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CONFIDENTIAL

Ring-like Forgings Hardness and Mechanical


Properties Improvement

2017.03.06
Doosan IMGB PET

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TFT - Ring-like Forgings hardness and mechanical properties improvement

• Improving quality and avoiding re-work (re-HT);


Purpose
• Reduction of COPQ and On-time delivery.

• 1 meeting per week on Tuesday starting with 14:30;


Time/Location
• Location: Production Division main meeting room P101;

• Total 7 persons:
Attendees
- Forgings PE Team: 2 persons (Man 1, Eng. 1);
- Machining Shop: 1 person (SM 1);
- Forging Shop: 1 (SV 1);
- QC Team: 1 (Man 1);
- OE Team Director (1);
- Strategy Team Manager (1).
• Establish actual status;
Topic
• Finding problem and extract cause;
• Establish solution and Action plan for implementation;
• Standardization.

1
Theme Profile - Ring-like Forgings hardness and mechanical properties improvement
Theme Small Group
Theme Champion Facilitators
member
Execution Period
Leader
Improvement of Hardness and I. NECULA, A. GRIGORE,
Mechanical Properties of Ring- E. 14th of March –
H. CHOI M. ILIESCU G. EBANCA, I. DONOIU,
like Forgings (e.g. Live and TATARASANU 26th of May
D. ILIESCU
Kiln-Tyres)

Main Issue Scope of works Support


- Non-homogenous and/or poor hardness and -To improve the manufacturing and NNDT R&S Laboratory
mechanical properties (especially impact); sampling/testing process in order to avoid
- Re-work and additional manufacturing time mentioned issues.

Expected Result Execution Plan Due Date


- Overall process standardization in order to Kick-off meeting March 14
stabilize quality and lead time;
Review actual status (historical data) March 21
- Avoid re-work and associated costs with
beneficial effects on COPQ reduction; Finding Problem & Extract cause March 28

Output Establish solution April 04

Establish Execution plan April 11


- Improved quality;
- Production cost and time reduction; Report to CEO for Execution plan May 18

