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You are on page 1of 51

CIVIL ENGINEERING

Chapter 3: Basic of Fluid Flow

SEQUENCE OF CHAPTER 3

Introduction

Objectives

3.1 Uniform Flow, Steady Flow

3.1.1 Laminar, Turbulent Flow

3.1.2 Relative Motion

3.1.3 Compressible or Incompressible

3.1.4 One, Two or Three-dimensional Flow

3.1.5 Streamlines

3.1.6 Streamtubes

3.2.1 Mass Flow Rate

3.2.2 Volume Flow Rate

3.3 The Fundamental Equations of Fluid Dynamics

3.3.1 Continuity (Principle of Conservation of Mass)

3.3.2 Work and Energy (Principle of Conservation of Energy)

Summary

Introduction

Discusses the analysis of fluid in motion: fluid dynamics.

When a fluid flows through pipes and channel or around bodies such as

aircraft and ships, the shape of the boundaries, the externally applied

forces and the fluid properties cause the velocities of the fluid

particles to vary from point to point throughout the flow field.

The motion of fluids can be predicted using the fundamental laws of

physics together with the physical properties of the fluid.

The geometry of the motion of fluid particles in space and time is

known as the kinematics of the fluid motion.

A fluid motion may be specified by either tracing the motion of a

particle through the field of flow or examining the motion of all

particles as they pass a fixed point in space.

This course will use the second method where the emphasis is on the

spatial position rather than on the particle, or known as Eulerian

Approach.

Objectives

1. comprehend the concepts necessary to analyse fluids in

motion.

2. identify differences between steady/unsteady,

uniform/non-uniform and compressible/incompressible

flow.

3. construct streamlines and stream tubes.

4. appreciate the Continuity principle through Conservation of

Mass and Control Volumes.

5. derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation.

6. familiarise with the momentum equation for a fluid flow.

3.1 Uniform Flow, Steady Flow

uniform flow: flow velocity is the same magnitude and direction at every

point in the fluid.

non-uniform: If at a given instant, the velocity is not the same at every

point the flow. (In practice, by this definition, every fluid

that flows near a solid boundary will be non-uniform - as the

fluid at the boundary must take the speed of the boundary,

usually zero. However if the size and shape of the of the

cross-section of the stream of fluid is constant the flow is

considered uniform.)

steady: A steady flow is one in which the conditions (velocity,

pressure and cross-section) may differ from point to point

but DO NOT change with time.

unsteady: If at any point in the fluid, the conditions change with time,

the flow is described as unsteady. (In practice there is

always slight variations in velocity and pressure, but if the

average values are constant, the flow is considered steady.)

3.1 Uniform Flow, Steady Flow (cont.)

Steady uniform flow:

Conditions: do not change with position in the stream or with time.

Example: the flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant

velocity.

Steady non-uniform flow:

Conditions: change from point to point in the stream but do not change with

time.

Example: flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet-velocity

will change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit.

Unsteady uniform flow:

At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are the same, but will

change with time.

Example: a pipe of constant diameter connected to a pump pumping at a

constant rate which is then switched off.

Unsteady non-uniform flow:

Every condition of the flow may change from point to point and with time at

every point.

Example: waves in a channel.

3.1.1 Laminar and Turbulent Flow

Laminar flow

all the particles proceed along smooth parallel paths

and all particles on any path will follow it without

deviation.

Hence all particles have a velocity only in the

direction of flow.

Typical

particles

path

Turbulent Flow

the particles move in an irregular manner through the flow field.

Each particle has superimposed on its mean velocity fluctuating velocity

components both transverse to and in the direction of the net flow.

Particle

paths

Transition Flow

exists between laminar and turbulent flow.

In this region, the flow is very unpredictable and often changeable back

and forth between laminar and turbulent states.

Modern experimentation has demonstrated that this type of flow may

comprise short ‘burst’ of turbulence embedded in a laminar flow.

3.1.2 Relative Motion

Observer

Observer

Flow pattern moves along Fluid moving past boat

channel with boat pattern stationary relative to

changes with time boat

UNSTEADY does not change with time

STEADY

3.1.3 Compressible or Incompressible

All fluids are compressible - even water - their density will

change as pressure changes.

