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# Congruent and similar

shapes

Congruent Similar
shapes shapes
Congruent shapes
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## 1. Which of these shapes are

congruent to the yellow one?

3
4
2

5 7
6

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## Congruent shapes are all shown in

yellow – were you right?

3
4
2

5 7
6
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## What makes a pair of shapes

“congruent”?
Same angles
Same side lengths
Can be rotated or a mirror image
A cut-out of one shape will always fit
exactly over the other
Click the green box if you want to go back to
the first “congruent shapes” question page.

Question page
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## 2. Which of these shapes are

congruent to the yellow one?

1 4

3
2

8
6
5 7 9

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## Congruent shapes are all shown in

yellow – were you right?

1 4

3
2

8
6
5 7 9
Similar shapes
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## Which of these shapes are similar

to the yellow one?

3
4
2

5 7
6

Start page

## Similar shapes are all shown in

yellow – were you right?

3
4
2

5 7
6
Start page

## What makes a pair of shapes

“similar”?
Same angles
Sides in the same proportion
Can be rotated or reflected
One is an enlargement of the other
Scale factor gives degree of enlargement:
– Scale factor 2 → size is doubled
– Scale factor 0.5 → size is halved
– Scale factor 1 → size doesn’t change → congruent too
Click the green box if you want to go back to the
“similar shapes” question page.

Question page
Start page

Using similarity
Since shapes are similar, their
sides are in the same proportion
=> 6 = a
9 12
9cm 12cm
Multiply both sides by 12
=> 12 x 6 = a
9
6cm => a = 12 x 2 = 4 x 2
3 1
a
=> a = 8cm
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Which of these shapes are similar
to the yellow one?
(They aren’t drawn to scale)

12
1
8
9 9
2 18

4
3
6 6
4
9 12
4 5 4.5
6
6 3
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## Similar shapes are shown in yellow

– were you right?
12
1
8
9 9
2 18

4
3
6 6
4
9 12
4 5 4.5
6
6 3
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old value.
Scale factor?

## New value = 12 = 3 or 1.5

8cm Old value 8 2 12cm

Scale factor?
5cm New value = 8 = 2
Old value 12 3 7.5cm
Can you see the relationship between the two scale factors?
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## Using scale factor

Enlarge with
scale factor 3

9cm a = 9 x 3 = 27cm
a
What will the
scale factor be?
b
SF = new/old = 9/27 = ⅓
OR reciprocal of 3 = ⅓
15cm
b = 15 x ⅓ = 15 ÷ 3 = 5cm
Similar shapes - summary
c a Ratio a:b:c = ratio x:y:z
z So: a = x a=x b=y
b x b y c z c z
y To see whether 2 shapes are similar, put each
ratio in its simplest form and see if they match.
Scale factor = new measurement
old measurement new

## - Scale factor more than 1 => shape gets bigger

- Scale factor less than 1 => shape gets smaller
- Congruent shapes are similar shapes with SF = 1
Remember: only side lengths change; angles stay the same!