Start Execution based on Order Intake May 26

2
Organization - Ring-like Forgings hardness and mechanical properties improvement

H. CHOI
Champion

• Decision-making upon the


issues occurred from theme
execution step by step

Theme Theme Leaders


leaders
E. TATARASANU
• Theme coordinating

Facilitator
M. ILIESCU-VOGEL

Member QC Team Forging Shop

D. ILIESCU G. EBANCA

Forgings PET Machining Eng


I. NECULA
I. DONOIU
A. GRIGORE

3
Live Ring / Kiln Tyre - review actual status

After re-
Chemical compozition Ts (Mpa) HB Kv(20gr.C) 1'st
Tempering
SO Nr. MAT. CE Tempering
C Si Mn P S Ni Cr Mo V Al Cu H O N actual spec actual spec actual spec Temp HB Temp
540- 195- 160 - min. 635°C-
MF15596010 C35E 0.34 0.26 0.76 0.009 0.001 0.09 0.12 0.02 0.05 0.006 0.13 1.05 22 30 0.563 634 18 30 67
670 201 200 50 640°C
562- 540- 163- 160 - min. 635°C-
MF16594010 C35E 0.34 0.24 0.76 0.010 0.001 0.09 0.12 0.02 0.00 0.004 0.00 0.92 22 32 0.541 26 36 28
575 671 170 200 50 640°C
586- 540- 170- 160 - min. 635°C-
MF16594020 C35E 0.35 0.25 0.75 0.009 0.001 0.08 0.13 0.02 0.00 0.003 0.00 1.00 23 42 0.552 30 30 46
591 672 172 200 50 640°C
556- 540- 163- 160 - min. 635°C-
MF16594030 C35E 0.34 0.24 0.76 0.010 0.001 0.09 0.12 0.02 0.00 0.004 0.00 0.92 22 32 0.541 26 36 28
562 673 166 200 50 640°C
681 - 540- 160 - min. 572°C-
MF14600010 28Mn6 0.26 0.22 1.45 0.010 0.001 0.14 0.14 0.02 0.05 0.004 0.13 0.90 21 32 0.598 N/A 93 71 117
727 670 200 50 576°C
540- 194- 160 - min. 575°C-
MF17512010 28Mn6 0.27 0.24 1.42 0.013 0.001 0.09 0.09 0.020 0.04 0.004 0.13 0.92 20 41 0.591 706
670 229 200 50 585°C
540- 195- 160 - min. 575°C-
MF17512020 28Mn6 0.28 0.26 1.43 0.015 0.001 0.11 0.12 0.02 0.040 0.006 0.14 0.90 23 33 0.614 719 56 37 44
670 214 200 50 585°C
540- 218- 160 - min. 575°C- 187-
MF17513010 28Mn6 0.26 0.24 1.43 0.014 0.001 0.11 0.13 0.020 0.040 0.006 0.12 1.10 22 38 0.592 700 64 89 101 600°C
670 236 200 50 585°C 206
540- 199- 160 - min. 575°C- 194-
MF17513020 28Mn6 0.26 0.24 1.43 0.014 0.001 0.11 0.13 0.020 0.040 0.006 0.12 1.10 22 38 0.592 717 64 89 101 600°C
670 225 200 50 585°C 209
540- 185- 160 - min. 575°C-
MF17520010 28Mn6 0.28 0.24 1.43 0.014 0.001 0.08 0.11 0.02 0.04 0.004 0.11 0.90 23 32 0.605 706 41 86 87
670 205 200 50 585°C
540- 194 - 160 - min. 575°C-
MF17520020 28Mn6 0.27 0.25 1.43 0.013 0.001 0.09 0.13 0.020 0.040 0.003 0.12 0.94 20 40 0.602 694 88 103 110
670 213 200 50 585°C
540- 198- 160 - min. 575°C-
MF17520030 28Mn6 0.28 0.24 1.43 0.014 0.001 0.08 0.11 0.02 0.04 0.004 0.11 0.90 23 32 0.605 706 67 76 79
670 217 200 50 585°C
540- 198- 160 - min. 575°C-
MF17520040 28Mn6 0.28 0.24 1.43 0.014 0.001 0.08 0.11 0.02 0.04 0.004 0.11 0.90 23 32 0.605 706 67 76 79
670 217 200 50 585°C

4
Investigated Forgings Properties (STAT ASSESS)

Chemistry of Investigated Forgings Steel Heats-Statistical Assessment


C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Mo V Cu Al Cb B CEiiw-Mod*
[wt.%]
xmin .00 .00 .00 .001 .001 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .000 .000 .000 .010
xMax .63 1.55 .75 .048 .047 .52 .77 .54 .10 .36 .051 .050 .014 .881
x-bar .31 .99 .29 .019 .006 .21 .22 .04 .03 .15 .010 .000 .000 .602
SD .11 .28 .10 .004 .004 .08 .12 .04 .02 .05 .006 .003 .000 .097
n 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 840 840 839
* CEiiw-Mod=C+(Mn+Si)/6+(Cr+Mo+V)/5+(Ni+Cu)/15

Investigated Forgings Size Heat Treatment & Properties-Statistical Assessment


Dia Depth Tγ-tizing Cooling Hrel TTemper YS0.2 UTS El RA EV@RT
[mm] [°C] Method [°C] [MPa] [%] [J]
xmin 10 5 830 Still-Air, 0.02 470 89.3 254.1 11.4 15.4 4.0
xMax 2636 630 1000 Air-Fan 1.90 700 653.0 900.0 59.0 77.0 284.0
x-bar 808 64 872 (+WS/Mist), .23 588 368.4 615.6 26.5 57.2 68.8
SD 467 60 22 Water- .52 37 64.1 81.2 4.8 10.5 47.7
n 741 745 658 Immersion 803 644 835 835 824 827 612