Under steady conditions, and provided that the changes in

pressure are small, it is usually possible to simplify analysis of

the flow by assuming it is incompressible and has constant

density.

As you will appreciate, liquids are quite difficult to compress

- so under most steady conditions they are treated as

incompressible.

3.1.4 One, Two or Three-dimensional Flow

In general, all fluids flow three-dimensionally, with

pressures and velocities and other flow properties

varying in all directions.

In many cases the greatest changes only occur in two

directions or even only in one.

In these cases changes in the other direction can be

effectively ignored making analysis much more simple.

Flow is one dimensional if the flow parameters (such as

velocity, pressure, depth etc.) at a given instant in time only

vary in the direction of flow and not across the cross-section.

The flow may be unsteady, in this case the parameter vary in

time but still not across the cross-section.

An example of one-dimensional flow is the flow in a pipe.

Note that since flow must be zero at the pipe wall - yet non-

zero in the centre - there is a difference of parameters

across the cross-section.

Should this be treated as two-dimensional flow? Possibly -

but it is only necessary if very high accuracy is required. A

correction factor is then usually applied.

Flow is two-dimensional if it can be assumed that the flow

parameters vary in the direction of flow and in one direction at

right angles to this direction.

Streamlines in two-dimensional flow are curved lines on a

plane and are the same on all parallel planes.

An example is flow over a weir for which typical streamlines

can be seen in the figure below. Over the majority of the length

of the weir the flow is the same - only at the two ends does it

change slightly. Here correction factors may be applied.

3.1.5 Streamlines

• In analysing fluid flow it is useful to visualise the flow

pattern.

• This can be done by drawing lines joining points of equal

velocity - velocity contours. These lines are known as

streamlines.

Close to a solid boundary streamlines are parallel to

that boundary

At all points the direction of the streamline is the direction

of the fluid velocity: this is how they are defined. Close to

the wall the velocity is parallel to the wall so the streamline

is also parallel to the wall.

It is also important to recognise that the position of

streamlines can change with time - this is the case in

unsteady flow. In steady flow, the position of streamlines

does not change.

Some things to know about streamlines

Because the fluid is moving in the same direction as the

streamlines, fluid can not cross a streamline.

Streamlines can not cross each other. If they were to cross

this would indicate two different velocities at the same

point. This is not physically possible.

The above point implies that any particles of fluid starting on

one streamline will stay on that same streamline throughout

the fluid.

3.1.6 Streamtubes

A useful technique in fluid flow analysis is to consider only a

part of the total fluid in isolation from the rest.

This can be done by imagining a tubular surface formed by

streamlines along which the fluid flows.

This tubular surface is known as a streamtube.

In a two-dimensional flow, we have a streamtube which is

flat (in the plane of the paper).

Figure 3.7: (a)

A streamtube

• As we have seen above, fluid cannot flow across a streamline, so

fluid cannot cross a streamtube wall.

• The streamtube can often be viewed as a solid walled pipe.

• A streamtube is not a pipe - it differs in unsteady flow as the walls

will move with time. And it differs because the "wall" is moving

with the fluid.

3.2.1 Mass flow rate

mass of fluid

mass flow rate = m =

time taken to collect the fluid

mass

time =

mass flow rate

3.2.2 Volume flow rate - Discharge

volume of fluid

discharge = Q =

time

=

mass of fluid

density x time ( density =

mass

volume )

&

mass fluid rate m

= = r

density

3.2.3 Discharge and mean velocity

Figure 3.8:

Discharge in pipe

If the area of cross section of the pipe at point X is A, and the mean

velocity here is um, during a time t, a cylinder of fluid will pass point X

with a volume A um t. The volume per unit time (the discharge) will

thus be :

Q=

volume

time

A um t

t

Q= Aum

Q

or um=

A

Q

Let um= V um = V =

A

Figure 3.9:

A typical

velocity profile

across a pipe

• Note how carefully we have called this the mean velocity. This is because

the velocity in the pipe is not constant across the cross section.

