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Convolution codes

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codes

Convolutio L35- 1

• Overview

nal Codes

– Parameters

– Encoding

– Impulse Response/Generator Sequences

– State Diagram

– Trellis Diagram

– Decoding

• Viterbi Algorithm

Convolutional L35- 2

Codes

• Convert any length message to a single ‘codeword’

• Encoder has memory and has n outputs that at any time depend on k

inputs and m previous input blocks

• Typically described by 3 parameters:

– n= no. of bits produced at encoder output at each time unit

– k= no. of bits input to encoder at each time unit

– And one of:

• m = memory of encoder

= no. of prev. input blocks used to generate each output

(or)

• K = constraint length

= max. no. of bits in a single output stream that can be affected by any

input bit

= 1+ maxi mi

Enco L35- 3

ding

• Linear conv. encoders can be implemented with feed-forward shift

registers:

• Example:

Rate ½, m=3 convolutional

code (2,1,3) code

L35- 4

Encoding Example

Input: 10110

1

1

0

0

0* 1 1 0 1 0 0 0

0

0

1

1

L35- 5

Input: 10110

0

01

0

0

0* 1 1 0 1 0 0

0

1

11

0

L35- 6

Input: 10110

1

001

01

0

0* 1 1 0 1 0

0

0

111

1

L35- 7

Input: 10110

1

0001

0

01

0* 1 1 0 1

1

1

1111

1

L35- 8

Input: 10110

0

10001

01

0

0* 1 1 0

0

1

11111

0

L35- 9

Input: 10110

0

010001

01

01

0* 1 1

1

0

111111

0

L35- 10

Input: 10110

0

1010001

0

01

0 0* 1

1

0

1111111

0

L35- 11

Input: 10110

Output: 11, 01, 01, 01, 11, 01, 11, 00

0

01010001

0

0

0 0 0*

0

0

01111111

0

Impulse L35- 12

Response/Generator Seq.

• Conv. Encoders may be defined by their impulse response (also known

as generator sequences)

• The impulse response for the ith input of a conv. code can be

determined by applying a 1 and m 0’s to the ith input and m+1 0’s to

the other inputs

• For the example (2,1,3) code, the impulse responses are:

g(0) = (1 0 1 1)

g(1) = (1 1 0 1)

Impulse L35- 13

Response/Generator Seq.

• These sequences also specify the connections from the shift registers to

the outputs:

g(0) = (1 0 1 1)

g(1) = (1 1 0 1)

• A 1 means connection, 0 means no connection

1 0 1 1

0

1 1 1

Master Layout 1

Part 1 – Encoder Place a dropdown box for encoder

Part 2 – Decoder and decoder

0/00

+

00

1/11 0/11

0/01

10 01

1/10 1/00

0/10

11

+

Encoder

1/01

. . . . . . State diagram

. . . .

. . . . .

. Trellis Diagram

. . .

Step 1:

Input data: 010011101

+ 0

0

0 0

+ 0

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• The encoder figure in the master layout is • The initial state of encoder is 00 which represents the contents of the shift

shown first. register in the encoder.

• Along with that show the state diagram • Input 0is given to the encoder and the corresponding outputs of modulo 2

without arrows(show only the ovals) adders are 00.

• After first sentence in DT, red 0 must

appear .

• Then the circles should blink and blue 0s

must appear.

Step 2:

Input data: 010011101

0/00

+ 0

00

0 0

10 01

+ 0 11

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• Then right shift the bits so that red 0 • This is the state diagram.

appears in first box.

• 0/00 represents input/output

• Then the second figure should appear.

• The text in DT should be displayed with the

second figure.

Step 3:

Input data: 10011101

+ 1

1

0 0

+ 1

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• After first sentence in DT, red 1 must • Input 1is given to the encoder and the corresponding outputs of modulo 2

appear . adders are 11.

• Then the circles should blink and blue 1s

must appear.

Step 4:

Input data: 10011101

+ 1 0/00

00

1/11

1 0

10 01

+ 1 11

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• Then right shift the bits so that red 1 • This is the state diagram.

appears in first box.

• Then the second figure should appear.

• The text in DT should be displayed with the

second figure.

Step 5:

Input data: 0011101

+ 0

0

1 0

+ 1

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• After first sentence in DT, red 0 must • Input 0is given to the encoder and the corresponding outputs of modulo 2

appear . adders are 01.

• Then the circles should blink and blue 01

must appear.

Step 6:

Input data: 0011101

+ 0 0/00

00

1/11

0/01

0 1

10 01

+ 1 11

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• Then right shift the bits so that red 0 • This is the state diagram.

appears in first box.

• Then the second figure should appear.

• The text in DT should be displayed with the

second figure.

Step 7:

Input data: 011101

+ 1

0

0 1

+ 1

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• After first sentence in DT, red 0 must • Input 0is given to the encoder and the corresponding outputs of modulo 2

appear . adders are 11.

• Then the circles should blink and blue 1s

must appear.

Step 8:

Input data: 011101

+ 1 0/00

00

1/11 0/11

0/01

0 0

10 01

+ 1 11

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• Then right shift the bits so that red 0 • This is the state diagram.

appears in first box.

• Then the second figure should appear.

• The text in DT should be displayed with the

second figure.

Step 9:

Input data: 11101

+ 1

1

0 0

+ 1

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• After first sentence in DT, red 1 must • Input 1is given to the encoder and the corresponding outputs of modulo 2

appear . adders are 11.

• Then the circles should blink and blue 1s

must appear.