5
Influence of Chemistry

Chemistry of Investigated Forgings Steel Heats-Statistical Assessment Investigated Forgings Heat Treatment & Properties-Statistical Assessment
C Mn Si P S Cr Ni Mo V Cu Al Cb B CEiiw-Mod* Dia Depth Tγ-tizing Cooling Hrel TTemper YS0.2 UTS El RA EV@RT
[wt.%] [mm] [°C] Method [°C] [MPa] [%] [J]
xmin .00 .00 .00 .001 .001 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .000 .000 .000 .010 xmin 10 5 830 Still-Air, 0.02 470 89.3 254.1 11.4 15.4 4.0
xMax .63 1.55 .75 .048 .047 .52 .77 .54 .10 .36 .051 .050 .014 .881 xMax 2636 630 1000 Air-Fan 1.90 700 653.0 900.0 59.0 77.0 284.0
x-bar .31 .99 .29 .019 .006 .21 .22 .04 .03 .15 .010 .000 .000 .602 x-bar 808 64 872 (+WS/Mist), .23 588 368.4 615.6 26.5 57.2 68.8
SD .11 .28 .10 .004 .004 .08 .12 .04 .02 .05 .006 .003 .000 .097 SD 467 60 22 Water- .52 37 64.1 81.2 4.8 10.5 47.7
n 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 839 840 840 839 n 741 745 658 Immersion 803 644 835 835 824 827 612
* CEiiw-Mod=C+(Mn+Si)/6+(Cr+Mo+V)/5+(Ni+Cu)/15

Higher the CE, Higher the Steel Strengths and Lower the Ductility are.
6
Influence of Chemistry

Strong Effect of Chemistry on the RT Impact Absorbed Energy that significantly decreases when CE iiw-Mod > 0.45%. However, the most relevant
element looks to be Carbon. When Carbon Content exceeds 0.30%, the detrimental effect on toughness is obvious.

7
Influence of Chemistry

Strong Beneficial Effect of Mn/C Ratio on the RT Impact Absorbed Energy.

8
Correlation with Tensile Properties

Except the Yield Strength, all other Material Properties lowers when Ultimate Tensile Strength increases.

9
Correlation with Tensile Properties

As normally expected, higher the UltimateTensile Strength, that increases with CE iiw-Mod , lower the Toughness is.
Contrary, higher the Reduction of Area, that decreases when UTS increases, higher the Toughness is. In fact, RA is the
most sensitive material characteristic to chemical segregation degree, cleanliness and non-homogeneity in correlation
with applied forging ratio and test directionality, that Absorbed Energy depends as well.

10
Effect of Tempering

Strength has monotonic decrease with LARSON-MILLER or HOLLOMON-JAFFE Tempering Parameter, LMP or HJ = (TT[°C]+ 2
73)*(18.5+log tT[hr])/1000. Slope is small since in the most of cases microstructure consists in Ferrite-Pearlite, which is less s
ensitive to softening effect of Tempering.
Charpy-V Notch Impact Absorbed Energy Variation with Tempering Parameter looks to be more complex:
- In as Normalized Condition without Tempering, required Strengths can be obtained by Chemistry Control and so Impact
Properties may be high;
-When Tempering is applied, Impact Properties may decrease to still reasonable values, but with Tempering Parameter
exceeding 17.5, significant drop could be expected. For 808mm Mean Dia forging, Tempering Time is about 35 hours, i.e.
Tempering Temperature for HJ = 17.5 is about 600°C. It means, that in order to preserve the Toughness, Tempering should be
conducted to less than 600°C. Our recommendation, on previous production experience basis, is 550-580°C.

11
Cumulative Effect of some of the Main Factors of Influence

Upper Shelf Energy

Lower Shelf Energy

Log f(D, h, …) = - 71.7 + 0.0596 logD - 0.0089 logh + 0.0606 logtH - 0.871 sqrtC + 0.0482 sqrt(Mn/C) + 8.59 S + 0.889 V + 5.04 AL - 0.000619 PA[K-1hr]
+ 0.00146 YS0.2[MPa] - 0.00170 UTS + 0.0136 RA + 13.0 LMP[K-hr] - 0.755 LMP^2 + 0.0145 LMP^3
Empirically, it was found that Strength Properties are Strongly Correlated with some factors as:
1).Austenitizing Parameter, PA = 1/{1/(Tγ[C]+273) – (4.163*10^-5)*log tγ[hr]}, [K-1hr], decreasing Strength, probably by
the effect of Grain Size;
2).GROSSMANN’s Quenching Severity Factor by the effect of structural constitution and structure features (higher cooling
rates promote microstructures with homogenous finer ferrite grains, more fine cementite platelets, smaller inter-lamellar
space, smaller path between pearlite colonies aso);
3).Chemical Composition as expressed by CE increases the resistance of ferrite to softening by Tempering.

