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# Prepared by: Engr. Harry Neil A.

Latina, RCE
 The coordinate method of traverse
adjustment may be employed when the
preliminary coordinates of stations along
the traverse have been determined.
 Is simply an simplification of the compass
rule since the corrections applied and
proportionate to the lengths being
adjusted.
A = ½ x1x2 x3 x4……. Xn
y1 y2 y3 y4……. Yn

A = ½ [(x1y2)+(x2y3)+(x3y4)]-
[y1x2+y2x3+y3x4]
Problem No. 1
Compute the area by coordinate
method of those traverse whose
coordinates are given:

A = 160,341
B = 140,153
C = 226,0
D = 31,30
E = 0, 170
 For any closed traverse the first step taken
by the surveyor should always be to check if
the observed angles fulfill the geometric
conditions of the figure.
 There are various other computations and
adjustments required for a closed traverse.
• Determining the latitudes and departures,
calculating the total error of the closure, balancing
the survey, determining the adjusted position of each
traverse station.
 Latitude
• Is its projection onto the reference meridian or a
north-south line.
• Are sometimes referred to as northings or
southings.
 Departure
• Is its projection onto the reference parallel or a
east-west line.
• Are sometimes referred to as easterly or
westerly.
 There is no such thing as mathematically
perfect survey.
 Small errors in both distances and angles
will always be present even in closed
traverses observed using instrumentation
and methods of high precision.
 Is usually a short line of unknown length
and direction connecting the initial and
final stations of the traverse.
 It is approximately determined by
plotting the traverse to scale, or more
exactly by computing the hypothenuse of
a right triangle whose sides are the
closure in latitudes and the closure in
departures, respectively.
 LEC = (CLat2+Cdep2)0.5
 Tanθ = CD/CL

Where:
LEC = linear error of closure
CL = Closure in latitude or the algebraic
of sum of north and south latitudes.
CD = Closure in departure or the
algebraic sum of the east and west
departures
θ = bearing angle of the side of error
 The linear error of closure does not indicate
the precision of the measurements until it is
compared with the total length of the
traverse.
 A convenient and more useful measure of
precision is defined by the ratio of the linear
error of closure to the perimeter or total
length of the traverse.
 RP = LEC /
Where : RP = Relative Precision
LEC = Linear Error of Closure
D = Total length of perimeter of the
traverse.
 The compass or Bowditch rule which was
named after the distinguished American
Navigator Nathaniel Bowditch.
 Commonly used rule for balancing latitudes
and departures.
 The correction to be applied to the latitude
or departure of any course is equal to the
total closure in latitude or departure
multiplied by the ratio of the length of the
course to the total length or perimeter of the
traverse.
 C1= CL (d/D) and Cd = CD (d/D)

Where:
C1 = Correction to be applied to the latitude
of any course
Cd = Correction to be applied to the
departure of any course
CL = total closure in latitude or the algebraic
sum of the north and south latitudes
CD = total closure in departure or the
algebraic sum of the east and west departures
d = length of any closure
D = total length or perimeter of the traverse
 The method of adjusting a traverse by the
transit rule is similar to the method using
the compass rule.
 The main difference is that with the
transit rule the latitude and departure
corrections depend on the length of the
latitude and departure of the course
respectively instead of both depending
on the length of the course.
 The transit rule may be stated as follows:
The correction to be applied to the
latitude or departure of any course is
equal to the latitude or departure of the
course multiplied by the ratio of the total
closure in latitude or departure to the
arithmetical sum of all the latitudes or
departures of the traverse.

## Cl = Lat (CL) / ∑ND – SL

Cd = Dep (Cd) / ∑ED - ∑WD
 Where:
Cl = correction to be applied to the latitude of any
course
Cd = correction to be applied to the departure of
any course
Cl = total closure in latitude or the algebraic sum
of the north and south latitudes (∑NL + ∑SL )
Cd = total closure in departure of the algebraic
sum of the east and west departures (∑ED +
∑WD )
Problem No. 1
From the field notes of a closed
traverse shown from below, adjust the
traverse

## Lines Bearing Distances

AB Due North 400.00
BC N 45 ° E 800.00
CD S 60 ° E 700.00
DE S 20 ° W 600.00
EA S 86 °59’ W 966.34
 Determine the correction of latitude on
line CD using Transit Rule
 Compute the linear error of closure
 Compute the relative error of precision
Problem No. 2
A parcel of land has been surveyed in the
field and the lengths and bearings of various sides
are shown.

## Lines Bearing Distances

AB N 53 °27’ E 59.82m
BC S 66 °54’ E 70.38m
CD S 29 °08’ W 76.62m
DA N 52 °00 ‘ W 95.75m

## a.) Compute the error of closure for the traverse

shown
b.) What is the precision of linear measurement of
this traverse
Problem No. 3
From the given technical description of a lot.
Lines Bearings Distances (m)
AB N 48 °20’ E 529.60
BC N 87 °00’E 592.00
CD S 7 °59’E 563.60
DE S 80 °00’ W 753.40
EA N 48 °12’ W 428.20
a.) Find the corrected bearing of line BC using transit rule
b.) Find the corrected bearing of line DE using transit rule
c.) Find the corrected bearing of line EA using transit rule