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Congruent and similar

shapes

Congruent Similar
shapes shapes
Congruent shapes
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1. Which of these shapes are


congruent to the yellow one?

3
4
2

5 7
6

Hints Answers
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Congruent shapes are all shown in


yellow – were you right?

3
4
2

5 7
6
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What makes a pair of shapes


“congruent”?
Same angles
Same side lengths
Can be rotated or a mirror image
A cut-out of one shape will always fit
exactly over the other
Click the green box if you want to go back to
the first “congruent shapes” question page.

Question page
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2. Which of these shapes are


congruent to the yellow one?

1 4

3
2

8
6
5 7 9

Answers
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Congruent shapes are all shown in


yellow – were you right?

1 4

3
2

8
6
5 7 9
Similar shapes
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Which of these shapes are similar


to the yellow one?

3
4
2

5 7
6

Hints Answers
Start page

Similar shapes are all shown in


yellow – were you right?

3
4
2

5 7
6
Start page

What makes a pair of shapes


“similar”?
Same angles
Sides in the same proportion
Can be rotated or reflected
One is an enlargement of the other
Scale factor gives degree of enlargement:
– Scale factor 2 → size is doubled
– Scale factor 0.5 → size is halved
– Scale factor 1 → size doesn’t change → congruent too
Click the green box if you want to go back to the
“similar shapes” question page.

Question page
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Using similarity
Since shapes are similar, their
sides are in the same proportion
=> 6 = a
9 12
9cm 12cm
Multiply both sides by 12
=> 12 x 6 = a
9
6cm => a = 12 x 2 = 4 x 2
3 1
a
=> a = 8cm
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Which of these shapes are similar
to the yellow one?
(They aren’t drawn to scale)

12
1
8
9 9
2 18

4
3
6 6
4
9 12
4 5 4.5
6
6 3
Answers
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Similar shapes are shown in yellow


– were you right?
12
1
8
9 9
2 18

4
3
6 6
4
9 12
4 5 4.5
6
6 3
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Scale factor = new value


old value.
Scale factor?

New value = 12 = 3 or 1.5


8cm Old value 8 2 12cm

Scale factor?
5cm New value = 8 = 2
Old value 12 3 7.5cm
Can you see the relationship between the two scale factors?
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Using scale factor


Enlarge with
scale factor 3

9cm a = 9 x 3 = 27cm
a
What will the
scale factor be?
b
SF = new/old = 9/27 = ⅓
OR reciprocal of 3 = ⅓
15cm
b = 15 x ⅓ = 15 ÷ 3 = 5cm
Similar shapes - summary
c a Ratio a:b:c = ratio x:y:z
z So: a = x a=x b=y
b x b y c z c z
y To see whether 2 shapes are similar, put each
ratio in its simplest form and see if they match.
Scale factor = new measurement
old measurement new

Old measurement x SF = new measurement SF old

- Scale factor more than 1 => shape gets bigger


- Scale factor less than 1 => shape gets smaller
- Congruent shapes are similar shapes with SF = 1
Remember: only side lengths change; angles stay the same!