12
Cumulative Effect of some of the Main Factors of Influence

As well as for Strength Properties, a rough Multiple Non-Linear Regression Analysis:


Log f(D, h, …) = - 71.7 + 0.0596 logD - 0.0089 logh + 0.0606 logtH - 0.871 sqrtC + 0.0482 sqrt(Mn/C) + 8.59 S + 0.889 V + 5.04 AL - 0.000619 PA[K-1hr]
+ 0.00146 YS0.2[MPa] - 0.00170 UTS + 0.0136 RA + 13.0 LMP[K-hr] - 0.755 LMP^2 + 0.0145 LMP^3
shows that Impact Absorbed Energy is Strongly Correlated with some factors as:
1).Austenitizing Parameter, PA = 1/{1/(Tγ[C]+273) – (4.163*10^-5)*log tγ[hr]}, [K-1hr], decreasing Toughness,
most probably by the effect of Grain Size;
2).GROSSMANN’s Quenching Severity Factor by the effect of structural constitution and structure features
(higher cooling rates promote microstructures with homogenous finer ferrite grains, more fine cementite
platelets, smaller inter-lamellar space, smaller path between pearlite colonies aso) increases Impact Energy;
3).Carbon Content decreases the Impact Energy;
4).Mn/C ratio (higher Mn) increases Impact Energy;
5).V and Al additions increase Impact Energy most probable by the effect of finer Grain Size. It looks the
beneficial effect of Al is stronger, but they are some collateral bad influences that should be compensated;
6).The effect of increasing Ultimate Tensile Strength is detrimental as previously shown, but the effect of
higher Yield Strength appears as being beneficial (most probable, because fine Grain Size has same effect
on both YS and CVN, being the only metallurgical mechanism with such effect, as described by HALL-
PETCH and COTTRELL-PETCH relationships);
7).As already presented and explained before, higher RA, better toughness is. As mentioned before RA
8).Effect of Tempering is more complex and was already commented. It is not yet very clear why higher
tempering temperatures and/or re-tempering, respectively SRA, under some circumstances, although
decrease Tensile Strength, have detrimental effect on Toughness. It seems that a mechanism of cementite
precipitation at the grain boundaries is involved here;

13
Cumulative Effect of some of the Main Factors of Influence
9).There are some variables that effect is questionable because is not in line with general accepted theories:
- S effect appears to be favorable. A possible explanation may be associated to steel micro-cleanliness
improvement and lack of grain size control by non-metallic inclusions pin-effect at grain boundaries or
may be the result of a synergistic effect in steel heats where no other grain size controller has been
added; This S effect was observed during the impact properties analyses performed on components
made in alloy steels as well;
- Larger Diameters look to have unlikely beneficial effect, but test location depth detrimental effect is
normal. It may be explained by lack of data in many relevant cases, an insufficient accurate data basis
and/or synergism with , for example, cooling conditions.

14
CONCLUSIONS

Based on the presented analyses, the following actions should be taken in order to improve the toughness
of heavy forgings made in C & C-Mn Steels, if they are not in conflict with Customer’s Material Specification
or any other technical consideration:
1- Minimize the Austenitizing Parameter to avoid overheating (use optimum temperature with minimum
required holding time. From the data we used in the present analysis: Tγ[°C] = 910 – 119*C[%] and
log tγ[hr] = 0.75*log Dia[mm] – 0.80;
2- Increase the Cooling Severity by air rapid cooling (e.g. air-fan & water-spray = mist), by liquid
medium quenching if possible and/or not avoidable, or decreasing excessive stock material;
3- Design Aim Chemistry to control Tensile Strength with as low as possible Carbon Content (<0.30%),
as high as possible Manganese Content (Mn/C>6) and add V (0.03-0.06%) and/or Al (0.015-.025%) for
Grain Size Refining;
4- Improve Steel Cleanliness (low gas content, low sulfur) avoid contamination with exogenous non-
metallic inclusions (avoid re-oxidation, refractory, dirt, topping powder and slag) to get high RA. Since
cleanliness is high, avoid high forging reduction if possible (3.5:1 to 6.5:1 should be enough);
5- Since the Strengths is controlled by aim chemistry design (3 above), minimize the tempering (it
should be more a Stress-Relieving Annealing): Temperature: 550-580°C and Holding Time not more
than 1.2-1.5 of above calculated tγ[hr]. Cool in Still Air or, if need be to minimize residual stresses,
Cool in Furnace (<50°C/hr) to <350 °C , then in Still Air to RT.
6- Avoid deep Sampling. Remove out the test material as closer as permitted to the HT surface.