• Crossing the centre line of the pipe, the velocity is zero at the walls,

increasing to a maximum at the centre then decreasing symmetrically to

the other wall.

• This variation across the section is known as the velocity profile or

distribution. A typical one is shown in the figure

• This idea, that mean velocity multiplied by the area gives the discharge,

applies to all situations - not just pipe flow.

Example 3.1

An empty bucket weighs 2.0 kg. After 7 seconds of collecting

water the bucket weighs 8.0 kg, then:

mass of fluid in bucket

mass flow rate = ṁ = time taken to collect the fluid

8.0 -2.0

= = 0.857 kg/s (kg s-1)

7

Example 3.2

If we know the mass flow is 1.7 kg/s, how long will it take to

fill a container with 8 kg of fluid?

mass

time =

mass flow rate

8

= = 4.7s

1.7

Example 3.3

If the density of the fluid in the above example is 850 kg/m3

what is the volume per unit time (the discharge)?

mass fluid rate m

Q = density

= r

= 0.857

850

= 0.00108 m3/s (m3s-1)

= 1.008 10-3 m3/s

but 1 litre = 1.0 10-3m3,

so Q = 1.008 l/s

Example 3.4

If the cross-section area, A, is 1.2 x 10-3 m2 and the discharge,

Q is 24 l/s, what is the mean velocity, of the fluid?

Q

um = V =

A

2.4 x 10-3 m3/s

= 1.2 x 10-3

= 2.0 m/s

3.3 The Fundamental Equations of Fluid

Dynamics

1. The law of conservation of matter

stipulates that matter can be neither created nor

destroyed, though it may be transformed (e.g. by a

chemical process).

Since this study of the mechanics of fluids excludes

chemical activity from consideration, the law reduces to

the principle of conservation of mass.

2. The law of conservation of energy

states that energy may be neither created nor destroyed.

Energy can be transformed from one guise to another (e.g.

potential energy can be transformed into kinetic energy),

but none is actually lost.

Engineers sometimes loosely refer to ‘energy losses’ due to

friction, but in fact the friction transforms some energy into

heat, so none is really ‘lost’.

3. The law of conservation of momentum

states that a body in motion cannot gain or lose

momentum unless some external force is applied.

The classical statement of this law is Newton's Second

Law of Motion, i.e.

force = rate of change of momentum

3.3.1 Continuity (Principle of Conservation of

Mass)

changed in to a different form of matter).

• This principle is known as the conservation of mass and we

use it in the analysis of flowing fluids.

• The principle is applied to fixed volumes, known as control

volumes or surfaces

CONTROL Outflow

Inflow

VOLUME

Control surface

For any control volume the principle of conservation of mass says

Mass entering = Mass leaving + Increase of mass in the control

per unit time per unit time volume per unit time

For steady flow:

(there is no increase in the mass within the control volume)

Mass entering per unit time = Mass leaving per unit time

time at end 1 = Mass

leaving per unit time at

end 2

flow is incompressible, the density of the fluid is constant

throughout the fluid continum. Mass flow, m, entering may

be calculated by taking the product

(density of fluid, r) (volume of fluid entering per second Q)

Mass flow is therefore represented by the product rQ, hence

r Q (entering) = r Q (leaving)

But since flow is incompressible, the density is constant, so

Q (entering) = Q (leaving) (3.5a)

This is the ‘continuity equation’ for steady incompressible

flow.

If the velocity of flow across the entry to the control

volume is measured, and that the velocity is constant at

V1 m/s. Then, if the cross-sectional area of the streamtube

at entry is A1,

Q (entering) = V1 A1

Thus, if the velocity of flow leaving the volume is V2 and

the area of the streamtube at exit is A2, then

Q (leaving) = V2A2

Therefore, the continuity equation may also be written as

V1A1 = V2A2 (3.5b)

Application of Continuity Equation

We can apply the principle of continuity to pipes with cross sections which

change along their length.

