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Latina, RCE

The coordinate method of traverse

adjustment may be employed when the

preliminary coordinates of stations along

the traverse have been determined.

Is simply an simplification of the compass

rule since the corrections applied and

proportionate to the lengths being

adjusted.

A = ½ x1x2 x3 x4……. Xn

y1 y2 y3 y4……. Yn

A = ½ [(x1y2)+(x2y3)+(x3y4)]-

[y1x2+y2x3+y3x4]

Problem No. 1

Compute the area by coordinate

method of those traverse whose

coordinates are given:

A = 160,341

B = 140,153

C = 226,0

D = 31,30

E = 0, 170

For any closed traverse the first step taken

by the surveyor should always be to check if

the observed angles fulfill the geometric

conditions of the figure.

There are various other computations and

adjustments required for a closed traverse.

• Determining the latitudes and departures,

calculating the total error of the closure, balancing

the survey, determining the adjusted position of each

traverse station.

Latitude

• Is its projection onto the reference meridian or a

north-south line.

• Are sometimes referred to as northings or

southings.

Departure

• Is its projection onto the reference parallel or a

east-west line.

• Are sometimes referred to as easterly or

westerly.

There is no such thing as mathematically

perfect survey.

Small errors in both distances and angles

will always be present even in closed

traverses observed using instrumentation

and methods of high precision.

Is usually a short line of unknown length

and direction connecting the initial and

final stations of the traverse.

It is approximately determined by

plotting the traverse to scale, or more

exactly by computing the hypothenuse of

a right triangle whose sides are the

closure in latitudes and the closure in

departures, respectively.

LEC = (CLat2+Cdep2)0.5

Tanθ = CD/CL

Where:

LEC = linear error of closure

CL = Closure in latitude or the algebraic

of sum of north and south latitudes.

CD = Closure in departure or the

algebraic sum of the east and west

departures

θ = bearing angle of the side of error

The linear error of closure does not indicate

the precision of the measurements until it is

compared with the total length of the

traverse.

A convenient and more useful measure of

precision is defined by the ratio of the linear

error of closure to the perimeter or total

length of the traverse.

RP = LEC /

Where : RP = Relative Precision

LEC = Linear Error of Closure

D = Total length of perimeter of the

traverse.

The compass or Bowditch rule which was

named after the distinguished American

Navigator Nathaniel Bowditch.

Commonly used rule for balancing latitudes

and departures.

The correction to be applied to the latitude

or departure of any course is equal to the

total closure in latitude or departure

multiplied by the ratio of the length of the

course to the total length or perimeter of the

traverse.

C1= CL (d/D) and Cd = CD (d/D)

Where:

C1 = Correction to be applied to the latitude

of any course

Cd = Correction to be applied to the

departure of any course

CL = total closure in latitude or the algebraic

sum of the north and south latitudes

CD = total closure in departure or the

algebraic sum of the east and west departures

d = length of any closure

D = total length or perimeter of the traverse

The method of adjusting a traverse by the

transit rule is similar to the method using

the compass rule.

The main difference is that with the

transit rule the latitude and departure

corrections depend on the length of the

latitude and departure of the course

respectively instead of both depending

on the length of the course.

The transit rule may be stated as follows:

The correction to be applied to the

latitude or departure of any course is

equal to the latitude or departure of the

course multiplied by the ratio of the total

closure in latitude or departure to the

arithmetical sum of all the latitudes or

departures of the traverse.

Cd = Dep (Cd) / ∑ED - ∑WD

Where:

Cl = correction to be applied to the latitude of any

course

Cd = correction to be applied to the departure of

any course

Cl = total closure in latitude or the algebraic sum

of the north and south latitudes (∑NL + ∑SL )

Cd = total closure in departure of the algebraic

sum of the east and west departures (∑ED +

∑WD )

Problem No. 1

From the field notes of a closed

traverse shown from below, adjust the

traverse

AB Due North 400.00

BC N 45 ° E 800.00

CD S 60 ° E 700.00

DE S 20 ° W 600.00

EA S 86 °59’ W 966.34

Determine the correction of latitude on

line CD using Transit Rule

Compute the linear error of closure

Compute the relative error of precision

Problem No. 2

A parcel of land has been surveyed in the

field and the lengths and bearings of various sides

are shown.

AB N 53 °27’ E 59.82m

BC S 66 °54’ E 70.38m

CD S 29 °08’ W 76.62m

DA N 52 °00 ‘ W 95.75m

shown

b.) What is the precision of linear measurement of

this traverse

Problem No. 3

From the given technical description of a lot.

Lines Bearings Distances (m)

AB N 48 °20’ E 529.60

BC N 87 °00’E 592.00

CD S 7 °59’E 563.60

DE S 80 °00’ W 753.40

EA N 48 °12’ W 428.20

a.) Find the corrected bearing of line BC using transit rule

b.) Find the corrected bearing of line DE using transit rule

c.) Find the corrected bearing of line EA using transit rule

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