Step 10:

Input data: 11101

+ 1 0/00

00

1/11 0/11

0/01

1 0

10 01

+ 1 11

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• Then right shift the bits so that red 0 • This is the state diagram.

appears in first box.

• Then the second figure should appear.

• The text in DT should be displayed with the

second figure.

Step 11:

Input data: 1101

+ 1

1

1 0

+ 0

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• After first sentence in DT, red 1 must • Input 1is given to the encoder and the corresponding outputs of modulo 2

appear . adders are 10.

• Then the circles should blink and blue 10

must appear.

Step 12:

Input data: 1101

+ 1 0/00

00

1/11 0/11

0/01

1 1

10 01

1/10

+ 0 11

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• Then right shift the bits so that red 1 • This is the state diagram.

appears in first box.

• Then the second figure should appear.

• The text in DT should be displayed with the

second figure.

Step 13:

Input data: 101

+ 0

1

1 1

+ 1

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• After first sentence in DT, red 1 must • Input 1is given to the encoder and the corresponding outputs of modulo 2

appear . adders are 01.

• Then the circles should blink and blue 01

must appear.

Step 14:

Input data: 101

+ 0 0/00

00

1/11 0/11

0/01

1 1

10 01

1/10

+ 1 11

1/01

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• Then right shift the bits so that red 1 • This is the state diagram.

appears in first box.

• Then the second figure should appear.

• The text in DT should be displayed with the

second figure.

Step 15:

Input data: 01

+ 1

0

1 1

+ 0

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• After first sentence in DT, red 0 must • Input 0is given to the encoder and the corresponding outputs of modulo 2

appear . adders are 10.

• Then the circles should blink and blue 10

must appear.

Step 16:

Input data: 01

+ 1 0/00

00

1/11 0/11

0/01

0 1

10 01

1/10 0/10

+ 0 11

1/01

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• Then right shift the bits so that red 0 • This is the state diagram.

appears in first box.

• Then the second figure should appear.

• The text in DT should be displayed with the

second figure.

Step 17:

Input data: 1

+ 0

1

0 1

+ 0

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• After first sentence in DT, red 1 must • Input 1is given to the encoder and the corresponding outputs of modulo 2

appear . adders are 00.

• Then the circles should blink and blue 0s

must appear.

Step 18:

Input data: 1

+ 0 0/00

00

1/11 0/11

0/01

1 0

10 01

1/10 1/00

0/10

+ 0 11

1/01

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• Then right shift the bits so that red 1 • This is the state diagram.

appears in first box.

• Then the second figure should appear.

• The text in DT should be displayed with the

second figure.

Step 19: Trellis Diagram

00 . 0/00 0/00

. . . .

. . . . .

1/11 1/11 1/11

10 0/11 0/11

0/01

1/00 1/00

01 . 1/10

.

0/10

. 1/10

. 0/10

.

.

11t=0 t=1 . 1/01

t=2 t=3 . t=4 t=5 . 1/01

t=6 t=7 . t=8

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• The figure in step 19 must be shown (red • This is the trellis diagram with all the possible transitions

lines should also be shown as black lines).

• Then the red lines must be shown.

Step 20:

Input data: 010011101

00 . 0/00

. . . .

. . . . .

1/11 1/11

10 0/11

0/01

1/00

01 . . . 1/10

. 0/10

.

.

11t=0

t=5

. t=1

t=6

. t=2

t=7

.t=3

1/01

t=8

.

t=4

t=9

Instruction for the animator Text to be displayed in the working area (DT)

• The figure in step 20 is shown. • The trellis diagram for the given input 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1

• The text in DT is displayed. • The output sequence is 00 11 01 11 11 10 01 10 00

Trellis Decoder

• Use Viterbi Algorithm to undo Convolution

Coding (not signal symbol unmapping)

• Two flavors of determining unmapping

o Hard: make a decision as to which symbol the

received signal most closely matches.

o Soft: Assign weights to all symbols based on their

respective likelihood given received signal

• Viterbi implementation we present assumes

a hard decision model.

36

Viterbi Decoding

(Overview)

• The Viterbi algorithm:

o Given a sequence of received symbols, (that were produced by a

convolution encoder, sent over a channel)

o Determine what the input to the convolution encoder was

through the trellis

37

Viterbi Decoding (Main

Idea)

• Dynamic Programming

o Keep a table c[s,t] that records the number of errors* that would

have been accumulated if the encoder was in state s at time t.

o Also keep a table p[s,t] which records the state that the encoder

would have been in at time t-1 if it were in state s at time t.

38

Filling out the tables

• At time t, we receive the symbol Rt.

• For each state s,

o Let q0 and q1 be the two possible previous states of s at time t-1.

o Let e0 be the error between Rt and q0 s

o Let e1 be the error between Rt and q1 s

o c[s,t] min(c[q0,t-1]+e0, c[q1,t-1]+e1)

o Update p[s,t] appropriately with q0 or q1

39

Traceback

• When the algorithm has examined T input symbols,

it looks for the minimum entry among all states in

c[s,T ].

using the entries of p[s,t ].

40

Example

• Input to Encoder:

o0110101110

• Output of Encoder:

o00 10 11 01 11 00 11 11 10 00

41

Decoder, time = 1

42

Decoder, time = 2

43

Decoder, time = 3

44

Decoder, time = 4

45

Decoder, time = 5

46

Decoder, time = 6

47

Decoder, time = 7

48

Decoder, time = 8

49

Decoder, time = 9

50

Decoder, time = 10

51

Decoder, Traceback

52

Original Path

53

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