A liquid is flowing from left to right and the pipe is narrowing in the same

direction. By the continuity principle, the mass flow rate must be the

same at each section - the mass going into the pipe is equal to the mass

going out of the pipe. So we can write:

r1 A1V1= r2 A2V2

As we are considering a liquid, usually

water, which is not very compressible,

the density changes very little so we can

say r1 =r2 =r. This also says that the

volume flow rate is constant or that

Discharge at section 1 = Discharge at

section 2

Figure 3.12:

Q1 = Q2 Pipe with a contraction

A1V1

A1V1 = A2V2 or V2 =

A2

As the area of the circular pipe is a function of the

diameter we can reduce the calculation further,

A1 pd12/4 d12

V2 = V1= V1= V1

A2 pd2 /4

2 d22

( )

2

d12

V2 = V1 (3.6)

d22

Another example is a diffuser, a pipe which expands or

diverges as in the figure below

The continuity principle can also be used to determine the

velocities in pipes coming from a junction.

Total mass flow into the junction = Total mass flow out of the

junction

r1Q1 = r2Q2 + r3Q3

When the flow is incompressible (e.g. water) r1 = r2 = r

Q1 = Q2 + Q3

A1V1 = A2V2 + A3V3 (3.7)

Example 3.5

If the area in Figure 3.12 A1 = 10 10-3 m2 and A1 = 10 10-3

m2 and and the upstream mean velocity, V1 = 2.1 m/s, what

is the downstream mean velocity?

V2 = =

A2 3 x 10-3

= 7.0 m/s

Example 3.6

If the diameter of a diffuser (Figure 3.13) at section 1 is d1 =

30 mm and at section 2 d2 = 40 mm and the mean velocity at

section 2 is V2 = 3.0 m/s. Calculate the velocity entering the

diffuser.

( )

2

40

V2 = 3.0 = 5.3m/s

30

Example 3.7

For a junction (Figure 3.14), if pipe 1 diameter = 50 mm,

mean velocity 2 m/s, pipe 2 diameter 40 mm takes 30% of

total discharge and pipe 3 diameter 60 mm. What are the

values of discharge and mean velocity in each pipe?

But Q2 = 0.3Q1 = 0.001178 m3/s

Also Q1 = Q2 + Q 3

Q3 = Q1 – 0.3Q1 = 0.7Q1 = 0.00275 m3/s

V2 = Q2 / V2 = 0.936 m/s

V3 = Q3 / V3 = 0.972 m/s

3.3.2 Work and Energy

(Principle Of Conservation Of Energy)

friction: negligible

sum of kinetic energy and gravitational potential

energy is constant. Recall :

Kinetic energy = ½ mV2

Gravitational potential energy = mgh

(m: mass, V: velocity, h: height above the datum).

To apply this to a falling body we have an initial velocity of

zero, and it falls through a height of h.

Initial kinetic energy = 0

Initial potential energy = mgh

Final kinetic energy = ½ mV2

Final potential energy = 0

We know that,

kinetic energy + potential energy = constant

{ kinetic

Energy

} +{ potential

Energy

} ={ Kinetic

Energy

} +{ Potential

Energy

}

mgh = ½ mV2 or V 2 gh

continuous jet of liquid

Figure 3.15 :

The trajectory of

a jet of water

One particle of the liquid with mass m travels with the jet and falls from

height z1 to z2.

The velocity also changes from V1 to V2. The jet is traveling in air where

the pressure is everywhere atmospheric so there is no force due to pressure

acting on the fluid.

The only force which is acting is that due to gravity. The sum of the kinetic

and potential energies remains constant (as we neglect energy losses due

to friction) so :

mgz1 + mV12 = mgz2 + mV22

As m is constant this becomes :

V12 + gz1 = V22 + gz2

Flow from a reservoir

• The level of the water in the reservoir is z1.

Considering the energy situation - there is no

movement of water so kinetic energy is zero but

the gravitational potential energy is mgz1.