15
CONCLUSIONS
Recommendation:
- To design Aim Chemistry and QHT Process, the PET Instruction No.06.10.13.17.00 Rev.01 may be used as prepare
d on the JIS method basis.
JIS formulas (mostly used for forgings):
UTS = 9.81*(100*CE + γ + β + α + 21)………………..Eq.1
BHN = 0.306*UTS ………………………………………………Eq.2
where,
UTS = Ultimate Tensile Strength, [MPa];
CE = Carbon Equivalent = C + (Mn – 0.50)/8 + (Si – 0.25)/5 + [(Ni + (Cr – 0.30)]/8 + (Mo – 0.03)/3 + V/2 …Eq.3
where, C, Si, Mn, … are the steel heat composition elements, [wt.%]; In spite of apparent differences between
γ = Factor for the Effect of Cooling Method after γ-tizing; CEiiw-Mod and CEJIS Equations, their values
β = Tempering Temperature Effect Factor; are highly correlated.
α = Mass Effect Factor function of the forging Weight. Scatterplot of CE(+SI/6) vs CE-JIS
0.9
(for γ, β and α values, see below Table);
0.8
BHN = Brinell Hardness Number. Table – Values of γ, β and α parameters 0.7
Cooling from Tγ Tempering Forged Part 0.6
Method γ TT β Weight α

CE(+SI/6)
0.5
[ºC] [mTon]
Still Air +1 600 0* 10 – 20 -3 0.4

Air-Fan +2 610 0* > 20 -4 0.3

620 -10 0.2


630 -20 0.1
640 -30 0.0
650 -40 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
660 -50 CE-JIS

*Note: Under TT ≤610°C, no significant softening effect of Ferrite-


CEJIS=0.992*CEiiw-Mod – 0.185
Pearlite Structures occurs. n=839, SD=0.013, Rsq=98.1%
16
Theme Activity Detail Execution Plan

Title Improvement of Hardness and Mechanical Properties of Ring-like Forgings (e.g. Live and Kiln-Tyres)

Main Problem
- Non-homogenous and/or poor hardness and mechanical properties, especially impact values witch
Main Problem are lower than client specification;
& Cause - Re-work and additional manufacturing time
Main Cause
- Actual Mn/C ratio ,with lower Mn or higher Carbon

Execution Plan
Solution and Detailed Execution plan Due Date
Due Date Responsibility
- Solution definition
- Solution definition •Continuously as from E. Tatarasanu (GM-PET)
• Step 1- Use a modified chemical composition of 28Mn6 with a low
• Step 1- Use as chemical
th
with a low June 1 2017 I. Necula (Mgr-PET-F)
content of carbon (actual composition mat.28Mn6
spec.0.25-0.32% modified,
- needed 0.22-0.32%). •Continuously as from
content of carbon (actual spec.0.25-0.32% - needed 0.22-0.32%) to Done A. Grigore (Eng-PET-F)
E. Tatarasanu (GM-PET)
• Step 2-Prepare detailed WI for melting . June 1 th 2017
Order & RFQ’s completion I. Necula (Mgr-PET-F)
increase Mn/C ratio (higher Mn).
• Step 3-Execution , apply the WI on future RFQ’s and Orders period A. Grigore (Eng-PET-F)
• Step 2-Prepare detailed WI for Melting & QHT . Done
• Step 3-Execution , apply the WI on future RFQ’s and Orders Order & RFQ’s completion OE Team
• Step 4-Assessment of Results (Actual vs. Target) Order completion
period
• Step 4-Assessment of Results (Actual vs. Target) Order completion OE Team

– Hardness and Mechanical properties evaluation


1.Live Rings / Kiln Tyres : Needed Support needed:
Target (160-200 HB / Kv =min.50J) *-NNDT R&S Laboratory
Support
17
End Of Document