy of operation.
Fault calculation
• Lightning
• Voltage surge
• Ground fault
• Short circuit
• Loss of generation
System protection
• Fault can be destructive
• To prevent the damage of transmission lines
and equipment interruption or isolating the
faulty circuit and cut of the supply/generation
is necessary.
• Circuit breakers, Isolators, relays,
• Zone protection
Stability studies
• The current which flows in an ac generator or synchronous motor
depends on the magnitude of its generated (or internal) voltage, on
the phase angle of its internal voltage with respect to the phase
angle of the internal voltage of every other machine in the system,
and on the characteristics of the network and loads.
• For example two ac generators operating in parallel but without any
external circuit connections other than the paralleling circuit will
carry no current if their internal voltages are equal in magnitude
and in phase.
• If their internal voltages are equal but different in phase, the
voltage of one subtracted from the voltage of the other will not be
zero, and a current will flow as determined by the difference in the
voltages and the impedance of the circuit.
• One act as generator and other as motor.
Stability studies
• The phase angles of the internal voltages depend
upon the relative positions of the rotors of the
• If synchronism were not maintained between the
generators of a power system, the phase angles
of their internal voltages would be changing
constantly with respect to each other and
satisfactory operating would be impossible
• Transient stability and steady state stability