• If a pipe is attached at the bottom water flows

along this pipe out of the tank to a level z2. A

mass m has flowed from the top of the reservoir

to the nozzle and it has gained a velocity V2. The

kinetic energy is now ½mV22 and the potential

Figure 3.16 : energy mgz2. Summarising :

Flow from a reservoir

Initial kinetic energy = 0

Initial potential energy = mgz1

Final kinetic energy = ½ mV22

Final potential energy = mgz2

So

mgz1 = ½ mV22 + mgz2

mg ( z1 - z2 ) = ½ mV22

V2 = 2g ( z1 z2 ) (3.8)

Example 3.8

A reservoir of water has the surface at 310 m above the outlet nozzle of a pipe with

diameter 15mm. What is the

velocity;

the discharge out of the nozzle; and

mass flow rate. (Neglect all friction in the nozzle and the pipe)

Solution:

a) V2 2g ( z1 z 2 )

2 g 310

78.0 m / s

b) Volume flow rate is equal to the area of the nozzle multiplied by the velocity

Q = AV

= d2

p V

4

0.0152

= p 78.0

4

= 0.01378 m3/s

c) The density of water is 1000 kg/m3 so the mass flow rate is

ṁ = density volume flow rate

=rQ

= 1000 0.01378

= 13.78 kg/s

Bernoulli's Equation

2 2

p1 V1 p 2 V2

z1 z2

rg 2 g rg 2 g

We see that from applying equal pressure or zero velocities we get

the two equations from the section above. They are both just special

cases of Bernoulli's equation.

Bernoulli's equation has some restrictions in its applicability, they

are:

Flow is steady;

Density is constant (which also means the fluid is incompressible);

Friction losses are negligible.

The equation relates the states at two points along a single streamline,

(not conditions on two different streamlines).

Figure 3.19 :

A contracting

expanding pipe

the above tube. The diameters at the sections are d1 = 100mm and

d2 = 80mm. The gauge pressure at 1 is P1 = 200 kN/m2 and the

velocity here is V1 = 5m/s. What is the gauge pressure at section 2.

• Bernoulli equation is applied along a streamline joining section 1

with section 2.

• The tube is horizontal, with z1 = z2 so Bernoulli gives us the

following equation for pressure at section 2:

P2 = P1 + (V12 – V22)

But we do not know the value of V2. We can calculate this from the

continuity equation: Discharge into the tube is equal to the discharge out

i.e. AV A V

1 1 2 2

A1V1

V2

A2

2

d

V2 1 V1

d2

2

0.1

5

0. 08

= 7.8125 m/s

r

P 2 = P 1+ (V12 – V22) = 200000 + 960 (52 – 7.81252)

2 2

p2 = 200000 -17296.87

= 182703 N/m2

= 182.7 kN/m2

Modifications of Bernoulli Equation

• In practice, the total energy of a streamline does not remain constant.

Energy is ‘lost’ through friction, and external energy may be either :

added by means of a pump or

extracted by a turbine.

• Consider a streamline between two points 1 and 2. If the energy head lost

through friction is denoted by Hf and the external energy head added (say

by a pump) is or extracted (by a turbine) HE, then Bernoulli's equation may

be rewritten as :

H1± HE = H2 + Hf (3.11)

or

2 2

p1 V1 p V

z1 H E 2 2 z2 H f (3.12)

rg 2 g rg 2 g

HE = energy head added/loss due to external source such as pump/turbines

This equation is really a restatement of the First Law of Thermodynamics for an incompressible

fluid.

The Power Equation

In the case of work done over a fluid the power input into the

flow is :

P = rgQHE (3.13)

where Q = discharge,

HE = head added / loss

If p = efficiency of the pump, the power input required,

rgQH E

Pin = (3.14)

p

Summary

This chapter has outlined and discussed on the fundamental of fluid

in motion. Students are aspect to be able to discuss and visualise on

the following aspect:

Able to classify FOUR (4) types of flow- Steady uniform flow, Steady

non-uniform flow, Unsteady uniform flow and Unsteady non-uniform

flow

The differences between Laminar Flow, Turbulent Flow and

also Transition Flow

The idea of using the streamline to visualise the flow pattern

The calculation of mass flow rate, volume flow rate and the

mean velocity of the flow

Able to explain and apply the THREE (3) laws- conservation of

matter (conservation of mass); conservation of energy and

conservation of momentum

The important of Bernoulli Equation and the derivation

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